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Elntvied, acmiding to the Act of CongnM, in tlie jrew ons 
eight hundred and fottj, by 

in tbe Cletfc'i OSka otlbt Diatrict Cooil otthe United Statea, in ami 
tx (be EaMem District of PennrflTutia. 



Lime ia ttrtainljf Icaowa ooDearoinK the time and plaoa of mitiug 
IhisQotpel; or oonoarainsthe aathor. The first time we have any meo- 
tion of the author, is in his owd bUtory. Aota zri. 10 — 11. Ho was 
iheu the compBDion of Paul in his Iravela ; and it is evidept that he often 
attended Pan) in his JouniBjrB. Compaie Acts xtL U — 17 ; xsi. 1 —6. 
Id all these places the aothor of " the Acts" speaks of Aii Wde in efitn- 
paoT with Paul. That the aame peiaon was the writer of thu Qoepel 
IB also clear from Acts i. 1. 

• From this fact, the ancients regarded tbia Gospel as, in fact, the gospel 
which Paul had preached. Thej affirm that Luke lecoided what the 
apostle preached. Thus Irensus says, ■■ Luke, the compaDioa of Paul, 
' put down in a book the gospel preached by him." Ha also sajs, " Luke 
was not only a coinpaniont but also a fellow-laborer of the apostles, espe- 
cially of Paul." Origen, speaking of ^e Gospels, says, '> the third )• 
that sccording to Luke, the gospel commanded by Paal, publiahed for the 
sake of the Gentile converts." The testimtHiy of the fathers is uniform, 
that it waa wrillen by Lake, the companion of Paul, and was therefora 
-eearded by them as really the gospel which Faal preaohed. 

It is unknown where it was written. Jerooie says it waa composed in 
Acbaia. There seems to be some probability that it was written to pe> 
ioaa that were well acquainted with Jewish manners ; and as the sutho' 
does not atop to explain the peculiar customs of the Jews, as some of the 
other evangelists have done. Respecting the iinie when it was written, 
nothing certain is known. All that can with certainty be ascertained, is 
that it was writtea before the death of Paul, (A. D. 65.) For it waa 
written before the Alte, (Acts i. 1.) and that book onlj bnogs down the 
life of Paul to his imprisooment at Rome, and previous to his going into 

It has been made a matter of inqmry, whether Loke waa a Geoti e m 
B Jew. On this subject there is ob positive testimony. Jerome, and 
ollian of the fathers, aay that he was a Syiiaa, and bom at Antioch. The 


moat probable opinion aeeme to be, that he was a proael jte to tiM JewiM 
ratigioQ) though deBcended of Gentile parents. For Ihis opinion two rea- 
■one ma^be assigned, of Boms weight. Ist. He was 
quainted, as appears by tiio Gospel and the Acts, witli the Jewisli rites, 
eusloms, opinions, and prejudices ; and lie wrote in their dtaiect, i. a. wtlh 
much of the Hebrew phraseologr, in a etyls similar to the other evange- 
lista : from which it appears that he. was accasiomed to the Jewish reli 
-gion, and was probably a proselyte. Yet the prffdee to his gospal, aa 
erilics bare remarked, is pure classic Greek, nnliEe the Greek that was 
iwed by native Jews ; from which it seems not improbable that he waa 
- by birth and education a Gentile. Qd. In Acts zxi. 27, it is said that thq 
Asiatic Jews excited the multitude against Paul, hecaoBe hs had intro- 
duced Gentilet into tbe temple, thus defiling it. In Terse 38, it is said 
that tii« Gentile to whom they had lefeTonee, was TropKimia, an Ephe- 
aian. Yet Lukt was also at that time with Panl. If he had been r^ 
garded as a GtnHk, it is probable that diey woold have made complaiat 
respecting Aim, as well aa TVojAtrntu. From which it is sopposed that 
ho was either a native Jew, or a Jowish proselyte. 

Bnt, a^n, in the Epiatia to the Colossians, ch. iv. 9—11, we find 
Paal saying — that Aristarchns, and Marcua, and Barnabas, and Jastus, 
ulutod them, " who are," he adds, "of At rinsinieuion," i. e. Jews by 
birth. In Terse 14, he says that Lake, tbe beloved physician, and Demas 
also sainted them ; from which it is inferred that they were oof of Ue dr- 
attmcuton, but were by birth Gentiles. 

Most writers auppoae that Luke, the writer of this Gospel, was in- 
tended in the above place in Colossiaaa. If so, his profeasion was thai 
of opAynrion. And it has been remarked that his descriptions of dis- 
eases are more accorate, and circumstantial, and have more of tethnUai 
oorrectness than thoaa of the other evangelists. * 

Luke does not profess to have been an eye- witness nf what he recorded. 
See ch. i. 3, 3. It is clear, therefore, that he was not one of the seventy 
disciples, nor one of the two who went to Emmaus, as has been some* 
times supposed. Nor was he an apostle. By the fathers he isanifoimly 
called the companion of the apostles, and especially of Paal. 

If he was not one of the apostles, and if he was not one of those ex- 
pressly commissioned by our Lord, to whom the promise of the iniallible 
. teaebins of the Holy Ghost was given, the question arises, by what au- 
thority uis Gospel and the Acts have a place in the sacred canon, or what 
evidence is there that he was divinely inspired ! 

In regard to thia qoesdon, the following considerations may ^ve sails 
fhction. 1st. l^ey were received by all the churches on the same foot- 
ing as the first three Gospels. There is not a dissenting voice in regard 
to their authenticity and aolhority: The valoe of this argnment is this 
—that if thay had been spurious, or withoot aathority, the fathers were 
Aie prc^r persons to know it: 3d. They were published daring the 
lives of the apostles, Peter, Panl, and John, and were received during 
their lives, as Dooks of sacred aolhority. If these books were not in- 
spired, and had no authority, the^ could easily have destroyed their cre- 
dit, and we have reason to think it would have been done. 3d. It is the 
ooited testiroonj of the fathers, that this Gospel was sabmitted to Panl, 
Hid received hie ezpreu approbation. I* was legatded aa the anbatana* 

of DM preaebine. And il it rsMived hii appTobaUoa, il oomea to tM on 
the aathorilj ofhia name. Indeed, if this is the chm, it resta (o the WWM 
authority bb tbt epistlea of PbdI himself. 4lh. It bean the gaine Diuki 
of in spi ration as the other iiookB. It is simple, poie, yet sublime; Utere 
is Dothin}); unworlhj of God ; and it is elerated far above the wiitinge of 
any uoinepired man. 5th. If he was not inapiied — if, as we suppose, ha 
iraa a (gentile by birth — and it, as is most olear, he was not au sve-wit- 
oeaa of what he records ; it is inconceiTable that ha did not eonCradfcl the 
Other etran^lists. That he did not borroa from them is clear. Ncr is it 
poBBJble to coDoeiva that he could write a book, Tarying in the order of iH 
arritaganenl so much, and adding so many new tacts, and repeaUng -ta 
many reooided also hy the others, without open having contradicted what 
-"o by them. Let anj man compare this Goapel with the spu- 

rious gospels of the followiuE centuries, and ha will be struck wi^ tha 
force «f this remark. 6th. If it be objected, that not bein^ an apostle, ha 
did not come within ibe promiae made to Ihe sposttes of inspiration ; we 
reply, that tfais was also the ease with Paol ; yet no small part of Ihe 
New Testament is composed of his writings. The eridence of their in- 
sjiiration is to be jndged, not only by thatpromiK, but by the earl; recep- 
tion of the churches ; the testimony of the tathera as b> the jodgment oi 
inmred »Mn whan liTiDg ; and by the inlamal eharaeter of the worka 
Lake baa all Ibeaei eqntUx wtlli the other ernnivUMe. 





FORASMyCH IB many have ta- 
ken in hand toietfonhinoTiler 
■''declaration of those Ihings which 
are moat eurelj beliered amons ai, 
3 Even as they delivered them 
ttnlo DB, which from the beginning 
■ Jno.IUn. BeS.3. IPe^l. 3Fb.1,1S. 

I. FonumwA oi mang. It has been 
donbtsd who are reiened to here by the 
word Mmjr. Ii aeeiils clear that il could 
not be the oiher evangeliBta. For the 
Ooapsl by John wai not yet wr" 
•od the word maHjrdsDotea clearly 
than !■«. Beaidee, it is aaid that they 
undertook to recoid what the ei/t-tnl- 
ncMs had dehvered (o thsm, so th&l 
the writera did not pretend to be eye- 
witneBse* iamselvefl. It is clear, there- 
ftve, that other wrilings were meuil 
~ B goapela which we now have i 
It Ibey V ' " 

but what 

lallhey w 

I. What 

e is a matter of cc 

wrote his. It is pmbabia thut 
ua&B refers lofiagmtnlt of hietory, or 
ta nartatives of deladied saying, acts. 
or parables of our Lord, which bad 
been made and circulaled amoni; the 
dj>ciples_ and others. Hia doctrinef 
were Mwnal, bold, pure, and authori- 

t tative. Hia miracles had been eilraor- 

, dinary, clear, and awful, Hia liJe and 

death had been pecuUar ; and it is not 
improbable — indeed it ia highly proba- 
ble — that such broken accounta and 

If narralivea of detached facts would be 

preserved. Thai this was what he 
meant, ^ipesra fiirlhsr from ver. 3 ; 
where £siti professes to write " tn or- 
4tr;" i, e. to give a regular, full, and 
■ynenutic accoimt. The othsra were 
broken, and iacomplete. Tliia was to 
he regular and liitl. 1 Taim in Imnd. 
tlDdertaken, attempted. ^ Toitt/onA 
in fdtr. To compose a narrative. I( 
does not refer to the arder or arrtmge- 
auM, but means simply to eive a oai- 
tUiTe. The word rendered hero, in 

■ tritr, is differenl from thai in the third 

tiKM, which Mat refereoM ■» ordtr. 

Ytere eye-witneaaes and iuitttten 
of * the word ; 

3 It seemed good to mo alsci ha*< 
ing had perfect andersianding of all 
things frbm the very firat, to wriM 
onto thee in order, * moat excellent 
Theaphilus, * 

lo a full and ^ arranganenl of the 
incipal facts, &.C,, in the history of 
I Idrd. TX deeiamlion. A naira- 
" 1 WhUk are auM 

_ n all the Clu 

then hving. Here remark, Ist. Tha' 
ChriHliana of that day had the boat irf 
all opportunities of knowing wbethet 
those things were true. Many hud seen 
them, and all olhere bed had ihe ac- 
count from those who had witnessed 
them^ 3d. That inRdela now cannol 
' be as good judges m the mat . 
. . ..lose wlui lived gt the time, ani 
who were thus competent to detemuna 
whether these things were true or felae. 
3d. That all Christiana do siiMt »rd} 
ittiete the truth of the gospel. It is 
their life, their hope, their all. Nor 
they doubt that their Saviour lived, 
I, died, rose, and still Uvea ; that he 
I their atoning sacrifice ; and that 
he is God over all, bUsaed for ever. 

2. At liey dtlivered Ihem. As they 
narrates them. As ihoy gsva sn ac 
count of them. T From the begiiming. 
From the commencement of theac 
things; that is, from the birlh of JuhiL 
Or perhuis from ths beeinning of tbo 
minislry of Jesus. t £y<.»S«H(«. 
Who had seen themselves, and who 

ere therefore proper wilnessee. ^Min- 
tetiafVumrd. The term nvn{, here 
leans the Gotpel. Luke oever oaes it, 
I /obi does, lo denote the second per- 
in of the Trinity. These ere-witnea- 
is and ministers, refer doubtless lo the 
ivenly disciples, lo the apositee, and 
.srhapa lo other preachers who bad 
gone forth to proclBun the same thinga. 

3, It Itemed goad. I thought it b^, 
I have also detormined. It aeom^d 

< That Ihon mightest know * the 
eWaiatj of those Ihioes wheieio 
thoD hast been instnicled. 

^ rpHERE was, in the days 
M- of * Herod the king of 
■ Jsa.90^1. » Maii.3.1. 

•a it toBed for [hal there Bhoald be a 
foil, authentic, and accurate account of 
I h ee e matlen. 1 Hming had jierfeti 
iutdtTtta»di*g, &.C. The literal Irans- 
'ation of tliB original would be ' having 
eiactly traced every thine from the 
firet.' Or 'having, by diligent and 
eatefiU rnvestigation, /oUonnJ up every 
thing to the iimnt, to obtain bd accu- 
rate account of the matter.' Thia much 
better eipresaeB the idea. Luke [lid 
not profess to have >ecn these thinga ; 
4 this eipreaaion it to show how he 

It « 

tracmg up every account till he _ __ 

>stis6M of its truths. Here ohaerve, 
lal. That in religion God does not Bet 
aside our natural facultiea. He oalla ua 

counts, to make up our own minds. 
Nor will an^ man be convinced of the 
(ruth of rehgion who does not make 
investigation, and set himself seriously 
to the task. Si. We see the nature of 
Luke's hisphation. It was consistent 
with his using his natural bculties ; his 
own powers of mind, in investigating 
the truth. God, by his Holy Sphil, 
presided oner his feculties; directed 
them; and kept him from error, l/n 
order. This word does not indicate 
(hat the exact order of time would be 
fay m 
s dU- 

Ihe confiised and Broken aecoui 
which be had referred before. ^ Jlfoil 
Bx^tnt ThtejAiliH. The word The- 
ophilus means a friend of God, or a 

ELOus man ; and it has been suppned 
y some that Luke did not refer to any 
particular tniftiiuJiuI, but to any man 
that loved God. But there is no rea- 
•on for this opinion. For aignilicant 
nanus were very common, and there 
ia DO good reason to doubt that this was 
•ome individual known lo Luke. The 
application of ihe title "mBittxcellent" 
(iirthsr proves it. It would not be given 
to an unknown man. The title, mott 
raceltntf, has by some been supposed 
■o be ipvea to express his diameter, but 

Jndea, a certain prieet named Xx, 
obaiiaii, of the conrae of Abia ; ■ aou 
his .wife wm of the daagbtara of 
Aaron, and her name vna Elisa- 

ilCtuM-lD. N>J14,n. 

it is rather to be considered as dsDotiag 
noA 01 offict. It occurs only ui ihraa 
other places in the New Testament, and 
LB there given to men m ojicc— lo Felix 
andFealua. Actsiiiii.2B;iiiv.3;irri. 
25. These titles eipreaa no qaality of 
the Bm, but belong to the t^pa ; and 
we may hence learn that it is not im- 
proper for Christians, in giving honor 
to whom honor is due, to address men 
m oifica by (heir ciMtomary titles — even 
if their moral character be allogdhei 
unworthy of it. Who Tbtofiiihu was 
is unknown. It is ptobaiile (hat he 

Greek, who had Men converted ; who 
was a iHend of Luke; and who had 
requested an account of these ifaingH, 
It is possible that this yrefate mighl 
have been sent to him as a pnntci leliei 
vith the Gospel, and Theophilus chose 
to have (hem pubhshed together. 

4. The certamty. Have liilt evidence, 
or proof of. ^ SeenintTwted. B/the 
preachers of the gospel. The onginal 
word is the one from which ia denved 
our word catAAun — Aeen eaitdatad- 
But it does not here denote the noHiw 
in which the instruction was impartod, 
ss it does with lu ; but simply the /set 
that he had been taught those things. 

5. /■ the dayi of Herod. Sm Mut. , 
ii. 1. M}f ike eouree of Ahia. When | 
the priests became so numerous that 

(hey could not at once minister at the 

altar, David divided them into twenly- 

foui classes or courtet, each one of 

which ofiiciBted for a week. 1 Chion. | 

xiiv. The class, or course, of Abia, 

was Ihe ewAlA in order. I Chron. xxiv. 

10. Compare 2 Chron. viii. 14. Ths 

word cBurte means the same as clau, l 

or order. The Greek word Ahia is the 

same as the Hebrevi word Abijak. T Hn 

wife mv tf the daughtere q^ Aaron^ ] 

A descendant of Aaron, the first high i 

priest of the Jews; so that Jtlm Ut 

SaDluf was descended, on the fttther's 

and the mother's side, from pries(e. 

Our Saviour was not on either side. 

John would have been legally entitled ■ 

to a place, and employmeBt aniimt tb» 


6 And llio; ware both rigkteau 
aefore Ood, walkiag in all the co 
maudmenls and ordiaaaces ' of the 
Lord, blaraeless. 

7 And thej bad 
cause that Elisabeth was barren, and 
tbej bolh were now well etrickea i 

' 9 And it eame to pass, thi 
while he execated ihe priest's of- 

1 Cor.ll. 

twicBta ; our Saviour, b«ing of tbe tribe 
(M Judah, would not. 

6. Balirigldfoin. Both ml, orhol)'. 
ThU means here more [ban eilenuil 
conformity to the bw. It i« an honor- 
able teetimomsl of Iheii pi«ly lowarda 
God. 1 Wailang in. Sic. Keeping the 
Gommiuidjnenle, To watt in [be way 
that God commands, is W oiey. TOnft- 
lumett. Rites and cnstoma which God 
bsd onJainsf, oi appointed. These 
wordi refer lo all the duiieo of rehgion, 
which were made known to them. 
^BlamtUtt. Thai is, no fault or defi- 
ciency could be ibnnd in them. They 
were BtricI, eiacl, punctual. Yet thia, 
if ilhad been mere atemol observance, 
might have been no proof of piety. 
Paul, belbre*is conversion, also kept 
be taw alemaBy blamelsBB. Phil. Li. 
i. But in the csss df Zachariah and 

£biHbelb, it seems to have been 

lOve lo God, uid Bnosre regard for his 

, 7.' WtU tlrwtcft in gtan. Old, or 
advanced in lite, lo render the 
prospect of having children hopeless, 

S. Before God. In tht^emple where 
God dwelt by the symbols of his pre- 
Tba temple was regarded ' 

1 tha Older ot his 

rded by 
■Uing of 

the jews 

God ; and in ihejtrti temple there , 

m tbe moat holy pUce, a daud called 
the Shechinah, or a visible sign of the 
presence of God. It was thiia btfort 
God that Zachariah offered incense . 

9. According to the citMtom of tit 
priat'M ofice, kit lot tiKu. The Jewish 
writers iiiiona us that it was cuslomarr 
bt the priests to divide their dsily task 
by lok ITa bum iiKeiue. Incense is 
an BTomatic, or white ronn, procured 
from trees chiefly in Arabia. Il is ob- 
tained by making inclsians in the tree, 
and tite cum flows out. It was distin- 1 

fiee bribro God ii 

9 According Ic the cueloiD of tb* 
priest's office, his lot wag * to burl 
incense when he went into the tent- 
pie of the Lord. 

10 And the whole multtCnds of 
the people were praying withoit, 
at the time of incense. 

11 And there ippeared untj him 

cEx3lt.7,a. 'La.lS.1T. 

guished for a pecuharlv pleaaant tadi 

when burnt, and was Iherefbra used io 

ancient worship. It was burnt by the 

' - ■ 1 dsy, (Ei. ox. 7}, anl b 

been emblematic of piajsr 

sod prauie, or of the gtatelul ofisitDn c( 

the heart waited towsrd heaven. 1^ 

bceass used in tbe temple was roads of 

stscts, onycha, snd ^bsnum, iEz., m. 

34), witb pure frankincense, slid it was 

t lawfui far tbis compound to be used 

flwhere than m the house of Ood 

/nio tit temple. Bee Notes on MatL 

i. 12. The part o( the temple where 

;ense wss burnt was the heti/plaa. 

10. Tht uAoie multitude. This wa 
the regular time of evening prayer, anr 
— illiludes CI — — ■- •^' '- - 

)r8hip, 1 J 

the cmtrti ,— . ,_ 

mlarly in tbe court of the women. 

11. .An mgii. An ongsl ia a' mes 
senger sent from God. Il had no« 
been about four hundred years sinci 
the lime of MaliuAi, and since then 
had been any divine revelation. Dul 
ing that time the ruuion was lookinf 
for the Messiah; but still with noliunji 
nore than the ancient prophecies lo di 
ect them. Now that he was about ts 
ippesr, God sent bis roissenger to an 
-lonnce his coming, to encourage l^u 
hearts of his people, and to prepart 
them to receive htm. ^ On lie r^ 
Mtde, kc. The altar of utcense stood 
close by the veil which divided the 
holy place from the most holy. On iht 
nsrfA stood the tsble of shew-bresJ. 
Od the south the gulden candleilicfc. 
As Zacharias eatered, iheretiire, with 
lus facs 10 the vol, the angel would 
stand on the nerth, or near ins labia oi 
shew-bread. It was eightsen inchaa 
square, and three fest high. Tha lop, 

~ well as the sides bii£ boms, wm 


OTcrlald with pure gold, and il 
Simbed nround ihe upper nirhca with 
B OTDWD or border ofeold. Just below 
■' ■ border four goltfen rings were 

uched to each side o 

The 81 

for bearing Ihe ollv passed ihrough 
ihese rit^, and were made i^ the aame 
wood with the altar iUelf, and richly 
avorlaid with the sanie precknu metBl. 
Unnn itua altar incease was buml tiverj 

IS And when ZachariaB Mtr kim, 
he was troubled, 'and feai fell HpoB 

»Ju.ia& nrM. Dtl.USl Hl^T. 

monting and ever; evening, ao thai U 
waa literally perpetual. (Ei. joa, 8. 
Neither burnt -eactiiice, nor meel-oSi:r- 
ing, nor drink-afiering, wiw permitted 
upon this altar ; not was it ever stained 
with blood, eicepi once annosUy, when 
the prieal mode atonement. {Lev. zvi. 
18, 19.) 


19 Sat the an^l iaid unto 
Fear not, Zaebanas : for tfay prayer 
is beard ; and thy wife Elisabeth 
■trail bear thee a son, and thou shalt 
nil his name * John. 

14 And ihoo , shalt have joy aod 
gladneea; and many eb&ll lejoice ' 
M his birth. 
, IS For he shall be great ' in Ibi 

inr.BIMa- tTer.H. (£.7.98. 

!. Ht tt 

t (rou&iel. This « 

Ae preBence of God. The afpearance 
■wta sudden, unexpected, snd theretbie 

13. Tky prayer ii hmrd^ Thai _, 
Aj prajrer for offspring. This, among 
the Jews, was »n object of ialens" ^ 
Mre. No prospect wm more gloomy 
la them than that of dying childless, so 
thai (heir naait ihmild perah. Specisl 
psini, therefore, hod been token in the 
law, to keep up the nanieB of families 
by requiiiog a man to marry his bro- 
Iber'awife. Dtut. iiv. 5. 

14. Al hi* birlA. This does not refer 
to much to the lime of his biiih. as to 
the subsequent rejoicing. Such shall 
be his eAanule; mat he shall be an 
honor to the family, and many shall rs- 

Sice that he hved. Or, in other words, 
shall be s bleenng to mankind. 

15. Shall be great, Shall be smiitent, 
or distinguished as a preacher. 1 1n ib 
tight of the Lord. Greek -. before the 
Lord. That is, shall be reaUg or Jmiy 

fsaC God abtm regard him as such. 
Shall drink neither viiTte. Wine was 
the juice of the grape. The kind of 
wtns commonly used in Judea was a 
%hl wine, often not stronger than ci- 
jor la this countrr. It was the com- 
mon drink of nil eiaasee of the people. 
3ee Notes on John ii. 11. The use of 
wins wss forbidden only to the ffa- 
"rite. Num. vi. 3. It was because 
John sustained this chHincLer, that be 
abstained from the use of wine. ^Strong 
initli. It is not easy to aacertain pre 
:isely what in meant by this word, but 
we are certain that il does not mesn 

Distilled Bpirita were not then known. 
The art of distilling wss discovered by 
«n Arabian chemist in the ninth or 
tenth contuty ; bat distilled liquors sre 
>Bt iMsd by ArobuiB. Thsy bsnishad I 

si^l of the Lord, and shall ' driafe 
neither wine Dor Btron|[ drink ; aud 
he shall be fiUsd with the Hoi* 
Ghost, even ■ from bis rooiher'ii 

16 And many of the cbildMB <A 
Israel shall he tarn to the ItOti 
their God. 

17 And / ha shall go before Ua 

t NbA3. • Ja.U. ftao. LU. 

them at once, as if sensible of their 
pemicioiiB influence. Nor are they used 
m eastern natiotis at oil. Europe and 
America have been the places where 
this poison has been moal extensively 

used ; and there it has beggared ai 

B, and is year^^weepii 

ids unprepared into a wreidUK 

d millions, s 

^. The ifrmi^ if rml among ..., 

Jews was probably nothing more thsn 
fermecied liqaora, or a dnnk obtained 
from fermented dates, figs, snd the 
juice of -the palm, or (he lees of wine, 
mingled with sugar, and having the pro 
perty of producing intoxication. Many 
of (he Jewish wnters say, that by the 
ere translated $tnmg drink was 
nothing more than old buk, 
which probably hsd the power of pro- 
ducing intoxication. See Notes on Isa. 
V. 11, ^ ShaU U jUUd imth the Hely 
Ghoit, Ilc. Shair be divineW desig- 
nated or appointed lo this ofSce, mid 
„] for It hy all needful communi- 

oftheHoiy Spirit. To be CIs4 

with the Holy Spirit, is to be illumi- ' 
nsted, sanctified, and guided by his 
X. In this place it refers'. lal. 
divine inlenlion (hat he shonld 
.- -. apart to this worlc, as God de- 
signed that Paul should be an apostle 
*■ — 1 his mother's womo. Gal. i. 15.- 

It refers to an actual fitting for the 

work from the birth, by the influence 

of the Holy Spirit, as was the case witb 

'iremiah |Jer. I 5), and with David. 

i. uii. 9, 10. 

16. Children of Itrad. Jews. De- 

endanls of Israel, or Jacob. 1 ShaO 

turn. By repentance. He shall call 

them from their sins, itnd persuade 

ihem to forsake Ihem, and to seek the. 

Lord (heir God. 

IT. Shaa go before him. Befon the 
Messiah, or the Lord Jesiis. The con- 
nexion here lesds us to suppose thai 
the wdrdtairBferslo tlia"Lord [heir 

^UdTeo, and the dwobedieut * to 
the witdom * of the just} to maba 
readv a people ' prepared foi the 

<oi,tf. Pi.ULM ■1<UI.1I.14.I1U.II.1X 
HalLUJU. Xa.4^ »tFe4.D. 

Ood ' in the previous verse. If n, 
thsn i( will fallow Ihst Che Meniah was 

the Lord God of larael : — b chatacler 
abandaallysiven him in other pang of 
the New Testamem. tJ« tit ip'ril 

li. 14. t Ta (um 


\t (urs tAe laarU of Cht fa- 
ucri 10 (Ac cAiUrcs. Li (he lime of 
Jt^ the Jews were divided into a 
Dumber of di&ereat sects. See Notes 
on Matt. iii. T. They were opoeed vio- 
lently to esch other, end pursued their 
oppi^lian with great Bmmofflty, It 
was impossible but that this opposition 
■bould find its way into /omiliu, and 
divide parents and children from each 
other. John came that hs might allay 
these aiumositieB, and produce better 
%eling. By diiecUng them nil to one 
Vtuter, the Messiah, he would divert 
the attention from the causes of their 
difierence, and bring them lo union. 
Ho would restore peace to (heir tmi- 
lies, and reconcile those parents and 
children who had chosen difierent sects, 
and sullered their attachment to lect to 
interrupt the harmony of their house- 
holds. The effect of true religion on a 
■ family will always ite to produce har- 
mony. It attaches all the family lo one 
great Master, and by attachment to 
lam, alt minor causes of difference are 
forgotten. ^ And Ue diiclitdient to the 
teudam of tike jittt. The dustnfienf 
hero are Ibe unbelieving, and hence the 
impious, the wicked. These he would 
turn 10 the wisdom of the just, or lo 
such wisdom as ihe^f or pious mani- 
fested ; thai is, to true wisdom. 1 Te 
■uie ready a fta^, &c. To prepare 
them , by aiuunincing that the MessiBh 
-*- — - " appeal, and by caling 

alffsjii required men ..._._ .. 

special manner, when he was about to 
qipear among ^em. Thus the Israel- 
iles wete required to purify themselves 
for ihree days when he was about to 
come down ou Mount Final. E!i. lix. 

18 And Zaebanas atid unto Hm 
angel, Wlerebv shall I knon ibUI 
for ° I am an old man, aod my wife 
well alripken in years. 

19 And (he angsl anewering, 
•aid unto bim, I am Gabriel,' that 

t Ge.1T.1T. i Ds.&U. ier.«. 

14, IS. A.nd BO when Ood the Son 
was about to appear as ihe Redeemer, 
he required thai men should ftr^rt 
themselves for his coming. So m view 
' ' future judgmenl — the second 
_r.i._ "jnofniBii — he requites 
1 repent, believe, vA 
Beparo. iret.iv.7. 3Pet.iLn,13. 

18. TFiiitvaysAall/JburwUur The 
thing was improbable, and he denred 
evidence that this would take place. 
The teslimonv of an angel, and in such 
a pfaix,_Bhould hate been proof eaough, 

nessen^era. As a 
believmc he was 

aliuch dumb. 

19. 1 am Oebriei. The word Go 
briel is made up of two Hebrew words, 
and signifies ndn of God, This angel 
is mentioned as having been deputetTto 
inform Danvi that Ms prayers were 
heard. Dan. viii. 16; ii. 31. 1 TAol 
tlattd in the pretenee of God. To stand 
in ihe presence of one, is a phrsse de- 
noting honor oi favor. To be admitted 
to the presence of a king, or to be with 
him , was a token of iavor. So to stand 
before God. signifies merely thai he 
was honored or favored by Giod. Hs 
was pemitfted to come neiu' him, and 
10 see much of his glory. Compare 1 
Kingai.8; lii. 6: iviL liFrov. 1x11.21 
^ And on teni, &.c. The angels are 
miniitermg tpirilt sent forth to those 
who shaU be Ws of salvation. Heb. 
i. 7, 14. They delight to do the will of 
God, and one way of doing that will, is 
by aiding his children here; by suc- 
j»iing the afflicted ; and bydefending 
those who are in danger. There is no 
more absurdity or impropriety in sun- 
posing that angdt '' '^■■ 

there IS in eupposmj 

y aid them, than 
mat good men may 
Dm one anoLaer- jLud there can be no 
doubt Ihat it affords high pleasure lo 
the angels of God lo be permilted to wd 
those who are ireading the dangerom 
and trying path which leads to etennty. 
HolineM is the same aa benevolenosi 

Mind.ia lh« ptMenee i^ God; and 
•m Bent * lo apeak unto thee. Bod 
to shew Ihee these glad tidiDn 
20 And, behold, thou ebalt 
^nmbt ukd not able to epeak, notil 
- the day that these things shall be 
performed, because thou believest 
not m; words, which shall be ful- 
filled in Ihsir season. 

ud holy beings seek and love opportu- 
niliea to do good lo iheir fallow crea- 
tuiss. In the eye of holy beings, all 
God's craalureB are pans of one great 
famiEy ; and whenever they can do them 
{ood, ihey rejoice in the opponunitj, at 
•uxy sacrifice. ^ Theie glad lidmgi. 
This gcMid news reapectiog the biiUi of 

20, Bteaue Um belietieit not, &.C, 
This was both a sign and a judgment: 
a sign thai he had come Irom God, and 
ihat the thing would be fuliilled. and a 
iudgment for nol giving credit to what 
Re bad said. There la no sin in the 
Big;bi of God more aggravated than un- 
belief. When God speaks, man should 
believe. Nor can he that tcUI not be- 
lieve escape puniehmenl. God speaks 
only (fiitt, and we should believe him. 
God s^aka oalv what is for our good, 
and it is right that we should suner if 
we do nol credit what he says. 

SI. Tht people v>aited. That is, 
evocd the usual time. ^ MarotlUd, 
Vondered. The prieal, it is Baid, was 
not accustomed to remain in the tem- 
ple more than half an hour commonly. 
Having remained on this occosian a 
longer time, the people became appre- 
hensive of his safety, and woudered 
what lud happened lo bim. 

23. Had tarn, a cufon. The word 
niian means ai^it, a^iearanee oi ipec- 
tre, and is commonly applied to spirits, 
or 10 beings of another world. When 
he came out of the temple, it is proba- 
ble thai they suspected that something 
oftlila nature h jl detained him there, 
and that on inquiry of him he signified 
by a nod that Ibis was the case. He 
ass unable lo apeak, end ihey bad no 

VoL.n.— 9 


rsK I. u 

vonld not speak mito them . and 
they perceived that he had seen a 
vision in the temple; for he bscb- 
oned anta Ibeni and Temaioed 

33 And it carae to pass, that, u 
HOOD as Ihe days of his minittrati a 
were accomplished, he departed to 
his own house. 

way of " percetBiHg" it but by such a 

sun. On the word duuhi, see Notes 

1. 1 For At hoAoned vnio 

lis ■ ■ ■ ■ 

by a sign, 1 

lie had seen. 

as tJie days of hit miais- 
Aa soon aa he had ful- 
filled the duties of the week. It might 
have been supposed Ihat the eilraordi- 
nary occurrence in the temple, together 
wilQ his own calamity, would have in- 

and return home. But his duly was in 
Ihe temple. His piety prompted him 

._ -here in the service of God, 

unfitted for burning mcense 
by bis dumbness, and it was not pro- 
r for bim to leave his post, — It is Ihe 
ity of miniatera of religion to remain 
their work until (hey are enlirely un- . 
..,,._.. __...__., ^^jjj 

fitted for ii 

Then they 

until that time, he that for 
triiling causes forsakes hia post, is guil 
ty of tmfoithfulness to hia Masler. 
34. Hid hirsdf. Did nol go forth 
to public, and concealed her condition, 
.his migbl have been done that she 
might spend her time more enlirely in 

spoke of the mercies of God, 

25, Thau. In this mercifiil manner. 

T To take aaay my reproadi. Among 

the Jews, a family of children was 

.nied a signal blessing: an evidenco 

Ihe'fevor of God. Ps. ' " 

!. Isa, i 
■i. 9. To he I 

iv. 3, 

1, the;pibr«- 


with ma, in the dsTi wherein he 
looked on in*, 10 take " awaj my 
reproach anongf men. 

36 And in tbe Biith month the 
■Dgel Gabriel was sent from God, 
nnio a city cf Galilee, named Na- 

d7 To a Tirgln ' esponsed to 
man whole name was Joseph, of 
Ihe honae of David ; and the ' ' 
^n's name waa Mary. 

38 And the an^l came In n 
her, and said, Hall, tAou &at a 
highly fsTonred, ' the ' Lord 
wiih (hes : bleaaed toi then am( 

f childrea, wiu conudered 
a reproadi, or a diggroEe- I S. 

26. /« Ike lath month. The aixlh 
monlh afier Elisabeth's conception. 
' A cita of Galilu, named Natareth. 
See Mail. li. 32. S3. 

27. To a virgin etpouttd, &c. See 
Mall. i. 18, 19. 1 limit of Daeid, 
'^amik of David, or descendanU of 

28. Sail ThiawordofMlulationiB 
equivalent la, Peon bt vitA thee, or 
Jii/be nith thet ; a form of speech im- 
plying thai she was signally bvored, 
4nd eipresBing joy al meeting her. 
1 Highly fammd. By being the mo- 
ther of the long-eipected Messiah ; ihe 
mulher of iho Redeemer of mankind. 
Luii^ had he been predicled ; long had 
(he eyea of the nation been turned to 
him ; and long had his coming been an 
object of intense desire. To be reck- 
oned among hiaaiwufart, waaaccounl- 
ed suflicienl honor for even Abraham 
and David. But now the happy indi- 
eidiud waa deaignaied who waa lo be 
his mother; and on Mary, a poor vir- 
gin of Naiarelh, was to coms ihia ho- 
nor, which would have rendered infi- 

any of ihe daughters 

votd u, IS not m the onginaT. and the 
passage may be rendered either ' the 
Lord it wiih thee. 

S9 And when she saw Mm, *b» 
waa troubled at hia aaying, and dmI 
in her mind what mannel! of aalnta- 
tion this shonld be. 

30 And the ansel aaid nnto hei, 
Fear not, Hary ; for thoa hast foand 
favDQT with God. 

31 And, behold, Ihoa ' sbalt eoa- 
ceive in thy womb, and bring forth 
a son, and ahalt call hit nam* 

33 He shall be great, ' and sbalt 
be called the ' Son of the Highest i 
and tbe Lerd God shall pta nnu 
him tbe throne * of his father I>b 

elmJT.U. MnlLtSU /Mall.lS.U. flit 
lJ-8. * S Sa.T.II.ia. ta.9.e.T. 

angel, that all bleaonga from Goo 
might descend and real upon bar. 
1 Bleiiedart thou amomg vobcii. This , 

passage is equivalent to saying ' Thou 

29. Tnmblid at hii laying. Dislurhed 
or perplexed at what he said. It was so 
uneipecled, 80 snddi 
ry, and waa so high 
was filled i»ilh anx: 
did not know what to make of i 
IB her mind. Thoughc, or revolved in 
her mind, t mat manner of laluta- 
tiim. What this salutation could mean. 

32. Ke thall be great. There is un- 
doubted reierence in this passage to lea. 
ix. 6, 7. By his being great, is meant 
he shall be diatinguisbed^ or itliulrious ; 
great in power, in wisdom, in domin- 
ion, on earth, and in heaven. 1 ShaU it 
tailrd. This is the aama as to say, he 
ihaU be the Son, &c. The Hebrews 
often used this form of speech. See 
Mall. id. 13. ? The Htgheit. Ood 
— who is infinitely exalted — called (j|g 
Highest, because he is exalted ever aU 
hia creatures an eiirlh and in heaven. 
See Mark v. 7. ^ The thraiu. The 
kingdom : or shall appcant him as tbe 
hneal succeseor of Usvid in the king- 
dom. ^ Hit father Datid, DaVWM 
called hia father, because Jesus waa 
lineally deecepded from him. See Matt^ 
i. 1. The oromise lo David waa, that 
there ahould not/ail a man toiit tKhii 
throne; thai his throne shonld be per- 
petual; and the promise was fulfUled 

honor, thai she 
thoughts, and 

S3 And ha ahall nigii orer the 
hon^ of Jacob for e*er ; and ■ of 
hie kinadoDi there Bhall be no end. 

34 Then said Mary nalo the 
nigsl, How ahall this be, eeeing I 
know Dot a man 1 

35 And the angel aaswered and 
•aid unto her.The HuIt GhoU shall 
oome apoQ thee, and the power of 
(be Highest ahall oveTshadow thee ; 
therefore also that holy thlnj which 
•ball be barn of thee shall be call' 
ed * the Son of God. 

36 And, behold, thy coasin Eli- 
. II«.T.14.8T. MiJT. »Mir,l.l. 

by ezaltiiig Jesua to be a Prince and 

Savidor, uid the perpetual King of b 

33. Over the 

km m of J«cob n „ _ 

tlie familii of Jacob, or the desceod- 
anta of Jacob ; i. e., the children of Is 
reel. This wu the iwine b; which ibe 
ancient people of God were known, 
and ic ii (he nme u nying IhaL be 
■ball reign over hie own church and 
people for evei. This he does by giving 
them laws, bjr defending them, and 
by guiding them; and ibu he^will do 
for evrr in the kingdom of his glory. 
1 Of kit kingdom llmrt ihaU be 
He Bhetl reign among bis per~'-' 

unlil the end o'-^ -" 

King in heaver 
ioni thai shall 
Ibe only King that sball never lay B»de 
lits dilrdem and robee, and thai shall 
lever die. He the only King that can 
defend us from all our enemies, sustain 
OS in deslh. and reward us in etemit}'. 
- O how imporiant, then, lo have an in- 
terest in hie kingdom; and how unim- 
portent, compared with his favor, is the 
tvor of all earthly monarchs ! 

35. 37ie Half Glual AiU tome upon 
Mer. SeeMsM.i. 16,30. ITVnwcr 
^ the Higlifl, ice. This evidently 
means that the body of Jesus should be 
created by the direct power of God. 
'" " by ordinsry generation ; but, 

for tlhert, and 
I necessary that 

s ^ Jaab. The 

id still be their 
the only kine- 

aa the Messiah ci 
-to mah 
not for h 

■elf-il V 

•abed), ahe hath also eoueeiTsd a 
son in ber old egs; and this ia th« 
sixth month wtth bet who waa call- 
ed barren. 

37 For ' with God Dothing ihaU 
be impossible, 

33 And Harj said. Behold the 
handmaid * of the Lord ; be il unto 
irdiog ■ to thf wotd. And 

itirect ereadon, that ahonld be pore and 
holy. See Heb. X. 5. 1 That My Uw. 
St^. That holy^progeny, or chiM. 
1 Shan be called lie So»i^ God. Tn .T 
is spoken in reference lo the hatnuii 
nature of Christ, And itua passage 
proves beyond controversy thet chm rea- 
son why Jesus was called the Son fif 
God, was, because he was hegolten in 
a supernatural manner. He is also 
called the Sen of God, on account of his ■ 

actJon. Rom. i.4, Aclsxiii. 33. 

ired with Pb. '" " 

■ P-S" 


The case of EhsBbeth b mentioned li 
inspire Mary with confidence, and (o 
assure her that what was now promised 
would be flilfilled. It was almoat m 
improbable ihac Elis^ielh should have 
a child at her time of life, as il was that 
Mary should under the circumatancea 

3S. And Man/ raid, BAM tkeiani- 
maid, &,c- Thts was an expression of 
redgnalion to the will of God, and of 
^th in the promise. To be the hand- 
maid of Ike Ijtrd, is to be a sabmissive 
ind obedient servanc ; and is the aami. 
as saying, ' I fiilly credit all that is said, 
and am iierfedly ready to obey all iba 
commands of the Lord.' 

39. AitdMaT«ame. ThewordonsM 
here is equivalent lo icffiag' ml, (w 
Btaningon a journey, f JAe kiU enim- 
(ry. The region in the vicinity of 
Jerusalen, commonly called the hill 
country of Judea. TCify if Jiiaa. 
What cily is meant is not known. Some 
heve Bupposeditto be Jeroaalem, others 
Hebron, Bnt all is conjeclore. It waa 
probably a Levbical dty, and ihe nss- 

40 And entered into the houae 
of Zacbariu, aoi iaiuted Eliaabetb. 

41 And it came to pass, that, 
when Elisabeth heard the ealata- 
tion of Mary, the babe leaped in 
lierwomb; and Elisabeth waa fill- 
ed with the Holj Ghost : 

42 And ahe epake oal with a 
loud roiee ; and aaid, Blesaed ' art 
dioii among women; and blessed 
it the fniit of thy womb, 

43 And whence ii this to 
that the mother of my Lord * should 




dance of ZacbariBV wbei 
Giuplnyed in [he temple. 

40. SaliUtd Eliiabeth. 
El oat jay md grUificttion at seeing her, 
and used the cuBtomu? tokens of afiac- 
tionate salmatioD. 

41. Filled mth the Htiy Okott. The 
moaning of this acema to be, ibat she 
mu filled with joy ; with a disposilian 
(oprBiBfl God; with a prophetic spirit, 

. 01 a knowledgB of the charHcier of the 
duld that should be bom of her. All 
these were produced by the Holy Ghost. 
49. Blettti art Ouu among vxmai. 
She here repeated nearly the words of 
the angel to Mary, esteeming ii i" h» 

the higoefli honor amon^ m 
the mother of the Measiab, 


43. And v^iatte 
eiprossion of hnmility. Why ia it that 
the mother of my Lord should come to 
■'■"'- — meT IMotiwo/mj 

Stea by the Jews lo their expected 
esainb; but whether they understood 
i( as denotinc divinity, caimot now Lc: 
ascertained, ^t is clear only that Eli- 
aabeth used it as denoting great dignity 

45. Slaitd uM}uihat idirwd. Thai 
is. Mary, who behoved what the angel 
spolie to her. She was blessed not 
only in ihe'act of believing, but because 
the thinif promised wotild certainly be 

From these exprea^ona of Etiaabelh, 
we may learn : 1 at. That the spirit of 
smphecy had not entirely ceased amoog 
Jke Jews. 2d. That the Holy Ghost u 

44 Foi ]o,BBMM>ii uibeToieeo 

thy salutation sounded in mitteeart 
Uie babe leaped id my womb fo 

45 Aod blessed fi ahe ' that b» 
lieved : for there shall be a peifor 
mance of thoaa things which were 
told bar from the Lord. 

46 And Mary said. My * eonl 
doth magnify the Lord, 

47 And my spirit hath tejoioed ' 
in God my Savioar. 

48 For he hath regarded the low ■ 
estate of his handmaiden; fot be- 

1 Ba.X.1. Pi.3U,3. i r*.3M. BS1I.3.1S 

— source of hght, comfort, and jpj. 
3d. That every thing about the birth 
of Jeans ia remarkable, and that be 
must have been more ihau a mere man. 
4lh. That the prospect of the comiiv 
of the Meaaish was one of great joy 
rejoicing to ancient saints; ana, 
. That It was a high hooor to he 
Iht moHer of him that should redeem 
mankind. It is from that honor that the 
Roman Catholics have detelBiined that 
it ia right to worsJup the Virgin Mary, 
Eind to ofier prayers to her : an act of 
worship as idolatrinis as any that could 
be offered to a creature. For : Ist. It 
is not saywheie commanded in the 
Bible. 2d. It it'eipressly forbidden to 
iiahip any bein^but God. Ei. r 

i. 13, 1 


14.; 1 

tlv, 20. It is idolatrv to w. . , ._ 
iray lo a creature, 4ta. It ia absurd le 
luppose that the Viqin Mary can be In 
m places at the same time, to hear the 
Players of thousanda at once, or that 
-'-- -an aid them. There ia no idola- 
lore gross, and uf course more 
id, than to wocship the crtalutt 
than Iht Creator. Rom. i. 25. 
My loul doth magnify U« Jj>rd 
To magnify here means- to maJie great, 
and than to eitol, (o praise, to cdairaU. 
It'does not mean here strictly to malu 

ind death. _ . , 

as he hod redeemed her soul, and ^ven 
a litta to eiemal life : and she rejoiced 
for that, and ciqwcially fbi top merer n 


jMia, flrom beneeforth all geneia- 
■DCia jhaU call me* blessed. 

49 for he that is might; ' hath 
done to ins great thiuge ; < 
holy * M his name. 

50 And * hia mere; it on tbem 

■ Mll.aiS.c.lLlT. *Oe.l7.1. aPii.TL 
U. U6^4. E^a-30. dPii.111.9. tOt-U. 

t. Uek 

Literally, ho has 

npon the low or humble condition of hia 
hindniBid. That is, notwiihetanding 
the humble rank and poverty of Mary, 
ha has ahown her favor. And this ex- 
ample abimdantljr teachea, what ia else- 
where fully laught in the Bible, that 
God is not a respecter of persons ; Ihal 
he ia not Influeoced. to confer Eavora, 
by wealth, honor, or office. Rom. ii. 
11; 1.11, 12. He seeks out ths hum- 
ble and the 
rich blesainf 

Jiey need t _ 

bim for them. Pa. cuiriii. 6. isa. 
IviL IS. 1 f ram lence/orti. Here- 
Moflbia. ^ Aa 

itiiie ; and imparls his 
rings to thoae who ieel that 
d them, and who will bless 


fcvored, or happy in being the mother 
of the MesaiaD. It ia right to consider 
Iter M highly favored, or happy ; but 
this cerlauily does not warrant ns to 
wonhip her, or to pray to her. Abra- 
ham waa blessed in being the &ther of 
the fiiithful I Paul in bemg the apostle 
b> the Oemllea ; Peter in first preach' 
mg the gospel to them ; butwbo would 
think at worshipping or praying to 
Abraharo, Paul, or Peter I 

49. HethatiMBBghty. God. TffatA 
doH* la ma gn«t tlMfs. Hath con- 
terred on me great &TOrs, and diatin- 
guistied mercies. Tjlmf AoJ* ii lot 
WHie. This is an eipression of Mary's 
feelings, desiring to bestow on God all 
honor and praise ; end as the highest 
honor, she declared that his hobu wa> 

Ky; that is, that God waa fre« 
in sin, injustice, and impurity. The 
" waste" of God is often put for G!od 
himself The proper name of God is 
Jiiimah, a word expreisire of hia eiieii- 
tuf iif^g, derived nui '' -- ■ ■ ' 

. Pa. kxziii. II 

name ia holy ; is lo be regarded as he 
and to make • ooatmoa or pro&ne 

that fear him, fram geaertttmi to 

51 He' bath shewed atren^fth 
with hia ana; he hath scattered 
the ' proud in the imaginatioa of 
tbeir hearts. 
IT. Eisaji. /F>.n.]. ia.SLt. 

K.10. fl3.S. g 1 BaA.«. Da.4.37- 

[ it, ia solemnly forbidden in the thiid 

>mmandmeal. EIi. ix. 7. 

50. Hit mem. Favor shown u 

Hu merev. Favor shown to the 

ible and the guilty. 1/) DM them 

Is lAownf or manifealed talhem. 1 Thai 
fear him. That rtvetenee or hmor him. 
One kind of fear ia thai which aeervar.t 
has of a cruel master, or a man has tif 
a precipice, the plague, or death. This 
is not the fear which vie ought to have 
of God. It ia the fear which a djtijul 
iiiild has of a kind and virtuoua fatheJP— 
a fear of injurittg his feelings ; of dis- 
honoring bim by our life ; w doing any 
thing which he » ould disMiprova. It 
ia on those who have mc* fear of Gi'l 
that his mercy descends. This ia ll.u 
fear of the Loi^l which is the beginnioK 
of wisdom. Pb. cii. 10. Job uviu. 
26. f PrraH generaiion fa gaifration 
From one age to another. That ia, it 
is unceasing; it continoea, atbd abounds. 
But it means also more than this. It 
means, that God's mercy will descend 
on the children, and children's children 
of those that fear him, and keep hia 
commandments. Ei. u. 6. In thir 
respect, it is an unspeakable privilege 
to be descended of pious parenla ; t« 
have been the subject of their prayera. 
and to have receiTed their blessing. 
And it is also a matter of vast guilt not 
IQ copy their eiample, and to walk in 
their steps. If God is duftMtd to show 
mercy to thousanda of generations, how 
heavy will be the condemnation if they 
do not avail themselves of it, and early 
seek his favor ! 

£!. Maathowtittrti^lkwitikatttu. 
The ana ia the tymbol of strength. 
The expression in this, and the snbse- 
qnent verses, has no parucular refarence 
to his mercy to Maty. From a con- 
templation of his goodness to her, she 
enlarges her views to a contemplatjon 
of his goodness anQ power in gnurol 
to oihvs, and to a celebration of the 
praises of God. for aH that he baa done 
to all men.— This is the nstiire of true 
piely. It does not leimiDate in think 

6S He ■ halh pat down the 
mighly from Ihtir eealg, and exalt- 
ed Ihem of low decree. 

53 He * hath tilled the hungry 
with good things, and the rich he 
hmth sent empty awaj, 

■ JabJ.11. C.1S.11. tlSa^U^ 

tHE of God's mercy (o hi. It thinks of 
Men — spreads, m contempIatioD of 
other objecls — and praises God thsl 
MtTM also are made pBrtakers of hia 
mercy, and thai his gcxidnees is maiii- 
fsBted to all his works. 1 Ht Katieretk 
the proitd. He haih often done it bi 
lime of battle and war. When the 
proud Aeeyrian, Egyptisn, or Babylo- 
nian bad come egainat the people of 
God. he had often ecallered ihem, and 
driven away their armies, lin tht 
tmaginaliaH ef tkeit htarlt. Thoae who 
were lifted up or eialied, in their own 
Those who thmight tkrmiAva 


ings, < 

tu be superior to other 

32. jtath fta daa* the mighiw- 
migMy here denotes princes, kii „ . 
conqaerors. See Isa. xiv. 12, 13, H. 
1 T/ltir tiau. Their Cknma, or the 
places where the; eat in pomp and 
power. 1 Exulted Ihem. Raised them 
up, or placed them in ihe seals of those 
who had been reDioved, ' Ijm degree. 
Low, or humble birth, and condition in 
life. This probably has reference to 
the case of Saul and David. Mary 
was celebratirg the mercies of God to 
her, to her family, and of course to her 



David was taken from the sheep-fold, 
and placed on the throne. The origin 
of illustrious families is oiten obsoure. 
Hen ore often raised by industry, talent, 
and the bvor of God, from very hum- 
ble stations ; &om the form, or mecha- 
nic's shop to places of great trust in the 
church and state. They who are thus 
eleyalod, if imbvied with right feelinga, 
will not despise their former employ. 

nil they astt 
a (he leaa, I 

This is a cebbrarioii of the Eensral 

55 Ae ha spake ' to oni fstfaen, 
to Abraham, and to hia Beed for 

t Pe.De.3 <Ge.lT.ia. r^lK-ll. 

mercy of God. He daily fed the poor, 
the needy, and chose who came to him 
with humble hearts. ^ TheridihiAlK 
sent, &c While tie pDor come to him 
for a supply of their aaUj wants ; the 

should be supplied, baI,conie with krf^ 
hearts, and insatiable denres, chat their 
riches may be increased. When this is 

dteappointmenli, and sends them away 
empty. Fror. uiu. 5, It is better to 
be poor, and go to God for out ijaily 
bread, than to be net, tuid forget our 
J J ,.:_ — J . 1. jjjjy ^ 

f property. 
HiA. htlptd 

S4, Hath holpen. Haih h^ptd oi _ 
aisled. The word rendered "holpen" 
Doles, properly, to take hold of one, 
kelp hm «p ahen he it in danger ^ 
faUing, and means hers that God had 
succored his people when they were 
ieeble, and were in danger of ^Uing or 
being orerthrown. 1 Hu lerxmtit Itrw. 
His people, the Israelites, or those who 
truly feared him and kept his com- 
mandmenia. See Isa. rii. 8 — 9. Hoa, 

5S. At h« epaie Id our fatheri, Jtc, 
That is, he has dealt mercifully with 
the children of Israel, according as he 
OTomised Abraham, laaac, and Jacob. 
The promise particaloriv herd leterrad 
to. is ibat respecdng the SlatiA, wbieb 
was now about to be fnliilled. But 
(here is no doubt thiU there was also 
included the promiaea reapectuig all the 
other mercies which had been cnntetrad 
on the children of Israel. Sea Gen 
uii, 17— 18, ^FaraxT. Thesew<H^ 
are to be referred to the preceding yeraa 
' ' in remembrance of his mercy /n- lacr, 
as he spake," &,c. They denote (bat 
the mercy of Gtd manifeated to bis peft- 
pie, should be had in everlasting re- 
There is a tttildnc nmilaiily between 
this KDg tf-piaiaeliy Mary, Mid thM 

56 And Hafy aboda with ber 
■boat thTee monibi, and retnined 
lo her own houM. 

57 Now BliMbeth'B fall time 
MUM, that abe ahoold be deliTared 
and she bnwght forth a >on. 

58 And hei neighbonn aod her 
eonsiufl heaid how the Lord had 
■hewed great mercy apon her; and 

" they* rejoiced with her, 

69 And It came to pass, that 
llie eighth iaj thej oaine to i 
. omnoiBe tbe child j and tbe; called 
bim Zachariaa, after tbB name of 
his father. 

60 And his mother answered and 
aeid, Not Mi but he shall be called 

•poken br Hainuk. 1 Sum. ii. 3- 
There are few mecea offotlry — fol 
ia poetry, and umom ihe only poel.^ _. 
the New Toelamonl — raora beaiiiifui 

[he only pi 

iHngiraffSof a 
female neBil, { 

ble, thankful, pii 

ine God; let. For hie mercy 

46-— 49); ed. For hia mercy 

, — hia genend " ' 

and, M. Hia 

». 50— 53) J 

■ apeinal goodneaa 
people, \vt. 54—^). 

S9. OutieagUJiAni. Thia i 
dm on which it WB> required to c 

-_w children. Gen 

eoBsdliMZaclanu. The 
cb^ wia oommonly givea u me tune 
irf the earaumciaoii. Gen. xiL 3. 4. 
The nanM tniiwMiIjr ginn to ihe eldest 
■on waa that of the Guher. 

60. SImU It taOal /abk This wu 
Ihe name which the angel had said 
■boold be pven to him, and which Za- 
efauiaa hu probably inibrmed Eliaa- 
bath by writiDg. 

61. !ner«uiM<MofayjKa<lr«I,&c 
The Jawiah tribea and bmiliea were 
kept diaiiiict. 'l'><dathia,and toayoid 

lb>]r pn^ably gave <mly &iaa namea 
wbun were found among Ihdr aneea- 
tna. Anotber raiaon lor thja, common 
W all pec^, ia tbe nnaet iriuch ia fell 
fer binorad parents and aneaatoiB. 

63. Bi mOei. Thai ia, by afna. 
1 A ariftiv lailt. Tbe t^>Ia, denotad 
b^ tUa wad, waa made of ptw, and 

61 Aadthejsaid nnto her, Then 
ia none of thy kindred that is oalled 
by this d: 

63 Ani 
father, how I 

63 And he asked for a writiag- 
lable, and wrote, aaying. His name 
is * John. And they marrelled all 

64 And hia mouih ■ was onened 
immediately, and his tongue looted, 
and be spake, and praised Qod. 

65 And fear cajne on all that 
dwelt round about them : and a)] 
these * sayings were noised abioad 
tbroogbout all the hill oonntiy of 

66 And all they that heard litm 

t ni.13. t nrSU. ' or, ikhigt. 

hapa BS large as a sheet of paper. Tbe 
Bncienta used [a nrila on eucb labloe, 
as ihey liad not the use of piper. The 
inatrumeut used for writing was an uon 
pen or ifila, by which they marked on 
the wax which covered the table. 
Sometimes the writing table was made 
entirely of lead. 

• £4. IIum)itdi«Kuapi!nad,&.e. That 
is, he was enabled to epeak. For niiw 
months he hsd been dumb, and ir ia 
probable that they auppoaed him to be 
afflicted with a imrdvlic aflecuon, and 
would not rectner. Hence tlieir amaie- 
ment when he apoke. For one act of 
disbelief, all this calamity liad come 
ran him, and it had not come without 
feet. With true gtatitudo, be oftred 

r'ae to God for the birth of a son, and 
his restoratinn to the blessinKa of 

The remarkable circamstsncea attend- 
ing the birth tf John, and the bet thst 
Zacbariaa was suddenly reatored to 
wsech, convinced ibara that Qod was 
there, and filled their minds vrith awe 

66. Wkat manner tfdifdiSu!. Sncli 
era the remarkable citcnmaisneea of 
hia iHith, that diey t^preheadad ha 

ij 1.- 1--^ — ushed aa a prophst, or 

would MsuliDomhia 

Tbe word toad ia twad to deiMM 

b«t And tbe hand 'of the Lord 
waa with him. 

67 And his father Zacharias waa 
SUed with the Hoi; Ghost, and pro- 
pliMi«d, eaying-, 

• C.S.»,JI. tPi.80.1T. 

Iba band la aid thtus wbom we wish to 
belp. Tha eipreiuOD iheo means thu 
God aidti bun, prottcted him, or 
■bowed hmi favor. Some think that 
these wonb are ■ part of the apeech of 
theneif^boni; 'What manner of child 
■ball thu be ! God ia aa evidently with 

67. FOUd aiOt Oie Holy GiaH. S»b 
Ter. IS. 1 And pnplittitd. The word 
fropieiied meaiu, lat. To foretell fii- 
tuTB BveniB. 2d, To Miebrato the 
[oaiaea of Gbd, (see 1 Sam. i. 5, G ; 1 
Kniga Xviii. 29) ; then to leach, or preach 
tbe go&pel, tec. Tbii aong of Zioba- 
-iaa partakea of all. It i> prindpaUv- 
MUployed'in the praiseB of God, but it 
alao piwficta the future character and 
preacning of John. 

66. Bkited. See Note, Matt. ver. 
3. T Haii vitiud. The wwd here 
rendered vitittd means piopnly f hHk 
Mpan; then to look upon in order te 
anne Uk itatt of lur^ arte ; ihentoviail 
for the purpose of aufiHg thine uAa need 
aid, or alleviating Tniacry. Compare 
Mut. XXV. 43. In thia aeosa it is used 
here. God laolfd atB" iho world — He 
eaw it miserable — Ho came lo rebevs 
It, and brought ealvation. 1 And re- 
dtemtd. That is, waa about to ndtan, 
or had given tbe pledge that He vwald 
ntiJBfln. Tbia waa epoken under tbe 
belief thai tbe Messiah, the Kedamet, 
waa about to app^, and would cer. 
lainly Brcomphah hia work. The bte- 
ral iranslation of Ihia paeBage ia, " He 
hath made redemption, or n»u«n fa 




deliver a captive taken in war. 
prisoner taken in war by B. B 
baa a ng^t to detain bim a prisoner by 
dte lawa of war, but C ofiere B a price 
if ha will releaaa A, and suffer him to 
RO at liberty. The price which be paya, 
ud which mnat be ntafmetory to B, ' 
that it, be a rtamti to B why he should 
tetease bim, is called apritttr naaom. 
Men ate sumera. They are bound over 
.A JHt pwndDnem by the law. The 

«e BlMiM it the Lend Oc4 of 
Ittael] for be huh visited aid n- 
deemed his people, 

69 And hatb tsissd np an hon 
of Balration ' fot os, in the hoow 
of his tenant Dayid ; 

<Fi.72.1S. JPl111.9. 

law ia luiy, and God, as a jusl govern 
or, must see that the law ia honored, 
and the wicked punished. Bui if any 
thing can be done which will have (be 
■ams good efta sa the pr~"' '' 



it, that is, be of equal value la . 

verse, God may consiateutly release 
bim. If he can show ibe same hatred 
of nn, and deter osiers horn aiBning, 
and accomplisb the purity of the miner, 
the nnner may be released. Whatever 
will aceompbui iMt is called a mum, 
becanse it la in tbe eye of God a snffi 

be punished j it is an efKnalcM for liis 
BuSerings, and God is satisiied. The 
ilMd If Jen*, i. e. lus itaA. in die 
place of annera, eonatiiatea mch a.ian 
•om. ItbinthsirMead. Ititlwtheia. 
It is equivalenl to tbtur ponidunent. It- 
is not Itself aywsttfcwnU— tJMf that al- 
ways anpp«eea wr w ol crnu— but Hia 
what God ia pleased to acta* in ilie 
^Bcs of eternal anfferiDgs ■rf'tha ainnei. 
The king of the Lteriatu made a law 
that an adolteter thaold be pnniahed 
with the losB of bis eyea.. Hia so* waa 
tbe fiiat offiindeT, and the fiuhar decreed 
that his ton should lose ens aya, and is 
tnu<«OMalto. Tbi* was the roues. 
He tnowed his Jew, hia ragard ier the 
honor of bis law, and the detemunatifm 
that tbe guilty iiiould not escape. So 
God gave bis Son a imuom to Aaw Ub 
love ; iuB regard to jualice ; and hn will- 
ingness to save men — and Us Son, in 
bis death, was a ranaiHn. He is oneo 
so called in the New Teatsment, Matt. 
ZI.S8. Markx.«S. ritasii.H. Heb. 
ii. 13. For a fuller new of Ihe.namM 
of a miuaii, see Notes ou Rom. iiL 91, 

the bet that m 

animals die strength lies in tbe Isrs, 
Partieularly tha great power (rf the rU- 

— I, ie maniieeted by 

;k korn of gratf 


Ttt As ba ap^e ■ by tita month 
»f hts holy pTopheU, which baTe 
Mm unee the world began ; 

71 That we should be Bared 
ttom our enemies, and from the 
naad of aU that hate ns ; 

78 To ^)eiform tho mercy pro- 
miud to oar fathers, and ito ' 
PMrabsr hia holj covenant, 

• Je^.3,8. DB.9a4. »Ii.51.7-IT. 
l».iL cLe.36.iSI. Fe-IM^IO. Eae. 

oilviii. H, ,_ 

7,8; viu.21. The wordioZnifion, con- 
nected here with the word horn, menna 
Chat this lirmgili, or Ihis mighty Be- 
deemer, was able 1o save. It ia poaai- 
ble thu thia whole ligiiie maj be lalien 
Irom the Jewiiih allar. On each of 
the four coraerB of the altar thecs waa 
an eminence, or small projection, called 
a Asm. To thia. peraons might flee 
for safety, when in danger and were 
safe. 1 Kings i. 50; ii. 26. Comp. 
Note on ch. i. II. So the Redeemer 
mag he called ibe " bom of salvation" 
becaaga ihoBe who flae to him are safe. 
Vftil^hotut. la the family, or among 
the daeendanti of David. 

TO. Hu kcis ftopkcU, <Scc. All the 
prophets are aoid to have alluded to the- i 
Meesiab from the beginning of the 
world. The mosl airildng of these 
were Jacob (Gen. liii. 10) ; Moeea, 
IDeut. iviii.l5J: Isaiah, (\x. 6, T:Uii.) 
fSiaa the marld iegaa. This is not 
to be taken Ifl<ral[y> fin- there were no 
prophets ixunedialein after the creation. 
It IB merely a general eipreaaion, de- 
aigned to denote thai all the propheis 
had predicted the comiogof the Messiah. 

7l.,SaeriiJ/™ii oiir en™™. The 

propen^ties, ius lusta, and the (treat 
adversarr Satan and his angela, Ihat 
oontinuallf aeek to destroy him. From 
litte the MesHah came to save UB. 
Compare Gen. iiL 15. Matt.i.Sl. T Tis 
liand. The power, to save us from 

72.' To peifana tht mKrey. To show 
the mercy prdbuBed. Tiie eipreanon 
to the original is " to make mercjr with 
Bur fatkera ;" i. e. to show kini'nesB to 
aoi bthers. And the proiiiiety cf it is 

73 The o«h ' wfaMi he nvus to 
oar father Abninim, 

74 That he woald grant ddId db, 
that we, being delivered oat of tits 
haitd of oar enemies, might serve 
him ■ witl^ont fear, 

75 In f holineas and righteoiw- 
neaa before him, all ■ the daje of 
oar life. 

<i Ge.^ia,n. I v/>AseL /TitJ.ii,ia. 

founded on the fact that niercy to ehU- 
dren ia regarded as kindness to the fa 
nut. Blessing the oitUrat waa bl«s- - 
ing the wUion, was fulUlling the pro- 

meana compact, or aneemeat. Thieis 
ila use among men. It impllee equality 
in die parties ; freedom from constraint ; 
freedom from previous obligation to do 
the thing now covenantecfj and free- 
dom from obligation to enter into a 
compact, udIcbs a man choosee so to do. 
Such a transaction can never evidently 
take pbice between man and God, for 
they are not equal. Man is not at hb- 
ert^ to dedine what God proposeBi and 
he is under obligation to do oU that 
God commands. When the word oom- 
iuukI, thereibre, is used in (he Bible, it 

mercy, that is, by the old 

bom, as the fbliowmg vetsea clcm^y 

73. Tkeoalh. This oath is recorded 
in Gen. iiii. 16, 17. It was an oalh in 
which God Bwora by himaelf (beoauas 
he could swear by no greater, Heb. tL 
13, H), that he woidd surelv blesi 
Abraham and hia.poaterity. That pro- 
mise was now to be entirely fulfilled by 
the coming of the Meaaiah. ' 

74. Migkt itrve iim. Might obey, 
honor, and worBhip him. Thia was re- 
garded as a Javor. Thia was whel 
was promised. And for Ihii Zacharia* 
praised God. ^ Willuml /tar. Fear 
of death, of apiritual enemies, or of any - 
eiteroal fbee. In the sure hope of 

od's ettrtial favor beyond the grave. 

75. In Mintti, &c. lapistf, mi 

76 And thou, child, Eihalt be call- 
ed The Prophet of the Highest, for 
thou shalt go * before the face of the 
Lord, to prepaie hie ways ; 

77 To pTB knowledge of aalra- 
^00 Dnto his people, ' b;^ the remis- 
eioQ * of their bids, 

79 niroogh the tender ' mercy 
of our God I whereby the ' day- 

• M«l.J.l. 'M,/»r. hAeS^J. tor. 

spring from on high hatti t 

79 To ■ give light to thM 
eil in darkness nod in the ah 
of desth, to guide onr f^t io 
way of peace. 

80 And the child grew, and 
ed strong in spirit, and waa J 
deeerte till the day of hie 
nnto Israel. 

■trici jiutice. 1 Befort Ann. In the 
{Vraence of God. Ferianned >■ in his 
pretence, and with iho full conacioiiB- 
noBB thu God BBfis the heart. The lia- 
Inai y/aa not to be merely atemol, 
but epiriluai, internal, pure, such as 
Gild would see and apprOTe, ^ AOthe 
ia^i if OUT lift. To death. True re- 
hgion increases and expands till death. 

T6. And tima, Hiild, &.C. Zachariaa 
predicia in this and the foliowing versea, 
the dignity, [he emplofment, and the 
' lucceee of John. He declsree what 
would he the subject of hia preaching, 
and what hiaaucceas. ^ PripM eftht 
higkat. Prophet of God; ■ prophet 
appoitiled by God 10 declare hie will, 
and 10 prepare the way for iha coming 
of the Meaaiah. S The face af the Lord. 
The Lord leBus. the McBsiah that waa 
about to appear. To go before the face 
^ona, is the same aa to go ioonediately 
before one, or to be inunei'talefy follow- 
ed by aoothor. T To prepare Aii mi^. 
Thia ia tshen from Isa. xl. 3. See Note 
on Hatl. iii, 3, aud on lea, il. 3. 

77. Eiuncledge of udmlUnt. Know- 
ledge of the HKiy of ealTation; that it 
was provided, and that the author of 
nlvation waa about to appear. T By 
1 of their »™. The word 
eans pardon, forgiveness, or 

i/ he had not committed the Bin. Thia 
impheB that the talvdtion about to be 
offered was that which was connected 
with the pardon of em. There can be 
DO other. God cannot treat men as his 
bienda unless they come to him by re- 
penlenceaodoblamforsiTenesa, When 
■bat is obiained, which be is always dis- 
peaed to gnat, they can be treated with 
lundoeea and mercy. 

T6. W/ktAii the day-iprmg, &.C. 
The word day-tpring meana the mom- 

i, the riidtig of the 

_.. There is here, doubtless, ■ 

reference to laa. li. 1, 3; indeed, al- 
most the very words of that place are 
quoted. Compare also Rev. udi. 16. 

7% To give light. Slc. See Note, Malt. 
iy, 16. 1 To guide out fat. &c. The 
Jigure in these verses is taken from trft- 
vellers, who being overtaken by night 
know not what to do, and who wait 
patiently for the morning light, that they 
may know which way to go. 8o man 
wandered. So he became benightad. 
So he sat in the shadow of death^ Wt 
he knew not which way to go until iho 
sun of righteoosness arose, and thm the 
light ahone brightly on hia way, and the 
road waa open to the promised land ol 

This song of Zacharias is eaceedingl} 
beautiful. It expresses with elegance 
the great points of the plan of redemp- 
tion, ihe doings of John, end the m 

of God it 

mercy in 

.... ..r..._. g^ngg g) 

iiving ; tor we were m the shadow of 
eath--sinful, wretched, wanderin^- 

ind the hghl arose, the gospel c 

-' —in may rejoie* " ' ''-• 

uoingsoi joun, ujiu uic jjicrcy 
n providing llmt plan. That 
u great. Itia worthy ofpraise; 
ghest, loftiest songs of Inanks- 


a hope of eternal 

, of good, fitting him ibr his luture 

work. ThewordtmxmeanstOHCrHUB, 
to grow, Irom an old Saxon word, T /« 
tht detaU. In Hebron, and m Ihe hill 
coantrv where his fether resided. He 
resided m obscurity, and was not known 
publicly by the people. 1 UiUU U< dmi 
ef hi* tliomig. Until he entered on U* 



AND it cams to pasa in thoM 
daji, that there treat oat a de- 

nobli: mimilr? u leconled in Mall. 

TbM H, probBblf, until hs wu about 
dc:? yon of age. See Luke iii. 
.. u( tioie day$. About the Une of 
Om birJi of Joui and of Chrul, 1A 
atate. A law, commanding a thing lo 
be done. ^ Ca$ar Anguititi. This was 
tbe Komaii emperor. Hia firal name 
was Oclavianus. He naa nephen of 
Jalius Cieeai, and obtained ibe empire 
•iter hia death. He look Ibe name Au- 
giutv — i. e., buhC. or honorable— as 
a conu>'iment to taia own greatneas ; and 
Irom him the month AuguH, wliich waa 
beforei»lled SeitUiM, received iu n 
1 That bU fAe mrld. There haa 


11 lima Va- 

Iht tBorld ia menlioned by ^„. „,,- 

tera. it ahoold have been rendered lie 
Kbnit land — i. e., the whole land of 
raleatirie. Tbe aMt land ia mention- 
ed to ehoiT thai it woa not Jndea only, 
but that it included also GalUee, the 

5 lacs where Joseph and Mary dwelt. 
'liHi [he passage refers only to the landi 
of Palestine, and not to tlie whole world, 
or lo all Ibe Roman empire, ia dear 
fmm the following conaideniliana : Isl. 
The fiicl that no such lazing ia men- 
tioned as pertaining to any other coun- 
try. 2d. The account of Luke ' 

ODlreqnently used m IIUB limiied sense 
aa confined to a aingle country. See 
Matt. iv. 8. where Satan is said to hate 
ahown to Chiiat all the kinsdome o^ CAe 
iBorld — ihat is. of the land of Judea. 
See also Joah. ti. 3; Luke ir.35, (Greek); 
Luke ixL 26 ; Acta li. 36. T Should bt 
taxed. Our word (a* means lo levy 
and niae money for the use of the go- 
lemment. Thia ia not the meaning of 
taa original word here. It means raiher 
lo tnnl, or take a liti of the dtizena 
with their employmenla, the amount of 
dieir property, Sie., equivalent to what 
waa meani by eentu*. Judea was at 
ihis lime tributary to Rome. It paid 
taies Id tbe Roman emperor ; and 
tlMngb Herod waa ttiif . vet he bald his 

cTee from Ceau Aognaua, that nil 
the world should ' be taxed. 
S (_Aad this taung was firal made 

appointment under ibe Roman emperor, 

and was subject in most moUers to him- 
Farthaii aa thia eBraimoM waa merely 
lo aacertun the numbers and property 
of the Jews, it ia probable that they 
were very willing to he enrolled in this 
manner ; and hence we hear that tbey 
went willingly, without tumuli — con- 
trary to ihe common way when they 
were (s ht tastd. 

2. And tkiM taxing mat firtt made, 
&c. This versa has given aa much 
perplexity, perhaps, as any'ouB in ifae 
New Tcalament. ' The (hDiculty has 
consisted in the fact that Cynnini, or 
Qnirinai*, was noi governor of Sylii . 
nndl twelve or fifteen yearn after tl^ ~ 
birth of Jesus. Jesu 
ihe reign of Herod. 

nu was prendeni of Syria. Herod was 
succeeded by Arduiimt, who reigned 
eight or nine yeara ; and afla he was ' 
removed, Judea waa annexed to the 
province of Syria, and CyrenioB waa 
sent aa the governor. Josephus, Ant. 
B. zvii. i 5. The difficulty has been 
to reconcile this account with that in 
Luke. VariouB allempts have been 
made to do thia. The oce that seems 
most sBlis&clory is thyt proposed by 
Dr. Lardner. AccordinK to his view, 
it means. " This was ttte frit census 
of Cyreniua, govomor of Hyria." It ia 
'led the frit, to distinguish it from 
< nfitraardi taken by Cyrenius. Acta 
17. It is said to be the census taken 
by Cvrentuf, governor of Syrui ; not 
" \ he Has then govemar, bnl that it 
I taken by him who was ajltnuardt 
ilinrly known as governor. Cjrre- 
9. ^otirritof of Syna, waa the name 
which the man was known ; and it 
I not improper to say thai the tai- 
waa made by Cyrmnu, the gavtr- 
. rf Syria, though he might not have 
been actually governor lor many years 
afterwards. Thus Herodian says that 
"lo Marcus tht emperor vieie bom sev- 
eral daughter! and two sons," though 
several of those children were bom to 
him before he was emperor. Tbua it 
is not improper to say that Genera. 
Washington saved Braddock's army, m 
ingaged in tbe old French war 

whta Cjranhu wu gonnor of 

3 And all weal to b« taxed, tnij 
Due into his own city. 

4 And Josepb also went up from 
Galilei, out of the city of Nazareth, 
into Jadea, nnto the city of David, 
which is called Bethlehem, (becBQBe 
he vas of the hause and lineage of 

V To bo taxed with Mary his 

Iboogb he was- not actuall)' made gen- 
Wal till many yesra ifteTWanls. Ac- 
cording to jhia, AnguBloB seni Cyreni- 
UB, an active, enteiprieing man, to take 
ihu CflOBua. At ib^t time he was a 
Roman senatar. Afterwardd be was 
made governor of the same counliy, 
and Teceived [he title which Luke gives 
him. ^ Svria, The regioD of country 
ooith of Falealine, and lying between 
the Mediterranean and the Eiiphralea. 
The word Syria, called in the Hebrojv 
' Atom, Irom a son of Shem, (Gen. i. 
22,) in its largest acceplatian, extended 
from the M^temnean end the rivei 
Cydnua to Ihe Euphralei, and from 
■nonnt Tauma on the north lo Arabia 
and the bt^er of ^ypt on the south. 
It was divided into ^ria Falalina, in- 
cluding Caoian ami Phenicia, Cala~ 
SjfTta, betwee%two ridges of mount 
Lrbacon, and Upper Sifna. The last 
woa known aa Syria in a realricted 

The leading features in {be phyaical 
aspect of Syria conmal of the great 
mountainous chains of Lebanon, or Li- 
buiuii, and Anti-LibanuB. extending 
from north to south, and the great de- 
sert lying on tiie Boulh-easi and eaat. 
The valleya are of great fertility, and 
yield abundance of grain, vines, mul- 
berries, tobacco, olivHH, excellent fruita, 
as oravgea, Gga, piatachios, &c. The 
duDBle. in ttie inlubited puts, is ei- 
eeedingiy fine. Syria is inhabited by 
rarionB descnplioaB of people, but Turlta 
and Greeke iorm (he basis of (be popu- 
lalion in the cities. The only tribes 
ihal can be considered aa paculiar (o 
Syria are the tenants of the beighta of 
Lebanon. Tlie moat remarkable of 
e the Druses and Maronitoa. 
'9 Arabic: the 
[ xovomirent 

espoaaed wife, UHttg great wiA 

6 And «o it wu, Ibat, while 1^ 
were there, the days were accom* 
plished that she should be delirer- 

7 And ahe * brongfat forth bar 
first-bora eon, and wrapped bim is 
swaddling clothet, and laid him in 
a manger; because theis was do 
room for them in the inn. 

speak Turkish. Of Ihe old SyriK n 

Tke city of DavU. 

.__itheMtyoT David 

the place of bis birth. See Malt. 

called the i^ 

Of tl 

V BtroMte hevxaef 
&mily. ^ Aiid luuage. 
denotes that he was d 
David as hia father, or ancestor. la 
taking a Jetciih census, femiliea wers 
ktjt distinct. Hence all went into the 
trSn to which they betooged, and lo the 
pErvx »here [heir ftmiily had resided. 
Joeeph waa of the Iriie of Benjamin, 
and of the parliculw liimily of David. 
Hence he went up to (he city of David. 
It is Dol improbable that he might also 
have had a small paternal estate in 
Bethlehem that rendered bis presence 
there mare deurable. 

T. Hcrjint-banitim. Whether MorJ 
had any other children or not, baa bees 
a matter of controversy. The obvious 
of the Bible is that she had , 
case, the wordjErif 
Mm IB nere 10 oe taken in its common 
signification. ^Sicaddlaigclotliei. Wi)en 
a diild among the Hebrews was bom, 
it was washed in water, rubbed in salt, 
and then wrapped in swaddling clothes ; 
Chat is. not garments regularly made, 
aa with us, but bands or blankets lliat 
confined the bmba closely. Ezek. ivi. 
4. There was nothing peculiar in the 
manner in which the mfanl Jesus was 
treated. 1 Laidkiminamanger. The 
word Banger, inthe EngUsh languBge, 
means "the box or trough in whioh 
provender is placed for horses or cattle." 
This is not (he meaning of the wont 
here. It means simply the iloUc, ot 
the place where the cntlk or camdi 
lodged. There was no room at the nw, 
ancf they were obliged 10 lie In the (<a- 
Us or jam, and it was there ha( ;ha 

i if Hiis be tl 

1. D. 1.] 


B And there vera in the same 
«oantry shepherds abiding in the 
Seld, Keeping vatch ' over their 
flock bj night, 

9 And, lo, the angel of the Lard 
•ame upon them, and the glar; of 
UiB Lord ehone round about thero ; 
and they were sore afraid. 

10 And the angel said unto them, 
Fear not : for, behold, I bring you 
good tidings of great joy, which 
ehall be to all people. 

> or. lit nigki-iMilciH. 

child wu laid. Their beiitg (here wi 
no prouf of pnitrCy. J( was a simp 
muter of necesaity. There was i 
man M the inn. It may be uldeJ (h 
m eastern countries it is not very m 
uaiuil tbr travellets to paea the mglil 
this manner. In the corr 
n for ilie whole c; 

Ine which children often have 
nde of a horie, with which the whole 
family lie down. IloraLe are trained to 
/emarkable gentlenEsa and docility. — 
Yet it is worthy of our con»deraiion 
that Jesua wis bonr poor. He did not 
uihsril a princely estate. He was not 
cradled, ss many ate, in a palace. He 
bad no rich rrii/nds. He had virtuous, 
uious jmrenlB, of more value to a child 
than many riches. And in this we are 
ibown that it la no dishonor to be poor, 
Happy is that child who, whether his 
parents be rich or poor, has apimH fa- 
ther and mother. It is no.mstier. If be 
has not as much wealth, as fine clothes, 
or as Bplendid a house as annlher. It 
IS enough for him to be as Jiiui was, 
and God will bleae him. f No room at 
the tnn. Many people assembled to 
be mraUed, and the tavern was filled 
before Joseph and Mary arrived. 

8. T)a lamt ownlry. Round about 
Bethlehem. 1 Shepherdi. Men who 
tended flochs of sheep. 1 Abiding la 
tttjidd. Remaining out of doora, un- 
der the open sky, with theh flocks, 
Th« ' ' -- ■"■-- -' 


™ly i 

due atid desert regiot^ during the sum 
ner monlha, and took them up in tU 
Vol. II. — 3 

11 Far DDto you ■ la bom tUa 
day, iti the city of David, a SaTloai 
which ia Christ the Lord. 

IS And this ihall be a lign ddIo 
you ; Ye shall find the baM wraj^ 
ped in swaddling clothes, lymg in ■ 

13 And suddenly there was with 
the angel ' a mullltude of the heai 
venly host, praising God, and say- 

latter part of October or the first of No 
vember, when the cold weather com 
menced. While sway in these deaeria 
and raountainouH re^ons, it was propir 
thai there should be some one to attend 
them, to keep them from straying, attd 
&om the ravsees of wolvea and other 
wild beasts. It a clear from this that 
our Saviour was bom before the 25lh 
of December, or before what we call 
ChTiiinua. At that time it is cold, and 
especially In the high and mountajnotis 
regions about Bethlehem. God hai 
concealed the time of hie birth. There 
is no way to ascertaui it. By dlflecanl 
ieamed men it has been fixed at each 
month in the year. 

I had 

!i the 
record of it. Matters o:' 
clearly revealed. Those which God 
regards as of no Importance are con- 
cealed. 1" Kerping aatch, &c. More 
nuing iheir flacks ty fanw 


■iiy. ' 

5h the nighl 
'he glory of the Lard. 


glory — that is, a spir 
did appearance or light. The ~ 
gljiry IS often T '' ^' 


Kght. " 1 Cor. 

_ ... Acts iKii. 11. 

The worls Lord and God are oftsn 
used to denote greatnai or inttmily. 
Thus, trta of God D 
hills of God, his-'- - 

So the glory of tk . 

exceedingly great or bright ji — 

appearance — perhaps not unHke what 
Paul saw on the way Jo Damascus. 

in swaddling c 

14. GlarytoOad. PraimbeteCM 





n eartL peace, 
ward men. 

15 And it i&aiB to pass, aa t 
BOgels were gone away from ihi 
into heaven, the ' shepherds said 

or. honor be to God. Thai ia, the pnuse 
of redeeming man is due to G<4. The 
■kn of redemption vrill bring glory lo 
God. and ia designed lo express his 
alory. This it ifoes by evincing his 
S>ve to men, his mercy, hia cbndeaci 
non, and his regard to Ihs honor of 
law, and thd Blabihly of Ilia own g< 
emment. It is the highest express 
of his love and mercy. PTowhero. __ 
far oa tee can see, could his glory bo 
more strikingly exhibited than in giving 
hiB only-begotten Son lo die for men. 
' In the highett. This ia capable of 
several meanings: lat. In the higheal 
ttraitti. or m the highest poaaiblo man- 
ner, 2d. Auiong the highcslj — i. o.. 
among Iho angels of G^ — indieatiHjg 
ihat ihey felt a deep interest in this 
work, and were called on to pmise God 
for the redemption of man. 3d. In the 
highest himem — indicating thai the 
praise should not be connned lo the 
tarth, hut should spread throughout tht 
universe. 4lh. The wonja ''God ir 
the higheat^* may be equivalent to tht 
■uiC ktgh God, and be the same aa aay. 
ing ' Let the most high God be praised 
for his love and mercy to men.' Which 
jii these meanings is the true one it ia 
tOlicult to determine; but in this they 

O that not onlyangeij but men would 
H>in universally in thia aong of praise ! 
V Of) tttTthftaa. That is, the gospel 
iball bring peace. The Saviour was 
predicted as iho Prince of peace. laa. 
II. G. ,The world ia al war with God ; 

Maker, and against cai:h other. There 
.is no peace lo the wicked. Bui Jesua 
came to make peace. And this he did, 
lat. By reconciling the world lo God 
■■- his Blonement. 2d. By bringing 
sinner Co a state of peace with 

Make., inducing him to lay down 

1^1 weapons of rebellion ; to submit 
hu Boul to God; thus giving him the 
peace which paaseth all understand- 
ing. 3d. By diSiiaihg in the heart uni- . 


one to another. Let ua now go eiei 
unto Bethlehem, and see this tliiag 
which IB come lo pass, wliii;h tbl 
Lord hath made known unto us. 
16 And Ihey came with haste, 

lo lay Bwde their difTcrencea, to lor* 
each other, to seek each other's wel- 
fiiie, and to banish envy, malice, piida, 
lust, passion, and covetousness — in aD 
ages the moat fruitful causea of differ- 
ence among men. And 4ih. By diffiis- 
ing the prmciples of univeraal peace 
among nationa. If the gospel of Jeaui 
should universally prevail, there would 
be an end of war. In the days of the 
millonniurn there will be univeraal 
peace: all the cautet of war will have 
ceased; men will love each other and 
do justlv ; and natioia be bronghl under 
the inttuence of the gospel. O how 
should each one toil and pray that the 

id the world 

md ilierefore God is lo he praised 
'i'hc work of redemption ia nniforml) 
represented aa the fruit of the love of 
God. John liLlS, Eph. v. 3. 1 John 
iv. 10. Rev. i. V. No words can «• 
preas the greatness of that love. It cbe 
only be measured by the mucry, idp- 
leisiuas, and ianger of man ; by (h* 
exlenl of his sufTcringe here and in the 
world of woe, if he had not been saved: 
by the condescension, anflaringa, aiMl 
death of Jesus ; and by the eternal ho- 
nor and happineiw lo which ho will raise 
his people. All these are beyond ouf 
full comprehension. Yet how hitledoe* 
man feel it ! And how many lum away 
from the highest love of God, and treat 
him with contempt ! Surely, if God no 
loved us iSrjif, wo ought also lo love 
him. 1 John iv. 19. 

16. Unto PctjUalm. The city of 
David, where the angel had lold the.-ii 
they would find the Saviour. These 
ahepberda appear to have been pioui 
men. They were wailing for the corn- 
' the Messiah. On the iirst inti' 

1 that he had actually appearod 

they went with haate to find him. S( 
all men should, without delay, seek (hi 
Saviour. When told of him bf the *er 
of God. they should, hke th«M 

A. U. l.J 


■nd found Mary and Joeeph, and 
the babe Ijing in s nianpr. 

17 And when thef had seeo it, 
ihej made koonn abroad the BSjr- 
iflg vhich was told tbem ooucem- 
iog this child. 

18 And all they that heard if, 
ff^ndered at ihoae IhiogB whicli 
were told them bj the shepherds. 

19 BdC Mary kepi all these tilings 
ad pondered lAem in het heart. 

■ Le.lU. 

■hapherds, forsake all, and give no rest 
(o their eyes until they have found him. 
We may alieayi find hira. We need 
noi to (ravel lo Baihlehem. We hare 
only to coBi our eyes to heaven ; to look 
unio him and to believe on him, and 
we shall lind him ever near to us, and 
for ever our SHviour end friend, 

17. Il^en they had tun it. When 
[hey had satisfied theniBelveB of the truth 
of the comine of the MeBsish, and had 
HBceriained mat ihey could not have 
been mistaken in the appearance of the 
angela. There was evidence enough 
to satialy Uem that what the angels smd 
was true, or they would not have gone 
to Bethlehem. Having seen the child 
themselves, ihey had now evidence that 
would satisfy others. And accordingly 
thoy became the first preachers of the 
gmpd, and went and proclaimed to 
others thai ilje Messiah had come. — 
One of the first duties of those who are 
newlv converted to God, and a duty in 
which Ihey delight, is to proclaim to 
others what they have seen and felt. 
It should be done in s proper way, and 
at the proper time ; but nothing can or 
shoidd prevent a Christian recently 
coaverted from telling his feelines and 
views to others — lo bia friends, bis pa- 
rent)!, his brothers, and old compa- 
nions. And it may be remarked that 
often more good may he done then, 
than during any other period of their 
lifs. Entreaties, then, make an im- 
pression; nor can a mnner well re^t 
the appeals made to him by one who was 

Ct now with him in ihe way to ruin, 
who now ireads the way lo heaven. 
J9. Mary icft all theie Ihingi. All 
that happened, and all thai was said re- 
■pecline her child. She remembered 
Sat iKe angel had said to ktr; what 
d h*i>pei 

30 And the •liepberd* le nti, 
Klotif^ing and praisLag God ^ta kU 
the things that they had heaid and 
seen, as it was told unlo them, 

31 And when eight days wera 
accomplished * for the circmr.cisinr 
of the child, his name was called 
JESUS, which wae so named of 
the angel ' before he waa conceived 
in the womb. 

uiepberds — all the eitraordinary dr- 
cnmstances which had attended the 
birlh of her Bon, Here is a delicate 
and beautiful expression of the feelinga 
of B mother. A motAer forgets none of 
those things which occur respecting hei 
chiUreu. Every thing thev do or attf- 
fer — every ifaing that is said of them— 
is treasured np in her mind ; and often, 
□Den, she thinks of those things, and 

ler child. ^ Pondtnd. 
. -ighed. This is the original meaning 
of the word toeightd. She kept them ; 

seeking what it might indicaio respect- 
ing her child, 'in her krart. In het 
mind. She thuvght of these things 
often and anxiously. 

W. ThtihtphrrdiTettimed. To their 
flocks. 1 Glorifying, &.C. Giving Ira- 
nor 10 God, and celebrating his pmisea. 

21. Eight days, &.c. This was th« 
regular lime for performing the rite of 
circumcision. (Jen. ivii. 12. 5 CaHed 
Jetm. See Note, Mali. i. 21. 

22. Days of her jmriftalion. Among 
the Hebrews a mother was required to 
remain at home for about forty ttays 
after the birth of a male child, and 
eighty for a female ; and during ihat 
time she was reckoned as unpure — that 
is, she was not permitted lo go to the 
temple, or to engage in religious ser- 
vices wiih the congregation. Lev. lii. 
3, 4. T Tb Jeraialem. The place where 
the temple was, and where Ihe ordi- 
nances of religion were celebrated 
1 To present him to the Lord. Everji 
first-born male child, among the Jews, 
was regarded as htXg lo the Lord. Ex. 
liii. 2, Bv their I>nng JMy wtf* (b 

pnriAcaUon, r^oordinf to the law 
of Moses, wera qeccompliBhed, thej 
DTousht him to Jerasalen), to 
KDt Atni to the Lord. 
' 23 (Ae it ia written in the la 

■ Ei.13.lS. X 

I. HaS-n. 

) them be- 

Bcrifice, a 

iTBt the oiitiei i 
in iha /aUttt ; s 

LrrJ WIS meant Ihiit i 
longed the ofiics of pr 

is probable 

Tolved on iha ^iUJIcr ; and thai, when 
he became inhrm or died, cbe daly de- 
volved on the eldest son. And it is 
Mill maiiifestly proper that where the 
.father ia infirm or baa decc need, (he duty 
'of conducting family worahip ahoii?d be 
performed by the eldest son. After- 
-wards God choae (Ae tr3>e of Led in lie 
-jilaa of the eldest sons, lo serve him 
in ths Bancluary. Num. viii. 13—18. 
Vet eliU it was proper to present the 
rhild to God, and it was required that 
tt should be done with an oflering, 

23. Aiitii vrillm, &.C. £i. liii. 2. 

S4. And to afer a tactifia, &.c. 
Those who were able on aucb an occa- 
oon were required to olfer a lamb for a 
Oumt-oflerinj, and a pigeon or a turtle- 
doTe for a sm-ofiering. If not able to 
bring a lamb, then they were per- 
■lutted to bring two turtle-doves or two 
yoiing jngeons. ' T»rt/e-<tooe«. Doves 
dianngiiished for having a plaintive and 
leader voice. By Mary^a ofiering ih^ 
■he showed her poverty. And our Sa- 
viour, by coming in a state of poverty, 
bas shown thai it is not dishonorable lo 
be poor. No alation is dishonorable 
where God places us. He knows what 
is best for us, and he often mokes a 
atate of poverty on occasion ot the 
ftighest bfesainga. If uiiA poverty he 
grants us, as is often the case, peace. 
" religion, it is worth 

■iked why, since Mary and the Sa- 
viour were pure from any moral defile- 
ment in bis conception and birth, it was 
necessary lo offer such a sacrifice ; why 
was il neccasaiy ihu Jesus should be 

SE. r D. 1 

cordioi; la that which is said in 
the law of the Lord, A pair of tui- 
tlB-daves, or two young pigaons. 

35 And, ii«holi1, there was a man 
in Jenisalam, whose name waa Si- 
meon; and the same man vtat just 
and * devoat, wailing for the coa- 
Bolation * of Israel : and the Holj 
Ghoet was apon bim. 

k UBr.13.43. vei.3e. < b.M.1 

circumcised, since he had no sin; i( 
may be answered ; 1st. That it was 
proper for them lo fulfil all righteous 
ness, end to show obedience to the law. 
3d. Il was necessary for the fiiture use- 
fiiiness of Christ. Unless he had been 
circumcised, he could nol have been 
admitted to any aymgogue, or to the 
temple. He would have hod no oc- 
cesB lo the people, and amid not iiave 
been regarded as the Messiah. Both 
he and Maiy, iberotbre, yielded obe- 
dience to the bws of the land, and thus 
set ua an example thai we shoald walk 
" their steps. Comp. Nole o- " — 

.. 15. 
35. Whi>$en, 

a MatU 
i> SiauuH. Soma 

high character, laoktng for the ap. 
ing of the Lord, and patiently wait. 

guished teacher in Jerusalem, and Pre- 
sidoBlof the sanhedrim. Bui nolhing 
is certainly known of him but what la 
here related He was an aged man, 
of dislioguiahed piety and reputation, 
and was anxiously eipecling the com- 
ing of the Mesaish. Such on eld age ia 
iculiarly honorable. No speciacle in 
ore subHme than ai " ' ' 

ing for the time to come when he may 
be blessed with the sight of his Re- 
deemer. 1Ju)(. Righteous before 
God and man ; approved by God as a 
righteous man, and discharging faith- 
fidly hia duly to man. IJfeWBl. This 
word meana a reltgiau man, or a pjout 
man. The original expresses Ihe idea 
of good 'repulataa, veil received, or 
of high standing among the people, 
t Waiting far the muoIattDn of Israel. 
"'}utt is. wailing for the Jtforiai, who 
called IJIe amtolation of Iirael he- 
use he w >u]d give comTort lo them 
by his appearing. This name was often 
applied to the MeaMah before he ae 
tually appeared. It was conynon la 

A. 0. 1.] 

S6 And it was revealetl 
by Ihs Holj Ghost, that he Bhoold 
Dot Bee * death before be had Been 
the Lord's Chtiat. 

37 And he came bjr the Spirit 
into the temple : end when the pa- 
rent* brought in the child Jesus, to 
do for him after the custom of die 

58 Then took be him up id bis 
anna, and bleesed God, and said, 

59 Lord, DOW * lettest thou thj 
ttt^BBM. HrMA *Oe.4a-30. eUSTS. 


■wear, also, b; " the consolation of 1b- 
rael" — ihal is, by the Messiah about to 
come. See Lightlbot on this place, 
f Tla Haly Ghial, &.C. Ha viaa a. 
"" ■ ' " ~ ^ s divinely inrpired 



daath, Sliould not die. To >m death, 
and to taiU of death, woa a common war 
among the Hebrews of expressing death 
ilself. Compare Fs. Iiuu. 48. T TlSa 
Lard's Chriit. Richer the Lard't An- 
ainltd. ThswordCftrulmeanaoRfliiK- 
td, and itwoald have been better to use 
that word here. To an aged man, who 
had been long waiting tor the Messiah, 
liow grateful must have been this reve- 
linon — this solemn asaatance that ihs 
Mesaiah was near I But this revela- 
tion is now given to every man, that he 
need not taate of death till, by the eye 
of failh, he may see the Christ of Gmj. 
He La offered freely. He has come. 
He nails to manifest himself to the 
world. And he ia not willing that any 
should die for ever. To us, also, it 
a privilege in our dying 
It will be the only 
thing ihat can support us Ihtn — the 
only thing that will enable ns lo depart 

27. Byartpiril. By the ditrctioKot 
the spirit., t Intii the trmple. Into thai 
part of the temple where ihe publir 
worship wta chit " ^ • ■ 


aervant depart in peace, aoeoidioi 
to th; woi^ : 

30 For mine ejes Lave seen ' 
thy aalvation. 

31 Which thou baat prepared be- 
fore the face of all people : 

32 A light to lighten the ■ Gen- 
tilea, and the glory of thy peopi* 

33 And Joseph and his mothe 
marvelled at those things which 
were spoken of him. 

calion, and lo present him to 

28. BknM Gud. Thanked, o 

S9. J^OD Ullat. Now than datt let, 
or permit. This word is in the in- 
dicative mood, and signifies that God 
KOI permitting him to die in peace, by 
having relieved his anxieties, allayed 
his feara, fuliilled the promises, and 
having, by (bo appearing of the Mes- 
siah, removed every reason why he 
should live any longer, and every wish 
10 hve. f Deport. Die. ^ AcairJmg 
to thy tcard. Thy promise made by 
revefiuon. — God never disapnointa. To 
many it might have ap^ared improba 
ble when such a promise waa made to 
an old man, thai it should be fulfilled. 
But Uod fulfils all hi^word; keeps all 
hia promiaeB, and nEVEB disappoints 
those who trust in him. 

Thy lahaiitn. Him who is la 
procurs salvation (or his people ; or. 
the Saviour. 

31. Btfore the /aet <f aB piafU. 
Whom thou hast provided /or all peo 
pie, or whom thou diwi design (o retvof 
to all people. 

32. A light le ligiteit Oe GentHet. 
Thia LS in accordance wiih the prophe- 

iea in the Old TssUmeni. laa. jilii. 
_r. 6, 7. Fs. acviii. 3. Mai. iv. S. The 
Gentiles are represenled as sitting in 
darkneaa, i. e., in ignorance, and sin. 
Christ is a light to them, i 

they will b. 

iesosgives hghttolhe mind. Naiioo* 
hall come to hia light, and kinc« to tlv 


' 34 And Simeon blessed them, 

and said anto Mary his molher, 
Behold, this child is sel for tlie fall " 
and fmog agairr of nien; in IsTael ; 
mUS.U. Jto.iMsa. 1Co.L33^ 3Co.a, 
IC 1 FB,a.7,8. 

brishtnees of hia nHns- Ibb. Ii. 2, 3. 
fAnd Ihe glory. &c. The lirst ofier of 
•alvBtian was made lo ihe Jews. John 
iT.-S2. Luke xiiv. 4T, Jesus was bom 
■mong the Jews; among them had 
heen the prophedea reapectiiig hir~ 
and bia firai miniatry was among ihei 
Hence he was ihelt glory, Iheir hone 
their light. To ns it is a subject of 
Bpsdal gratitude that the Saviour was 
snreafbr the GenlileB. For, 1, We are 
uentiles, and if he hod not come 
■bould have been shut out from 
blestinga of redemptioo. 2. Il is 
•olf thai now 
" can aitikt our dying bed 

Tiiiia oar depanuTe may be like ihnl of 

Sitneon. Thus we maj' die iiLpeai 

""- - ■---■'■-- -'-'-saingtodie.'But.a. 

}itr life must be hke 


consolatton of Israel. We n 

to Simeon, 
will have no terror.^ive shall dej 
peace, and in bi^aveo, see the 
sf God. 2 Peter iii. 1], 12. 
Children, as well as hoary-haired 

a they de- 


death will bs happy-only 

pend on the Lord Jesus, <uiu ud |»<i- 

34. Simemihlaiedtfiem. Joseph and 
Mary. On them be sought the bless- 
ing of God. 1 /> f Bt. Is appwnted, OT 
coiu^iuted for (hat, or such will be the 
effect of hia comii«. ^ The fall. The 

erv, ntfferag.ditapBoaitmtnt, or ruin. 

There is a plain reference here to tbe 

e where it is ssid thai he should 

ingj and a rotk of 

•Kce, isa. vm. ti, 15. Many expect- 

a ta^ortd piince, and in this they 

Te disappointed. They loved dark- 

M ralfaef (ban Ught, and r^ecte 1 him, 

TE. [A. D. L 

and for a rigo which shall be spcAen 

' against. 

3S (Yea, a sword ' ahall pieioe 
through Ihj owtt soul also,) thai ' 
»Ae.»H. cJdo.1S.3S.,je. 

and fdl unto destmction. Matty tiut 
were proud, were brought low by hi* 
preaclung. They/eU from the *iin aoA 
giddy height of their own self-righteous- 
neia, end were humbled before God, 
and Iben through liim rose again lo a 
better tighleousness and lo better hopes. 
The nation also rejected' him, and put 
him to death , end ae a judginont,/eU into 
the hands of the Romans. Thousands 
were led into captivity, and ihousanda 
perished. 1'he nation ruehed iolo ruin, 
"' ' was destroyed, and the peo- 

cattered iulo all the nsliona. 
. ix. 32, 33. I FeL ii. 8. t 

.. _^, M. ^ Aitd ruing again. 

The word " again" is not eipiessed in 
the Greek. It seems Co suppose in our 
trsnslation that the tamepertoiu would 
tall and rise wain. But this is not its 

aning. It &noles, that many would 

ruined by his coming ; and many 

olhert be made happy, or be saved. 

Many of the poor and htunble, that 

miiliitg to receive him, would ob- 

paidon of sin and peace — should 

. ram their sins and sorrows here, ' 
and finallyasceud to eternal life. % And 
for align, &c. The word lign here 
denotes a conspicuaus or distinguished 
object; and the Iiord Jesus was such 
an object of contempt and 
all the people, He was d 
religion lias been the CI 
or ii/!n for ell the wicked, the protligate 
and the pro&ne, to curse, and ridicule, 
and oppoee. Compare Isa. viil. 18, and 
Acts uviii. 22. — Never wss a propliecy 

<re exactly fuililled ihau this. Thou- 

ids have rejected the gospel and iallen 

of those who are ashamed of Jesus — 
thousands blaspheme iiim, deny him 
speak all manner of evil against him, 
ind would crucify him again if he were 
in their hands. But thousands also^ 
him are renewed, justified, and r^sed 

: Yea, a mork, &.c. The suffer. 

and death of thy Son shall deeply 

addict thy sooL And if Mary had not 
been thus forewamed tmA nistained bv 

elion by 
sad. and 

I.U. I.J 


the ihoaghts <.€ many fiearts maj 
be rpTealed. 

- 36 And there vaa one Anna, a 
pronheteas, the danghter jf Pha- 
nuel, of the tribe of Aser; she waa 
or a great age, and had lived with 
■n husband acTen years Uom her 
virginity i 

37 And ahe tvosa widow ofaboat 
fouracore and Tour jeara, which dr 
parted not from the temple, but 
aerved God with faitinga and 
prayerB • night and day. 

3S And ahe, coming in tbtt in- 
• Ac^CT. 1 TiAS. 

Etrong faith, slie could not have borne 
(he trials which came upon her Son. 
Bui God prepared her for it, and the 
holy mother was aitatained. ^ Thai iht 
tikatigkit, &c. This lb cgnnected with 
the preceding Teiw. 'He ahall be a 

agiinal , that the thou^la of many neana 
mav be made manifeBi.' Thai is. that 
tliej' might ihoa how much ibe; haled 
hohniBs. Nolbing so brinei oal the 
teelingB of ainners aa to tell ihem of 
Jesua Christ, Many treat him with 
«ient eontempi : many are ready lo 
gnaah their icelh: many curae him : — 
all ahow how much by nature the heart 
i* opposed to religion, and thus are 
really, in spite of ttaemiietveB, ful^ling 
the acriplurcB and the prophei^ea. So 
trve is it that ' ' none can say that Jesas 
isLordbulbytheHolyGhoat." 1 Cor. 
XV. 3. 

K. Of lit triUefAier. The tribe 
of Aser, or Aaher, dwell in the north- 
ern pan of the land of Canaan. Why 
■he was called a prophelesa ia not 
kttown. It might be because ehe had 
been the wife of a prophet J or because 
ihe was employed in celebraling the 
— -— - ]f God (compare 1 Chron. — 

1 S 


berself had foretold future 

37. Faurteoreandfimryairt, Eighty- 
four years old. ^ Ftatingi andpraym. 
Constant religious service. Spending 
htr time in prayer, end in all the ordt- 
nancee ef religion, f Ifiglil ami day. 
Continually, i, e.. at the usual limeB of 
Ijublic liotsifp, and in private, Whett 
t ic laid tha ihe departed not frcui the 

stant, gave thanka lihewiao onto tha 
Lord, and apake of him lo all then 
that * looked for redemption in ' J^ 


39 And when the; had perfornt- 
ed all Ihinga accordttig to the law 
of, the Lord, they relumed into 
Galilee, to their own city Nasa- 

temple, it ia meant that she was eon 
Moot and regular in all the public aer- 

I^t'from "those Vrvl^*" W^'da^ 
should not neglect the public worshiD 
of God. God tno« Bpprovea those whtt 
love his service best, and blesses those 
who wait at hie temple gates. 

39, Tkev-retUTiMd into Galilte. Not 
immediately, but after a lime. Luke 
has omided the flight into Egypt re- 
corded by Matthew. But he has not 
denied it ; nor are his words lo be press- 
ed as if he meant to affirm that [hey 
went iamudiatily to Nazareth. A pa 
rallel case we have in Ibe hfe of Paul 
When he was converted, it ia said that 
he came to Jeruaalem — leaving ub Oan 
lo infer that he wont directly. Acts ix. 
26. Yet we learn'iii another phice thai 
this was after an interval of three years. 
Gal. i. 17, IS. In the case before us, 
there is no improbability in suppOKng 
that they returned to Bethlehem, then 
went to Egypt, and then To Oahlee. 

V). Strong in tpiril. In mind, intel- 
lect, tinderalanding. Jesus had a hl^ 
man aout, and llmt sauI was subject (o 
all the proper laws of a human apitit 
It, therefore, increased in knowledge, 
atrenph. and character. Nor is it any 
more mconsiBtent with bis being God, 
to BBv that his sotil expanded, than to 
say that his body grew. ' FiUtd vilk 
miidam. Eminent for wisdom when ■ 
child. That ia, eihibilhtg an extraor- 
dinary understanding, anoT wue to flea 
from every thing ainml and evil. And 
til gmei •ir Roiti &.C. 7'h« word grooi 

LI immeiitad &vor ahown M *<M- 

41 Now bi* fiaranU went to Je- 
niHalem everj * jear at ifae feaet of 
the pasBover. 

42 And when be was twelTe 
years old, they went np to Jeru- 
•alem, after the custom of the 

43 And when they had fulfilled 
the days, as they returned, the child 
leeua tarried hehind in Jerusalem ; 
•nd Joseph and hia mother knew 
BOt of it. 

44 But they, suppoaiog him to 

■ EI.83.U. J>e.JG.l. 

lUTt. Here it mesns no mote than fii- 
wr. God jhowed him favor, or wax 
pleased with him and blessed himt 

It is remarkable lhi.t ihia \s all ibst te 
recorded of the in&ncy of Ji 

with the short 

at foUowE 

if him for thirty years of hia 
tie. The design of the EToneehstB waa 
ID give en account of his pQiic ntinii- 
try, and nol hia private life. Hence 
liiey Aay little of him in re^rd to hia 
Grsl yeare, Wliat they do say, how- 
ever, coireeponda entirely with what 
we might eipect. He waa wise, pure, 
pleaaing God, and deeply skiUed in the 
.knowl^ge at the divine law. He set 
a lovely example for all children ; waa 
aubjecl to his parents, and increased in 
fovoT with God and man. 

42. TiwJK \ieaTt aid. It ia probable 
(hat this was the age at which males at 
firat went up to Jarusalem. They were 
requited to appear three limea a year 
belore God, to attend on the ordinances 
of religion m the leniple, and ihey com- 
menced at the age of twelve yeara. Ex. 
»tiu. H — 17. Deut.jvi. 16. ^ Ta Jt- 
nuaUtn. Where the feasts of the Jews 
were all held. This was a journey 
from Naiarelh of about seventy miles. 
^ After the cvtloai of the ftatt. Accord- 

ing to the usual manner of the feast. 
The way in which, it was properly ob- 

43. HadfiajCOed the dav». The days 
Ol the pasaover. Eichl days in all — 
one day for killing the paschal lanib, 
and seven days for the observance of 
the feast of unleavened bread. Ei. liL 
15. Lev. zxiii. S, 6. 

14. Sujipotmg him In have letm in tht 
nWMBV- It may aeem very remarka- 

KB. . [A.D.3 

have been in the compaoy, weni 
B day's jonrney ; and Ihey Bought 
bim among Ihtir kinsfolk and among 
their acquaintance. 

45 And when ihey found him not, 
thej turned back again to Jeinaa- 
lem, seeking him. 

46 And II came to pass, that af- 
ter three days they found him in lb* 
temple, silling in the midst of tha 
doctors, both hearing them, and ask 
ing them questiouB. 

47 And all that heard him were 

ble [hat parenle should not have been 
more attentive to their only Son, and 
have been assured of his preseneo »ith 
them when they left Jerusalem, B'.n 
the difficulty may be explained hy the 
fallowing consideralions. 1. In going 
to these great feasts, families and neigh- 
bors would join togethrr, and Jiirm a 
lai^e collection. " ' 

B that Jeaus wae 11..1A 

em when 
._,, .__ . . Q Jerusa- 

lem, and wore making prepaiations. 
Seeing him then, ihey might nave been 
secure as to his presence. 3. A part 
of the company miyhl have left before 
the others, and Joseph and Mary may 
have supposed that h^ waa with them, 
until they overtook tnem at nigiii. and 
Bsccrlained their mistake. 1 Situfelli. 
Relatives, t Acquaintancel. Neigh. 
bors who had gone up with them in the 

46. After thrte days. This meant 

trobably im the third day after ihey had 
tft Jerusalem. Thai is, the first day 
they went lowejds GaUlee : on the se- 
cond they returned to Jerusalem; and 
on the third they found him. Compare 
Mfltt. ixvii. 63. Mark viu. 31. 1I*thi 
temple. Jn the nairt of the temple. 
For Jesus not being a Levitical prtest 
could nol enter into the temple uself. 
See Matt, xil 12. ^ in the »idH of Ou 
docton. The tauAer; the RalAiiu, 
who were the inslruclera of the people 
in matters of reU^n, 1 Atking Ulbh 
queitioiu. Proposmg questions to them 
respecting the law and the prophets 
There is no reason 10 suppose that ilus 
was for the purpose of perplexing or 
confounding them. The questions wore 
doubtless proposed in a respectful iiyv 
net, and tha anaweta listeiied i« *^^ 


IL. D. 8.] 

BBtODMhed Bt his DDdentandiDg * 
and ainwers. 

48 And when they sbw him, they 
were amazed : and his mother eaid 
□nto him, San, why hast thou thus 
dealt' with usl behoM, thy father 
end I have sought thee Borrowing-. 

49 And be said uatothem, How 
■a it that je sought Ue t «ist;e not 

■ F* 119M. HbH.T^S. Har.U3. 1.4^33. 




child j 

.0 their age and n 

It leach a child to be rude or uncivil, 
even lliough he may really know much 
more than more aged pereons. Reli- 
gian teaches all, — and eapeciall; the 
young — lo treat others wiih reepect ; lo 
show ihem the honor that ia due ; lo 
TeaenUe age ; and to apeak kindly to 
alL 1 Pet. u. 17; iii. S, 9. Ei. xi. 13. 
Malt. xxiiL 3. Rom. liii. 7. 

48. Wliy halt thou tiaa dtalt arilA us t 
Why ha<i thou given ue all ihU trouble 
and anxiety, in goine Bofai, andrelum- 
tng with eo mudi solicitude t T 


i fither 
B, bat he was legally so ; and as 
ine lecretof his birtb wainol common- 
ly koown, he woe called hia &tber. 
Mary, in accordance with that usage, 
also caLed him so. ^ SurTpaing- Anx- 
ious, lest in the mullitude be might oot 
be found ; or leal some accident might 
have happened to him. 

49. How it a, &.C. Wky bare je 
Bongbt me with ao much aniieiy t 
Maty should have known that the ^on 
of God waa safe; that his heaveoly 
Father would lake care of him, and 
thai he could do nothing amies. * Witt 
<ft iu(. Knnv ye not. You bad reason 
lo know. Youknewmydengnin com- 
ing into the world ; and that deaign 
waa mjKfw to the duty of obeying 
earthly parents, and they ahould be 
willing always (" " '" """ 

S toper buaineas 
.'tluT'i Iniviuti.. ~~ 
•boabi bo translated "in my Fatbei . 
house:" that ia, in the temple, Jesus 
raminied ihem here that he came down 
from heaven ; tliat be bad a higher Fa- 
ther than en eanbly parent ; and chat, 
even in early life, it waa proper that 
bs abonld be eogaged in the work for 
iriU^ b* tsnra. lb did no- antar a- 

' that I mast be abont * mf I'alher^ 
basioess 1 

50 And Ihej understood not tb* 
saying which he spake nnto tbem. 

51 And he went down with (hem 
and came to Naiareth, and was sub 
ject nnto Ihem : but his molhri 
kept ' all these sayings in h« 

t Jas J.17. 9A. t Da.T.SB. Tsr.lS, 

deed upon his psUu work &ir eig<t'<en 
years after this ; yet still, the, work of 
God was hit work, and always, evin is 
childhood, it waa proper for him to bs 
engaged in the great businesa lor which 

50. !ziey undentaad nal, &,c. It ia 
remarkable that they did not under- 
atand Jesus in this ; but it shows iiow 

they did. they understood it in a ver) 
imperfect manner. 

SI. Went doom icith then. Down 
from Jerusalem, which was in a high, 
mounlainous region. T Wa* lul^tel 
■nta thm. Pertbrmed the duly of a 
fiuthful and obedient child; and notim- 

Srobably was engaged in tbe trade of 
oseph — that of a carpenter. Every 
Jew was required to learn some trade , 
and tbeie is every reaaoo to think (hat 
our Saviour followed that of his repuled 
fatber. And from this we learn, 1. Tliat 
obedience to parents is a duty. Jesna 
has set an example in this that all chil- 
dren should follow. Though he was 
Ibe Son of God, and on proper ocoa 
aioua was engaged in lbs great work :>1 
redemption, yet he waa also Ibe Son t^ 
Mary ; and he loved and obeyed his 
mother, and was laijtct to her. 2. It 
is no dishonor to be a mechanic, or to 
bo brought up in an obscure employ- 
ment. Jesus has conferred honor on 
virtuous mdustry, and no man shooU 
be ashamed of industrious parents, 
lbouf[b poor, or of a condition of life 

jhamad of, in lenrd to 
'ben HMD an wHs or 


63 And J««aa ioeresMd ■ in wis- 
dom and stature, ' aad in fafoai 
with God and man. 


NOW ID the fifteenlh yeai of ths 
teigo of Tiberius Ceaar, Pon- 
iiae Pilate being goTemor of Judea, 

■ lBi.U«. VB.M. Idi, <v<. 

lie too proud to hear or speak of ^e 
occupation of iheir parenia — or tifoUmc 
the same occupaOon. 

52. In famr vith God. TbaC is in 
moportion to hi« advance in wisdom. 
This does DDl imply that hs ever lacked 
the bTar of God, but ^t God regard- 
ed him wiib favor in proportion as he 
showed an underelanding and apint like 
hie own. Ha^pT are those children who 
uniiata the eiainplc of Jbbub — who are 
obedient to nareniB — who increase in 
wiadom — who are sober, temperate. 
and industrious ; and who thus increase 
in fevor widi God and men. 


peror with AuguBtuE , 
Ona Iroin the tirce when he was admit- 
isd to share the empire vrith Augusnis 
Cksst. See Lardner's Ctedibiluy, vol. 
1. f Tiberita Cesar, Tiberius suc- 
ceeded Augustus in the empire, and 
began hie tDJ« rei^. Aug. 19, A. D. 14. 

■ppointed hia successor on Account of 
hie notorious wickedness, and that he 
might be. as he eipieBsed it, a i«rwnl 
to ihe Romans. T Ponliu, F&ate. 
Herod the Great left hia kingdom to 
three sotis. Note Matt. ii. 22. To At- 
Admu he left Judea. He reigned ni'fu 
fears, when, on account of his crimes, 
he WHS baniahed into Vienne, and Ju- 
dea was made a Roman province, and 
placed endrely under Roman gover- 
nors, or PnoiTatoTt. and became com- 
pletely tributary to Rome. Pontius- 
rilale was the fifth governor that had 
.been seat, and of course bad been in 
JudBH but a alion lime. See the chro- 
URiugical table at the end of the volume. 
T TUttd t(Hv (KrairA cf GalHt. This 

ICE. [A.O.M 

and Herod being tetraruh of Q*U1«e, 
and hia brother Philip tetrarch of 
Ituree, and of the region of Tra- 
chouLtis, and LjBaniaa Iheletrarcb 
of Abilene, 

3 ^nnas ' and Caiaphaa being 
the high pnests, the woid of Uo3 

i Joa.l 1.0,31. 18.13. Ac^.& 

was Herod Anlnau, son of Herod (h 
Great to whom Galilee had been leA aa 
hia part of hia fiber's kingdom. Ths 
word (efrowA properly denotes one who 
I^'esides over a faartk part of a country 
or province; but it also came to be a 
general title, denoting one who reigned 
over any pari, a third, a half. &c. In 
tbiB case, Herod had ^ven bim a third 
of the dominione of his father, but he 
was called tetrarch. It was this Herod 
who imprisoned John, the Baptist, and 
to whom our Saviour, when arraigned, 
was sent by Pilate. 1 Itarea was ao 
called from Jetiir. one of the sons of 
lahmael. Gen. xxv. 15. 1 Chron. i. 31. 
It WHS HtuBied on the eaal aide of the 
Jordan, and was taken from the de- 
Bcendants of Jetur by the tribes of Reu 
ben and Gad. and the half tribe ofMa- 
nasseh. 1 Chron. v. 19. 1 Segioni of 


TrachoKtit. These ..„ ... 

on the east of the Jordan, and ei 
northward lo the diaLricl of Dan 
and eastward lo the desorta of Arabia, 
and were bounded on the west by 
Gaulaniiis. and south by the city <tf 
Bostra, Philip had obtained these re- 
gions from the Romans on condition 
that he would extirpate the robbers. 
1 Lyianiai the tdrarA of Abiieni. 
Ahileoe, was so called from AhUa, ila 
ituated in Syr , 


It of Dan 
t Leban< 

raa adjacenl 
lu Gablee. 

2. Annai and Caiapkai hetng higk 
priettr. There was. properly speaking, 
but one high priest of the Jews. Yei 
the name ol high priest continued to be 
given to those wiio Sad been in (hat 
oflice, and especially when tbey still 
possessed some civfl ofllice after Ibey 
bad left the high priesthood. In thn 
caes it appears mat Caiapiat was higfa 
priest, end Annas had been, but bo.' 
been dismissed from the office. It 
highly probable that he still held at 
offiee under ttio Komans, and was per 


&. b. £60 


ame nnto John tlie son of Zaoha* 
liBH in the nilderoees. 

3 And • he came iaio all the 
country about Joidaiii preacbing the 
tiaptiam of repeatance ' far the 7e- 

4 As it ia written in the book of 
tiie words of Esaias (he prophet, ' 
njin^i The voice of one crying in 
the wildaroeas. Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord, make his patha straight. 

5 EveryTalleyshallbefiUed.aDd 
■-rary- mouauiii and hill shall be 
brought low; and Ihe crooked eball 
be made atraight, and the rough 
waya thail he made smtioth ; 

6 And ' all flesh shall see the 
■alvation of God. 

T Then said he to (be multitude 
that came forth (o be baptised of 
him, O ■ generation of vipers ! who 
hath natned you to flea from the 

1. MU.L4. hc.i.n. •it.M.a. 

haila president of ihe Sanhedriin. He 
a meniioiKd bifiirt Caiophas, becauae 
oe was Ealher-in-law (o Cniaphaa ; and 
probabljF was the eldest, and h&d been 
longeai m office. Inauncea sioiilBr lo 
(his niBjr be found in Josephus, 

There ia one remark to be made bera 
about (he manner in which the Goapela 
were wrillen. They have every tnu-k 
ef openness and hoDesly. An imposlor 
doee not meaiioD names, and lintes, and 
places, panicularly. ll would be easily 
seen ihat he tnoi an impostor. But the 
sacred writers describe objects and men 
as if Ihey were pertcclly ^miliar wlih 
them. They never appear lo \is guard- 
»«j Ihomselvea. They Bpeak otthings 
most minutely. And ifiiiey had been 
impoalora, it would have been easy to 
deiBct them. If, for eiamplo, John did 
uai begin to preach Ln the bfteondi year 
«r TiberiuB ; if FhiUp was not letrarcb 
of Itures; if PomiQe Filats waa not 

Kvemor of Judea ; bow ee 
*e been to delect them in 
Yet It w« never done. Nay. w; 
Cvidt.Dce cf that age in Joaephu: 
these descriptions are airictly tnie 
MHuequenlly the Goepela must 

8 Bring forth, therefore, imita ' 
worthy of repentance ; and benn 
not (o say within yourselves. We 
have Abraham (o our father : for 1 
say onto you, that God ia able oT 
these Biones to raise up children 

9 And now a1ao the axe is laid 
unto the root if the trees : every' 
Tree, therefore, which bringetb not 
forth good froit, is hewn down, and 
cast into the fire, 

10 And the people asked him, ' 
saying. What shall we do then t 

11 He answerelh and saith nnto 
them. He ' that hath two coats, let 
him impart to him that hath none ; 
and he that hath meat,)el him do ' 

13 Then came alao publlcaoa, * 
to be baptized, and aaid unio bim. 
Master, what shall we do 1 

/Malt.MB. c 13.7,9. 


ally acquainted with what ihey wrote, 
who were not impoalora, and who were 
hattat men. If ihey were himat, then 
the Christian rehgion ia IruE. 

3—9. On the baplism of John, see 
Notes on Matl. iii. 

10. Whol jAoU ih i*, tktnt John 
had told them to bring forth fruiu ap- 
propriste lo repentance, or to lend a Itia 
which showed that their repenlatice was 
genuine. Thsy very properly, there- 
fore, asked how it should be done, oi 

11. He thai hath too coatt, Slo. Or, 
other worda, aid the poor according 


genuine. Ili< _ 

the lirfl dsmends of religion u 
id; and it is in ihit w -l-- 

ihus show ibal your rept 

"" " II is remarkable that o: 

that the repenlai 

feigned. For, Isl. The' ttatare of isll- 
gion is to do good. 2d. This toquirss 
self-denial, and none will deny tlicm. 
selves who are not attached to God 
And, 3d. This ia to imitate Jesus ChriBt, 
who, though he was rich, yet ibr our 
Bakes became poor, f Caali. See Noi« 
on Matt. V. 40. 1 Afsot. Frotiaioo of 


13 Aad heaaid nolo thim, Exact 
■ no more than thai which u 
pointed you. 

14 And the soldiers likewise de- 
maoded of him, sajing, And 

aclS^S. lCD.e.10. 

tiiat ihepuMieana or tax-eatherert 
peculiarly oppressive and hard in their 
dealings with the people; and that, si 
ihey hai every opponnnitv of eiacring 
EDore Ihia they ought, bo uiey often did 
it, and ihrs crushed ihemaelvea. The 
evidence of repentance in thetn would 
S' their sins, and to deal 


Eiact. Demand, or take. 

That is, by the 
nbt condemn ibe office, or say that 
the empLoyment should he foraaken- 
Thoueh it was hated by the people — 
though often abused, and theretbre un- 
"* popular — yetrte o^b i(»ii(/ wea not dia- 
honorable. If there is a government, 
it must be supported ; and of course 
(here must be men whose duty it is to 
collect taxes, as the means of ibe pro- 
per support of the government. And 
as such a Hupport of the govemmonl is 
neceeeary, so the people should pay 
cheerfully the just appointment of the 
rulers, and regard favorably thrws who 
are aulhoriied to collect it. Bee Rom. 

Wlielher these 
cannot be ascertwned. It is not im- 
probable that, as Judea vea a Roman 
province, they were Jews, or Jewish 
prooelytes, in the aervy:e of Herod Au- 
dpas, or Fhihp, a-'d so were really in 
the Roman service. 1 Do vwltnee, &c. 
Do not take the property of any hy un- 
tawfil force, or do not bear unjust force 
against the person or property of any 
individnal. It is proMble ihat tiiey 
wore many of them oppressive, or prone 
10 violence, rapine, or theft, and bur- 
densome even in times of peace to the 
mhabitiuits. ' Neither accute anyfilte- 
«, It is probable that when they wiahed 
the property of others, and could not 
obtain It hy violence, or when there 
WIS no ptelell for violence, they often 
itt*nei*d ina satDo tiling Li another 

CE. [A. DM 

shall ws do 1 Aad he uid imta 
them, 'Do violence to no man, nei 
ther accuse any* fiileelj.; and b* 
content ■ with jour * wages. 
'or.jialHHii Infetr. t EI.S3.1. Le 19 

way, and falsely accused the pelsonso! 

crime. The word r 


m whi h our word 

tycepiont is derived 


sycophants, or false 


■rs. for th^ 

sake of flattering o 
one- The proper m 

r fewn 


ationofjr™. tL 
the man who made 


was aUw 

ubited the import 

Egs to 

nl lliterally 

who showed them), 


covered persons who had do 

le it, to the 

and then the word c 


complaint ; 

me to be used in > 





jh parsons were asuelly cringing 

and fawmng, and looked for a reward, 
the word came to he used to denote a 
fawner or flatterer. It is always used 
in a bad sense. It ia correctly rendered 
here, ' do not accuse any falsely.' TB. 
amiait, &.e. Do not murmur or com 
plain, or take unlawful meatu to in 
"90 your wages. ' Waget, Thin 
] means not only the money which 
. paid them, but also their ratimti oi 
daily alkiwance of food. By this they 
were to show [hat their repentance wai 
genuine ; that ii had a practical inSu 
Lce ; that it produced a real refonBa 
in of hfe ; and it is clear that nn otha 
repentance would be genuine. Every 
profession of repentance which is not 
attended with a change of -life, ia mere 
hypocrisy. It may fartherbe remarked 
that John did not condemn their profes- 
or say that it was unlawful to be 
lier, or that they must abandon the 
ess in order to be true penitents, 
s possible to be a good raa.i, and 
publican or a soldier. Whst was 

..., -o4 wss, that in their profbanorts 

they should show that ihey were reBll* 
-ipnght, and had abandoned crime. It 
) lawful to defend one's self, one's 
family, or one's country; and bance h 
is lawhil to be a soldier. Man every- 
where, in all professions, should be • 
Christian : and then he will do hottOT ta 
■ i(» 



16 And SB the peopls vers ' in 
eipectation, and all men 'tmused 
IE theii hearts u' John, whether he 
Tf STB the Christ or not ; 

16 John answeied, saying nnto 
them all, I indeed baptize ^a with 
water; bnt one mlzhtiei than I 
Cometh, the latchet of trhase shoes 
I am not worthy to unloose : he 
thail baptize yoo with the Holy 


Ghost, and,w 

17 Whose fan • u in his hand, 
■nd he will thoroughly pu^e hie 
floor, and will ' gather the wheat 
into his garner ; hut the ' chaff 
he will burn ' with lire unquench- 

18 And many other things, in his 
. QShortation, preached be unto the 


■ Olf nlpnijfr, 1 or, rtttvwtd; or, J A at t d . 
• /e.lS.J. *MiA13. M1H.13J0. t Fb.]. 
4. d F»3I .9. M>r.9.M,4a 

IB not a direct Tiolofian of t^e Law of 
God, will be hoDOrable. 

15. In ixpeclation. Eipettjng (he 
Messinh. 1 Mined in thiir heart). 
Thought of hie character, his prcsi^h- 
tng, And BuccBBD, and an^couely inquired 
whether he did not do the things which 
were eipecied of the Meafflah. 

16—18. See Notes. Mail, m. 11. 12. 

19. 20. See Malt, liv. 1—13. Addtd 
tittahoc. ail. To all hie former crimes 
hs added this — not implying that this 
was the icurit of his acta, but ihst this 
was me of hia deeds, of like character 
as the others. The event here men- 
noned did not tabs place until same 
time ifter this, but it la meniioned hero 
to ahow what was the end of John's 
preaching, or to fill out the account 

81, 22. ^ee Matt. iii. 13—17. Jeiui 
beiaf Antwerf. Or, Jesua having been 
bqilned. This took place after the 
baptism, and not durin/rila admiiiiatra- 
tioD. Matt. ui. 16. 1 Fraying. This 
tucuoiBtsnce is oinit>ed by the other 
(rangelists; and it ahoWB, lat. That 
Itsiu was in the habit of prayer. 2d. 
That it is proper to ofTer up special 
prayer U the admiaistnilian ol the a - 
dtnances of religion. 3d. That it is pus- 
•^le to pray in the midit of a great 
uittilDde, yst in accret. Th* prayer 

19 But* Herod the telrarch,b(>fl|| 
reprored by him for Herodias bia 
brother Pfjilip's wife, and for all Ilia 

evils which Herod had done, 

50 Added yet this above all, that 
he shut up John in prison. 

51 Now when all the people 
were baptized, it f came to pass, 
that Jesus also 'being baptized, and 
praying, tho hearen was opened, 

23 And the Holy Ghost descend- 
ed in a bodily shape like a dove 
upon him ; and a voice came from 
heaven, which aaid. Thou art ray 
beloved Son; in thep I am well 

33 And JesuB himself begian to be 
about thirty years of age, being (as 
was supposed) the son ' of Joseph, 
which was lkesono{ Hell, 

tMoIt.H.l MarB.17. /M«tt.S.13A^ 
Jno.LSi,ke. gMa.l.l3.K. )oa«.12. 

consisted, doubtless, in Ming tip the 
heart silently to God. So ae may do it 
any where — about our daily toil, m per 
plexity, in the midst of muliiiudes, in 
affliction — and Ihus may pray aluayg. 

32. in a bodily thape. This was a 
real viable appearance, and waa doubt- 
less seen by the people. The dove is 
an emblem of punty and harmiessness, 
and the form of the dove was assumed 
on this occasion to signify, probably, 
that the spirit with which Jesus would 
be endowed would be one of purity 
and innocence. The Hrfy Spirit, when 
he assumes a visible form, assumes thai 
which will be emblematic of the thing 
to be rapreaented. TTius he assumed 
of langnf^, to signify the Dj' 

. Thisw 

power, &,e. Acit 

23. JetKi begnn to he. Sic. 
the age on which the piiealsantereil on 
their office. Num. iv. 3, 47. But it is 
not evident that Jesus had any refcrsnce 
to that in delaying hia work to his ihir. 
tieih year. He waa not subjected tn the 
Levitical law in regard tc .he prioat 
hood ; and it does not appear that pro. 
pheta and teachers did not commence 
their work before that age. T At wat 
tuppaud. Ai was romroonly ihonghl.' 

*M WhiohwuUeMnof Matthal, 

which «HB the ton of Levi, which 
1T3S tht ton of Melchi, wliich was 
At iTHi of Janna, which 
if Joaeph, 

35 Which was the nm of Malta- 
ibias, which wBS tht ton of Amos, 
ffhich was lAt lonaf Naum, which 
iras de con of BsKi which 
on of Naave, 

36 Which waa Mc ion of Maalh, 
ffhich was the ion of Mattathiaa, 
•rhich was Ihe ion of Semei, which 
tfa» lAe ton of JoECpb, which waa 
he ton of Juda, 

27 Which was lAe con of Joanna, 
frhicb was the ton of Rhesa, which 
ivas Ihe ton of Zorobahel, which 
Kis the tan of Salaihiel, which was 
*e ton of Neri, 

28 Which was fAewn of Melchi, 
which was the *on of Addi, which 
iras the ton oi Cosam, which was 
At ton of Elmodam, which was the 
oa of Er, 

39 Which was the ton of Jose, 
which waa the ton of Eliezer, which 
iras the tan of Jo rim, which was 
Ae ton of Matthal, which was the 
•01 of Levi, 

pU Which was the son of Simeon, 
phich waa the tan of Juda, which 
••38 ihe son of Joseph, which waa 
lie *)n of Jonao, which Was the ion 
sf Elialcim, 

31 Which was the ton of Melea, 
vhich waa the ton of Menan, which 
was the son of Maitatha, which was 
ihe ao7j,of Nathan, • which was We 
ton of David, 

33 Which was the ton of Jesse, ' 
which was the ton of Obed, which 

.4.18.M. , 


33 Which waa the urn of Amio^ , 
dab, which was Ihe ton of Arnin, 
which was the ion of Esrom, which 
was the ion of Phares, which wu 
Ihe tonal Juda, 

34 Which waa the ion of Jacob, 
which was Ihe urn of Isaac, which - 
was the ion of AbrahacD, * which 
was Iht ton of Thaja, which waa 
the ion of Nachor, 

35 Which was the ton of Sarneh, 
which was the ion of Ragau, which 
waa the tan of Phalec, which was 
the ton of Heber, which waa the ion 
of Sala, 

36 Which was tAetonof Cainao, 
which was the ton of Arphaxad, * 
which was the eon of Sem, which 
was the son of Noe, which was Ihe 
(on of Lamech, ' 

37 Which was the ton of Malhu- 
sala, which was Ihe ion of Enoch, 
which waa the eon of Jared, which 
was Ihe ton of Maleteel, which was 
the ton of Cainan, 

38 Which waa the tan of Edob, 
which waa the ton of Sath, which 
was the ion of Adam, which wat 
(A; son of God./ 


AND ■ Jrsos, being fall of Ihe 
Holy Ghost, returned from Jor- 
dan, and was led bj the Spirit into 
the wilderness, 

S Being forty days tempted of 
the devil. And * in those days he 
did eat nothing: and when they 
were ended, he afterward huDger- 

.11 sa-x. 


er perlwpa being legally reckoned, i 
Us son. 

a* — 38. See, on Ihi i genealogy. Malt. 

1 — 14. On the lemptalion ef Jssus 
*M Notes, Malt. ii I— 11. 

■.t.M. a.T. li.M.8. 

3, Bein _ , „ 
B, through forty daya 
rarious ways by the dcvii. 
ilions, however, which i 
ly Matthew and Luke i 


*:hapter IV. 

S And tbe deTil said nnto him, 
If tbou be tha San of God, com- 
mand IhU Mtoae that it b« mede 

4 And JeBDB anaweied biin, Bay- 
ag. It ■ ia written, that man shall 
»ot live b; bread alone, but by every 
Rord of God. 

5 And the devil, taking bim up 
' into a high mountain, shewed unto 

him all the kingdoms ot the world 

6 And tbe devil said unto him. 
All this power will I give thee, and 
the glory of them : for ' thai is de- 
ivered unto me ; and to whomso- 
ever I will I give it. 

7 If ihou, therefore, will ' wor- 
*hip me, alt shall be thine. 

8 And Jesus answered and said 
unto him, Gel thee behind me, Sa- 
tan : for ' it is written. Thou shalt 
worship the Lord thy God, and him 
only (ihalt thou serve. 




juriitg this 

D^nrd far a teoti 

.ppeara That ou 

^viour was oftsnranij Bubjecled 
(emplalions by Satan. But oo vorfuv- 
lar temptations are recarded nlier this. 
From John liv. 30, it seems thai the 
devil tried bim about the time of his 
agony in Geihaemane, but in what par- 
bcular way we are not told. It ia more 
than probable, also, that Satan did much 
to eicite the Fiariaeea and Sadducees 
to endeavor to entangle him, and tbe 
priests and rulers to oppose him. Yet, 
outof allhiBtemptBiiona, God delivered 
Uni ; and ao he will make a way to 
BKape for oU that are tempted, and 
will Dot Bufier them to be tempted above 
ifaat wliicb ihcy are able to bear. 1 
Cor. I. 13. 

U. In the potcer of the SpinC. By 
the inHaence or direction of the Spirit. 
^ A fame. A report. See Matt. iv. 34. 

15. GloriJiEd ef all. Praise! by all; 
IR, all were pleased with bis iistruc- 
(km* and admirsd hit wisdom. 

9 And be brought him lo Jsn- 
salem, and set bim on a pinnacle 
of the temple, and said unto him, 
If thou be the San of God, ftaal 
thyself down from hence : 

10 For it is written, He'shall 
give his angels charge over thee, to 

11 And in their hacds thej ebaU 
bear thee up, lest at any time Ihoo 
dash thy fool againet a stone. 

12 And Jesus, answering, «Btd 
unto him, It ia said. Thou • ebEdl 
not tempt the Lord thy God. 

13 And when the devil had end* 
ed all the ' temptation, he departed 
from bim for a season. 

II And Jesus ( returned in tbe 
power of the Spirit into Galilee i 
and there went out a fame of him 
through all the region round about. 

15 And he taught in their ayna- 
igues, being glorified of all. 

16 And be came to Nazareth,* 


f Jao 

16. And a> hii euitom IKU, he aent, 
i.c. From tbia ii appears that the Sa- 
'iuur regularly attended tbe service of 
he aynaeogue. In that aervice tbe 
icriptures ot the Old Testament weft 
cad, prayers wara offered, and the 
vord of God was explained. See 
Vote. Matt. iv. 23. There was greal 
:orruption in doctrine and practice at 
hat lime, but Christ did not, oo that 
iccount, keep away from the place of 
lublic worabip. From this we may 
earn: Ist, That it ia our duly r«uior(j 
attend public worship. 2d. That it 
is better to attend a place which is not 
i|y pure, or where just Bn,:h doc- 
I are not delivered as we would 
wish, than not attend at all. It is of 
vast iinporlance that the public wor. 
ship of Ijod should be maintained i and 
■■ -a our duly to assist in mainlsiniinF it. 
show by our example that v 


:. 25. 


also to love i( 

remark should n< 

, Ifais 


where be had been brought up ; anj, 
BB hie cusiom was, he • went inu 
the eyDasogus on the sabbBth-day, 

Iiiro the book of the {irophet Gaaias. 

And when he had opened the book. 

■ Mlil.U.M. Jiio.lS.SO. Ac.13.14. 17.! 

jtel &nd Pagan prayers. If, therefore, 
he Unilarian doee not worship the inie 
God ; snd if ibe Roman Catholic wor- 
ahips God in a manner forbidden, and 
offers homage lo the crralnreM of God 
also, thus being guilly at idolatry, it 
aannol be the duty of a man to attend 
en such a place of worship. It The 
rgnagegut. See Malt. iv. 23. * Stood 
upfiyr to read. The hooka of Moses 
were so divided that they could be read 
through in the synagogues once in a 
year. To these were added portions 
t f ih pheta, so that no i 

rf h m as read also once a , 
k wn whether our Saviour 

priAabl h « 

w fiTd" 
look d a 

which was the regulai 

'ould not depart trom the 
Yet, as the eyes of all 
him, as he deliberoiely 

rloce; and as the people 
y surprised at what be 
did, it seems to be intimated that he 
selected a lesson which was not the 
regular one for that day. 

IT. There ma dehverfd unjg him. 
By the minister of the synagogue, or 
the keeper of the books. They 
were kept in an art: or chest, not ur 
frim the pulpit, and the minister gave 
ihjra to whomsoever he choae, to read 
thjm publicly, t The loo*. The vo- 
Virae containing the prophecy of Isaiah. 
It would seem, from this, that the 
bc«k8 were kept separate, and not 
niiiied into one as with us. 1 When 
ie Itad Bpeaed the book. Literally, when 
faa had unrolled the book. Books, 
among the ancients, were written on 
porchments, or vellum— i, e., skins of 
baasts — and were rolled together on 
two rulters. beginning at each end ; so 
that while reading they rolled off from 
one to the other. Ditferent forms of 
boolu were indeed used, but this was 
the most common. When used, the 
reader unrolh:d the MS aa fiir as the 
plae* which ha vialad to find, and kept 

iE. [A.D.W 

he fouod the place where it ww 

IS The * Spirit of the Lord it 
upon me, becanee he hath tiDoinied 
me to preach the gospel to the poor ; 
he hath sent me to heal the broken- 
hearted, * to preach deliverance ta' 

eSCb.34.37. PlJl.18. 31.17. U73. Il 

When the roller w»a done with n 

OB carefully deposited in a case. The 

followins cut shows the end of the roll 

place; and also the inkstand or 

I, with the cover thrown off, and 

tlie teed pen or style : 

scribed, with rings and rods, are repre 

^ Tht. piBtt whtrt ,t il vntlai It 
18,19. Tluipiritif^UL^dM 


ths captiTeB, and recOTerinff ' of 

light to the bliod, 
them tbat are brubed, ' 


Mb Oi, I speak by divii 
ment. 1 am divinely inspire 
"* ^ lo doubi inat tile j 

,„ ,, appoinl- 

_ _ nely Inspired lo spealt. 

There can be ■ - J- -'-■-'--■ "- 

□I Isaiah hod 
the Mesuali. 
■ppliee il to himself, and 




in of Ihe Jewa from Baby. 

Ion 1 bat the language of [irophecy if 

ofleK applicable lo two similar evenia. 

and tbe secondary evt 

most imporlajit. In rhia case t 

phot uses most Btriking poetic 

lo depict ihe '' — "L -I 

often tl. 

3 the Son of God. 
anoiu/«I me. Anciently Itinga and pro- 
Dhets, and the high jlriest. were Be( 
apart (0 th?ir work by anointiog wilb 
oil. 1 Xiiigs sa. 15, 16. Ei. nil. 7, 
1 Sam. ix. 16. &.c. This oil or oint- 
mi-nt was made ofvarioue Bubetaacee, 
and It WBB (brbidden to imitate it. Ex. 
ux. 34—38. Hence lliose who were 
•el apart to the work of God as king, 
or pruphsl, or priest, .were called the 
Loid'B anointed. I, Sam. xn.6. Ps. 
liixiv. 9. Isa. xlv. 1. Hence the Son 
of God is called the Men ioA, a Hebrew 
worl signiAiinB the Anointed; or the 
Ckriatt a Ureek word signifying the 

ed IB not meant that he was literally 

tha . manner : but that God had tet kin 
apart for this work ; ihni kt bod consti- 
tuted or appointed him to be the pro- 

thei, priest, and king, of hia people. 
To fTtaeh tla goMpel Is ihe poor. The 
goiptl meana gotKl news' — ^the gixid 
nowa of aalvaLion. By the poor are 
meant ail those who are destitute of the 
comfortB of this lite, and who, thoiefore. 
may be more readily dispoaed to seek 
treasures in heaven ; ail those who are 
■ennble of their buib, ot are poor in 
iptril (Matt. v. 3) ; and all the miterable 
and the afHicted. Isa. Ivlii 7. Our 
Saviour ^veii as one proof Inat he was 
tiw Messiah, or was from God, that hs 
preached to t*( poor. Matt. li. 5. Tiie 
FhariaeeB and Sadduceea 4espiBed the 
poor. Ancient philoBOphsra neglected 

them. But the gospel seeks lo btlBn 
them 1 to give comfort where it is feh 
to he neeifcd, and where it will be re- 
ceived with Eraliliide. Riches fUl the 
mind with pride, with self-complacency, 
and with a feeling tnat the aoepei is not 
needed. The poor ful lEeir need of 
some sources of comfort thai the world 
cannot give, nnd accordingly oui Sa- 

among the poor ; and there also, lintt, 
the ^epel has shed its richest blcssmga 
and its purest jo^ra. It is aleo one proof 
liial the gospel la true. If it had been 
of men, it would have sought the rich 
and mighty. But it pours contempt on 
all human greatness, and seeks, like 
God. [0 do eocd to those whom the 
world overlooKsor d^pises. 1 To heal 
the broken-hearted. To console (hose 
who are deeply afflicted, or whose 
hearts are brohen by eitemal calami- 
ties, or by a deep sense of their sinful- 
nefia. ^ Deliveranet la the oorttee* 
Thia is a figure originally applicable to 
thoae in captivity m Babylon. They 
were miserable. To grant deliverance 
la them, and reatore them lo their coun- 
try ; to grant dehveronce to those who 
are in prison, and restore them to theii 
family ; to give liberty to iha slave, and 

the highest beneiit. and impart the 
rieheat favor. So the gospel iif.parli 
fuvor. It does not literati^ open the 
doors of prisons, but it releases tha 
mind, capQvo under sin : il gives com- 
fort to the prisoner, and it will Enallj 
oDcn all prison doors, imd break off aU 
the chains of slavery, and by prevent- 
ing :riine preient also the sufferingi 
Ihs! are the consequence of crime. 
VSigM la Ihe blind. This was olten 
litcrvUv fulfilled. Matt. li. 5. Jobnii. 
11, Matt. \x. 30. &.O. ITo »« o( 
liierli/ them thai ore bmiitd. The word 
hruiied, here, evidently has thu aama 
general signincation as Iroken-Aeartfd 
the contrite. It means ihoEa who 
pretied doicn by great calamity, or 
ise hearts are pretted or btuifei by 
orain. To set ■ ' 

El them at libtKf 
.. ..,e them from th« 
give their conaolation 

so And lie clowd the booh, and 
be gave it agnia to (he minister> 
and eat down. And the eyes of 
all them that were in the sjna- 
gogue, were fastened on him. 

21 And he began to aay nLta 
Ihem, This da; is this scripture fui- 
filed in jour ears. 

H Tie aacpKOU year of Oe lard. The 
time when God is willing to accept of 
men, or (a receive sinners coming to 
lum. The goepei asaures ua that [he 
guilw may reliirn. and lliat God will 
eraiiously receive them. There ia, 
perhaps, here, an slluaion to the year 
irf Jubilee — the fiftietb year, when the 
trumpet waa blown, and through the 
whole land proclamaiion was mnde of 
(he liberty of Hebrew slaves, of the re- 
mission of debta. and of the reetoralion 
of po9seaeions to their original lanuliee. 
LeV.xiT. 8— 13. t The acceptable star. 
The grateful, or pteaaant, or agreeable 
time, appointed by God. 

20, Were fatiened on him. Were 
Intently filed on Km, waiting to see 
what explanation he would give of the 

ai. Thit imptjire. This wrif in?, or 
this part of the scripturea. T Fulflled. 
It is coming to paas; the thing origi- 
nally intended by it ia about to be ac- 
complished. 1/n your tart. In your 
Staring ; or you tear, in my preaching, 
tne fulfilment of this prophecy. It la 

Erobable that he said much more than is 
ere recorded, but Luke baa preaeated 
onlythemAgfanfe orhiediscourae. This 
was the amoniiE or tum of his aermon, 
or his explanation of the passage, that 
it was now receiving its accompliah- 

32. All bare him ailaei). All were 
witnessea of the power and truth of 
what he aaid. Their reaaon and con- 
science approved of it, and they were 
eonstrained to admit the force and pro- 
priety of it ; and on this account they 
wondered, t Tha/ tamdered. They 
wei e atruok with the trnih and force of 
his words ; and especially when they 

their own place, and that they had been 
long acquainted with him, and ibat he 
riiautd tunc claim to be the Mesaiah, 
and Kiro so much evidenre tbal he voi 

23 And all bate him witness, and 
wondered at the gracious " wordi 
which proceeded out of his mouth. 
And thej said. Is ' not thia Joseph's 

S3 And he said unto them, Ve 
will surely saj unto me this pro- 
Terb, Physician, beal thyself: what 

the Christ. 1 7%e grocwiu inord: The 
words of grace or fevor ; the kind, af- 
fectionate, and tender esposiiion of the 
words, and explanation of the design 
of ills coming, and the nature of the 
plan of redemption. It was so different 
from the harsh and anfeeling mode o* 
the Fhariaeea; so different from alt 
their expectationa reapecllng the Mca- 
siah, who, they eipeeied, would be a 
prince and a Dlaody com^ueror; that 
they were filled ^with aatomahment and 

23. Fhi/tician, heal Ihytdf. This 
proverb waa probably in common use 
at that time. Suppose a man should 

It Capernaum. You proiei 

diee, outuna, ourafflicdona, &c. Show 
thai you have the power, that you are 
worthy of our confidence, by working 
miracles hare, as you profess to have 
done at Capernaum,' Ii does not refer, 
therefore, to any purification of his own 
or imply any reflection on him for set- 
ting up to teach them. It waa only a 
demand that he would show the proper 
videnoe by mimrfej why they should 
rust m him. and he proceeds to show 
.hem why be wt,uld not give them thia 
evidence. 1 WhattoeveT we bave heard 
done. Whatsoever we have heard thai 
thou hast done. It would seem, from 
this, that Chrial had before ihla wraugbl 
miTaclea in Capernaum, though the 
evangelist has not recorded them. ^ 1h 
Capemaam. Capernaum was on the 
northwest corner of the eeaof Tiberiaa, 
' was not far torn Naiareth. It ia 
improbable that some it those wha 



S4 Andb«Baid, VerJyl sBj 
you. No * propbel is accepled ii 

33 But I tell you of a troth, 
Man; * widows were in Israel in 
the dBjH of Elias, when the heaven 
was shut up ' three years and six 
lontha, when great famine was 
throughout all the land ; 

444. <Ki.IT.9- 


then heard him miglit have been pre- 
teat, and wilneased some of his mira- 
clesa) Capernaum. See Note on Matt. 
iv. 13. 

24. No frophet u aeapted. Hub hon- 
or, or is acknowledged oi a prophel. 
Sea Note, Mall. aii. 57. 

25. Of a InUh. Trulv. and there- 
fore worthy of your ctedil. He calls 
■llenlionlofiBocBBBa where atkiuncltdg- 
td prophets had bo liule honor in their 
own nation that they bestowed their 
favors on foreignem. So, says he, such 
is the want of faith in my own country, 
that I shall work no miracles here, but 
shall ^ve the evidence of my divine 
mission to others. 1 1n Itrari. In the 
land of Urael, or Judea. It was there- 
fore the more remarkable, since there 
were so many in his own country whom 
he might have helped, that he should 
have gone to a Heathen ci», and aided 
a piXH widow (here. 1 The day of 
E2uu. T^e days of Bhjah. See the 
account of this in 1 Kings xvii. 8 — 24. 
tThrte yean and aix monthi. From 
1 Kinas iviii. I, 49, it would seem that 
the ram fell on the third year. Thai is, 
at the end of the third year after the 
rain bad ceased (a fall at tbe usual time. 
There were two aeaaona of the year 
when rains fell in Judea, in Oelober 
and April, called the tarty and laller 

terval between them of eix months. 
To the three yearB, therefore, when 
rain was withheld at the niuol timei. 
are to be added the previous six months, 
when no rain fell as a matter of course ; 
and consequenllji three years and liz 
WKmtit elapsed without rsin. 1 A great 
finNMK. A great want of find from 
«nK-eoatinue3 and distressiDg drouahl. , 

26 But nnto none of them was 
Bliaa 8«nt,BaTa nnto Sarepta, aci^ 

S7 And ' many lepera were in 
Israel in the time of Bliseus the 
prophet: and none of them was 
cleansed, saving Naaman the Sy- 

SS And all they in the synagogue, 
when they heard these thmgs, weta 
fliled with wrath. 

26. SmevnleSarepla. Sareptawas 
a town between Tyre and Sidon, neat ' 
the Mediterranean sea. It was not a 
Jeviith city, but a Sidonian, end there- 
fiirfl a Gentile town. The word '' save" 
in this verse does not express the mean- 
ing of the original. It would seem to 
imply that the city was Jewish. The 
meaning of theversp is this. "' " 

Ha WE 

of the vridowa in Israel, 
xcept to Sarepta, to b 
woman mat was a SidoniartJ 

27. Manylepert, For an account of 
the leprosy, see Note on Mall. viii. 1. 

1 Tiiae of ElitEUi. Time of Eliiia. 
The word Eliiem is the Greek way of 
writing the word Elisha ; aa Ehaa la of 
Elijah. H Satiiiig Naaman the Syrian. 
The account of tais cure is contained in 

2 Kings V. 

28. FiOed m(* leratli. They were 
enraged, probably, fc}r the fallowing 
reasons: 1st, They saw that the casea 
apphed to themaelves, and that they 
would not receive the miraeuloua evi- 
dences of his misaian. 2d. That he 
would direct his attention to others, and 
not to them. 3d. That the GeniOet 
were objects of compassion vriih God 
and that God often showed m6re &vo. 
to a lingle Gentile than to mullitudea 

Gentiles. And, Sib. Thaiii 

le than the 


B their 

turned to wrath ; 

pptause IS of Ultle vi 

slightest circuiuEtai 

luB)' twuii iom the wannest pro fo saaj 
frieudahip to hatred. And, 3d. ThR 

the whole 
That popu 
2d. That 

X> Aod Twe np, and thnial him 
uut of ihe cii]', end led hini on' 
the brow ' or the hill whereon Ihi 
aUj was butlt. that Ihej might ce 
Um down ■ headlong. 

30 But he, paBBJDg * throagh the 
uidBt of them, went bis nay ; 

31 And came down lo'^Caper- 
Bum, a citj of Galilee, and taught 
'lem on Iho sabbalh-days. 

33 And tbej were aatonished 
his doclrine : for hia word waa witb 

33 And ' in the ajnagogue there 
waa a roan, which had a spirit of ai 

, unclean devil, and cried out with i 

34 Sajine, * Lei u) alone; what 
have we to do with thee, lAou Jeans 
of Nazareth 1 art thoa come to de- 
stroy ua 1 I ■' know thee who thou 
art; (he ' Holy One of God. 

35 And Jesus rebulied him, say- 
ioe. Hold thy peace, and come out 
or him. And when the devil had 
thrown him in (ho tnldat, he came 
out of him, and hurt him not. 

36 And thej were all amazed, 
and spake amont; themselves, say- 

ing. What a word i* ibb ! for with 
authority and power he coromaitJeth 
the tmclean spiriia, and * they eooie 

37 And the fame of him wbdi 
out into ererj place of the couDtrj 

round about. 

38 And he aroee ontof the sya»> 
gogoe, and entered into Simon's 
house. And ' Simon's wife's mo* 
ther waa taken with a great (everi 
and they beiought him for her. 

39 And he stood over her, and 
rebuked the fever ; and it left her : 
and immediately she arose, and 
miniatered unto them. 

40 Now when the sun was set- 
ting, all they that had any sick with 
divers diseases brought them anto 
him; and belaid his hands on every 
one of them, and heated them. 

41 And devils alao came out of 
many, crying out, and saying. Thou 
art Christ the Son of God. And 
he, rahuking them, suffered them 
not ' to spe^ : for they knew that 
he waa Christ. 

43 And when it waa day, he de- 
parted, and went into a desorl place: 

. M«ll,7^,2a. Til.i 

IS. /ve 

r.«»- .jVs. ; 

men are exceedingly unreasonable 
beina: unwilling to hear the truth, and 
^M bv it. 

29. "ntbnmiiftheiia^n^M 
The region in which Nazareth .... 
is billy, diough Nazareth waa Bitualed 
ktiHeit two hilis. or in a vale among 
mountaioa. The place lo which [hey 
led ihe Saviour is aiill shown, a~' " 
called the buhuE a/ Pnc^tation. 


" D No™ 

\h of Na- 

lesB of the heart will lead men whei 
a acted out. And, 3d. That men 
opposed lo the truth ; [hat they hale 
Lord Jesua; and [hat <hey wouM 
do (My Uin^. if no[ reaCraiued, (o mani 
fsat [heii opposition. 

30. Patting thtmglithtmidtlef thorn, 
mt kit vav. Thia eacape was very 
remarkabjfe that he 
if their hniida whea 
u to destroy him J 

narkable. It is 
the very o 

1 Cait him down. This was tho ejiect 
of a popular tumult. They had no le- 
gal nghl to take life on anj occasion, 
~ ~ d least of all in thia furious and irre- 

without violence or conflic- 

A umiiar case ia recorded in John viiL 

S9. Therearebuttwowaysofaccount- 

for this : Ist. That other NaiarauM 

it abiiwa to what 

ight him, and 

i Blayed him, 

depart fram 

A. U. S&J 

and ths peo]>Ie so 
that lio ehould no 

43 And he said 

u« p 

41 And he preached 
fogues or Galilee. 


AND * it came lo pais, that, as 
the {Ki(>|ile pressed upon bim 

JeBBs by divine power, by ihe force of 
a »ord, or look, stilled their passions, 
arrested iheir purposes, and passed si- 
lectly through them. That he buf such 


n the syna 


learn from the occunence in Gethse- 
mane, when he said, " I am he, and 
thij weni backwaril, and lell to the 
ground." John ivili. 6. 

31 — 4i. See this explained in the 
Notes on Mark i. 31— 39. 

Etudes came to hear. There « 
gloiious prospect of a revival of religion. 
There were times in the life of our Sa- 
viour when ihouaanda were aniious to 
near him, and wheti many, as we hare 
no rea*in to doubt, became his true fol- 
lowers. Indeed it ia not jwasible to tell 
what migia have been hia success, had 
[101 the prond Pharisees and scribes, 
and those who were in otfice. opposed 
him, and taken measures to draw the 
people away from his ministry ; /or the 
eammon pupb Aeord him gladly. ^ The 
lake of Oennaarel, Called also the 
eea of Galilee, and the sea of Tiberias. 
This waa the region of the early toils 
of our Redeemer. Here he performed 
some of his first and tnoel amazing mi- 
racles; here he selected his disciples; 
lad here, on the shores of this Utile and 
retired lake, among people of poverty, 
•nd iuured to the privatiBjis of fisher- 
Con, he laid the foundation of a religion 
triiich is yel to spread tltrough alt the 
Vtuld, and which Aai aheady bleased 
linllions of guilty and miserable tneti, 
■md Iranalaled them to heaven. 

3. Too ihipi. The ihipt osed on so 
null a lake were prabahty rto more i 

to hear the word of God, be Mood 
by Ihe fake of Genoeaaret, 

3 And saw two ship* standing by 
Ihe lake : hut the fisheimeii were 
gone out of them, and were wash- 

3 And ha entered into one of thj 
ships, which was Siruon's, and pray- 
ed him that he would thrust out a 
little from the land. And be tat 
down, and taugbt the people out of 
tbe ship. 

* HUI.4,ie A«-,kc 

boats, probably withou 
easily drawn up on the 
oeach. Josephus says there were two 
hundred and thirty of ibem on the lake, 
attended by four or five m'ti each. 
This is also' clear, from the accoutit 
commonly given of them. A singla 
large draught of fishes endangered 
them, and came near mnkitig ibera 
t Slaitditig fty Ihe lake. Anchored by 
the lake, or drawn up upon ths 

3. iVhich tWM Saum'i. Simon Pe- 
ter's. ^Frayed him. Asked him. 
V He lal doaB. ThiB was i]ie common 
posture of Jewish teachera. They ael- 
dom or never spoke lo the people 
alattding. Compare Matt. v. 1. Itmay 
be somewhat difficult lo cotioeive why 
Jesus should go into a boat, and put on 
from the shore, in order to speak to the 
multhude. But it is probable that ihii 
was a small bay or cove, Jid that whtf , 
he was in the boat, the people on (he 
shore stood round him in the form of an 
amphitheatre. It is not improbabt* 
that the hike was still; that scarcely , 
breeze passed Qverit; that ail was si- 
lence on tbe shore, and that th£re was 
nothing lo disturb his voice. In such a 
situation he could be heard t '■"' 

Bcle could bi 


beautiful than t -. _ 

Redeemer of the world — thoa apeak- 
ing from the hosotn of a placid lake— 
the emblem of lbs peaceful influence 
of bis own doctrines — to the poor, Ihe 
ignorant, and the attentive maltitudea 
asBembled on the shore. how much 
mare effect may we suppose the gospel 
would have m such circumstances, than 
when proclaimed among lbs proad, ue 
gay, Iha honored, a ' '■'-' 

4 Now when hu had left apMk- 
lag, he said unto Sitnon, Launch * 
ont inio the deep, and let down 
joar nets for a dniughL 

5 And Simon, anewaring, eaid 
Quio him, Master, we have toiled 
all ths night, and have taken 
thing: ' nBTerthalese, at thy word I 
will let down the net. 

6 And ' when they had this done, 
• JnoAI.C krt.aj.iA- E».3T.)I,1A 

(EcllA GtL.e.9. 

in. the moat splendid edifice that weaUh 
aod art could finish '. 

i. UiKKk Mtl. Qo out with your 
Teasels, t Into the deep. Into the sea : 
at a dialance from the Bhore. It ia noi 
improbable thai thia appeared strange 

cte more striking. Nets were com- 
monly drawn near the ehoco, in some- 
what siiaa] water. An order to go, 
therefore, iiito ihe dt^, was contrary 
to the usual rules of fishing, f For a 
dra»gU. A draught of fish; or let 
down your neia for the taiing of fish. 
5. Matter. This is the first time 
that lbs word translated here Matter, 
ia used in the New Testament ; and it 
is used only by Luke. The olhet 
eTUigelista call him Rabbi, or Lord. 
The word here meaua t prefect, or one 
placed emer others ; sod hence it comes 
to mean ttadar, or guide. \ At thy 
laord. At thy command. Though n 
seemed so intprobable that they should 
take any thing siter having in vain toil- 
ed all night, and elill more improbable 
b^ launching into the deep, yet he was 
willing to trust the aord of Jeaus. and 
make llie trial. Thia was a remarkable 
instance oi faith. Psior, as it appears, 
knew -little then of Jeeus. He was 
not then a chosen apostle. Jesua came 
to them almost a ettanger, and un- 
known : and yet at his command Peter 
■reaolvetl to make another trial, and go 
once more out into the deep. if ^ 
would B» readily obey Jesus, all would 
be in like manner blessed. If sinners 
would thus obey him, they would find 
aU his pioiniaea sure. He never dieap- 

they iDcloaed a gn^t multituds of 

fishes : end thetr net ht^ke, 

7 And (liey beckoned unti> Otdt 
partners, which were in the othe> 
ship, that they should come and 
help ' them. And they caoM, and 
filled both the ihipa, bo that tbej 
began to sink. 

8 When Simon Peter saw ti, he " 
fell dsH'n • at Jeaue' knees, aajing. 

This is all that is implied in the Greek 

ird. If their nets had Bciaaltyirslm, 

our Eogliah word seems 10 suppose, 

the Gab would have escaped. But no 

meant, than that there was 

lullilude of fishes that Ibeil 

Ml J^ pstaJ of bemg rent 


7. Tkeyhedaned. They gave signs; 

listance, so that they could not be easi- 
y heard. ^ Their fiirtneri. James and 
ohn. See ver. 10. 

8. When Simon Peter (am t(. Saw 
the great amount of fishes; the remark- 
able success of letting down Ihe net. 
T Ht fdl dovm at Jetui' kneei. Thia 
wns a common posture of luppticati^ii 
He had no doubt now of the power anr 
knowledge of Jesus. In amazement 
and wonder, and gratitude, and ni 
doubting that he was in the presence o 


9 have 

emjtdenee in him, and he will give 
every needful blessing. 

6. Tlieir lut brake. Or their net fre- 
fiaa to break ; or waa okat la break. 

ag, ha p 

self to the earth, trembling and afraia 
So ahould unful men ojimyi throw 
themselves at the feet of Jesus at the 
iroofe of his power; so should they 
mmble themselves before him at th>- 
nanifestations of his goodness. T Be- 
part from me. This is an eipresaion of 
Peter's humility, and bis cansciousnees 
of bis unwonhmesB. It was not from 
. of love to Jesus; it did not show 
that he would not be pleased with his 
favor and presence ; but it was the re- 
sult of bemg convinced that Jesiia was 
a messenger from God — a high and 
holy being; and he felt that i« was uq 
worthy to be in his preaonOB. In h. 
deep consdousnesa of^un. iharsfare, hp 
requested that Jeeus would depart iron 
him and his little vessel. Peter's Icel- 
waa not unnatural; though it waa 
.... proper to request Jeaus to leave 
him. It wsi ■\n invo'untart. >idde> 

A. n. so.] 



Depart from me ; fbi I am a uoful 
man, O Lord. 

9 For he was astoniahed, and all 
that were with him, at the draaghl 
of (he Sehea * which they had taken : 

10 And BO toot also James and 
Johnr the eons of Zebedee, which 
were partners with Siman. And 
JcEus said unto Simon, Fear not; 
from faencefoith thou abalt ealch 

11 And wheo the; had brourhl 
their ahipB to land, they foiaook ' 
'Hi, and followed him. 

19 And ' it came to pass, when 
le was in a certain cily, beholdi a 
man full of leprosy ; who, aeeing 
Jesus, fell OD his face, and besought 
him, saying. Lord, if Ihoit wilt, tbou 
caust make me cleaD. 

13 And he put forth hii hand, 
and touched hun, saying, I will; 
be ' thou clean. And immediately 
the leprosy departed from him. 

14 And he charged him to tell 
DO man : hut go and shew thyself 
to it-e priest, and offer for thy 
cleansing, according as Moses com- 
manded,' for a testimony unto Ihem. 

• PiAGA (Malt4J0. l».XJ. Fh.3.T,& 
t Milt&UC' Mai.l.40,&c d SEi.S.lO, 
14. • U.14.4 Ac. 

request, aitd arose &om iimotancs of 
^o chuBcter of Jesus. Wo an not 
'wonhy lo ba wilh him ; lo ba reckoned 
«mon£ hia friands ; or to dwell 

t he came to seek 

the lost, and to ... 

ffracioualy coadescenda to dwell with 
SoBB who are humble and contriw, 
though ibey are conscious that ihav are 
not worthy of hie prasence. And wa 
msT. therefore, come boldly to him, 
uid uk him to receive ua to hia home j 
to an etdmal dwelling wilh him in the 

10. Farnal. He calmed their (ears. 
With mildness ind tenderness, he aiill- 
•d ail their troubled feelings, and to 
lb«ir anrpiiae announced that hencefor- 
ward they phouid he »pp( ' 
■Ids of p^vstion. 1 J^n 
Hiireafter. ^ShOltMUAi 
(idniMen of the jo^xl ; and your 

> litnceforih. 

15 Bat %j ranen the more went 
there a fame abroad cf him: audi 

Seal multitudes came logether, t» 
ar, and to be healed by him ot 
their infirm iiies. 

16 And ' he withdrew himself 
into the wilderness, and prayed. 

17 And it came to pass on a ca> 
tain day, as he was teaching, that* 
there were Pharisees and docton 
of the law sitting by, which wera 
come out of every to An of Galilee, 
and Judea, and Jerusalem ; and the 

Eower of the Lord wae prctetU to 
eal them. 

18 And, 'behold, men brought in 
a bed a man wliich was taken with 
a palay : and they sought mtam to 
bnng him in, and to lay Aim befora 

19 And when they could not find 
by what ti>ay they might bring hini 
in because of the multitude, they 
went upon the house-top, and let 
.him down through the tiling, with 
hit coach, into the midst before 

20 And when he s: 

t their faith, 

A^ f MalL 
1. iHuU.a 

ness shall be to win men to (he truth, 
that they may be saved. 

11. Fartink all. It waa not bhcI 
that they left — a couple of small boali 
and their nets : but it waa sll thev had, 
even all their living. It showed their ~ 
love of Jeaua, and iheii wilhngnees to 
deny themselves, as recdly as if they 
had forsaken palaces and gold. All 
that Jesus asks is that we should leave 
aU we have for him ; that we ahould 
love liim more than we do whatever 
irienda or properly we mav poaseae, 
and be williiig to give Uom all up when 
he requires them. * 

13—16. See Mslt. vi 

IT— QS. See this pssc 
Matt. ix. 1—7. 

IT. Onacertamdav 

•fi explained in 


Who e 


oe Mid unto him. Hid, thyrint are 
forgiven thee. 

SI And the scribes and the Pha- 
risees began to reason, sajring, Who 
ia this which speaketh blaaphemieB! 
"""" — I forgiTB • sins, bol God 

i Bat when Jesus perceired 
their thoughts, he, answering, said 
nnio them, What reason je in 
hearts ! 

33 Whether is easier, to Bay, Thy 
•ins bo furgivan thee; or to say, 
Rise up and walk 1 

34 But that ye may know that 
the Son of man hath power opon 
earth to forgive sins, (he said ui 
(he sick of the palsy,) I say ui 
(hee. Arise, and ' take up thy coach, 
and gff unla thine house. 

35 And immediately he roa 
hflfore the'n, and took up that 
whereon he lay, and departed to 
bis own liCuae, glorifying God. 

36 Ard they were all amazed, 
and ' th^y glorified Qod, and^ were 

tPt.?9S. 103.3. 130.4. II.I.IS. 43.1S. 

27 32. 9— 13. 
29. Made him a great feof.. This 
e Mo((A<w, or ieui, as he 

dr>e9 nol Kck la commend iiself, or lo 
■peak of what il does, even when ii is 
dooo far the Son of Gai. It seeks re- 
liremenl ; delights rather in the con- 
KinmuH of doins; well, iban in its 
being known; andTeEiTeHilagOou deeds 
lo be spoken of, if spoken of at all. by 
olhera. Thir ia aereeable to the direc- 
tion of Salopi'.n(ProT, iivii, 3): "Let 
_ tnolher m«i praise thee, and not thine 
cvn mouUi." This feast was made 
eipreasly G.r nur Lord, and attended by 
msny pi oli'ana. probably men of wick- 
ed cnara-.ter; and it is not improbable 
that Mairoewgol them together for the 
pnrooH of bringing them into contact 
with our Lord, lo do them good. Oar 
BarkiiT did not refu*e to go, and to go, 

strange things t< 

37 And ' after these thioffS he 
went forth, and saw a paMican, 
named Levi, sitting at the receipt 

?r custom : and be said unto him, 
'ollow me. 

38 And he lefl all, rose up, and 
followed him. 

89 And Levi made him a groat 
feast in his own house : and ' (hem 
was a great company of publicans 
and of olhera that sat down with 

30 Bat their serihes and Phari' 
sasa murmured agaiasthis disciples, 
^"jii'g. Why do ye eat and drink 
with publicans and sinners \ 

31 And Jesus, answering, said 
unto Ihem, They that ars whola 
need not a physician ; > but they 
that are sick. 

32 I came not to call the ri^l- 
eous, hot sinners* to repentance. 

33 And they said unto him, Why 
do the disciples of John fast often, 

l,9,&c. Mar.2.11. /cll.i,fcc. 

too, at the risk of being accused as a 
^lattonoua man and a wine-hibheT. a 
friend of publica: 



the thing itaelf, there was no harm. It 
sflbrded an opportunity of doing good 

:dby the Lord Jea'u. Ha|f. 

jeif all \!ae great ftatit thai 

.-- _jade, were raado in honor of out 
Lord. Happy, if Ac would be a wet 

guest there ; and happy if minia- 

f'ona people who attend them 
ihemaelves as the Ixird Jenu 
did, and they were made iha means uf 
' ' ' ledom. But, alaa ! there 
Tberii our liOrd would 
as at great (eaata ; and 
erve eo much to rendoT 
gross, . dissipated, and 

33 — 39. See this passage illustrated 
in Mall. ii. 14—17. 

39. Having dmnk old nme, *0. 
Wine increasan ila Btrength and flaTor, 
and its mildnsBS and B " *"" 



and make pnyera, and Ukewiae tie 
Hicipla of the Pharisees) but ' 
thine eat aad drink ? 

34 And he said unto ttiem, Ca 
ye make the children of the bride- 
chamber fast, while the bridegroom 
is with them 1 

35 Bal the days will come when 
the ^idegroom shall he taken away 
from them, and then shall they fast 
* in those days. 

36 And * he spake also a parabli 
QDto them : No man patteth a pieci 
□f a new garment upon an ola ; if 
otherwise, then both the new makech 
irent, and the piece (hat was lotos 
aat of the new agreeth not ' with 
Ote old. 

37 And no man putteUi Dew wine 
into old bottles ; else the new wioe 
will burst the bottles and be spilled, 
aud the bottles shall perish. 

38 But new wine must be put 
aii.7.3i.3S. »ii.aa.ia « muh.b.ib, 

MirA!l,Kt. ^U.Ift.U, Da.n.11. aOor^S. 

the old is therefore pieterablo. 
ly who had t&aled such mild and 
low wine would noi readily dnnk 

eomparatiTely sour and iiairingeni 
« of the giaps as it came &om Ihe 
». The meaning of this prorerb in 

place seems to be this. You, 


o the a 

!B of the 

d painful 

, , They hBT8 tasted the 

gentle and tender bleaeings of the gos- 
pel. Tbov have no rduh for jour stem 
■nd harBh requiremenls. To insist nou 
on their obserrina them, would be like 
filing e man who had tailed of good, 
ripe, aiKl mild wine, to partake of that 
wnicb is sour and unpalalable. At tht 

ime all this will be regarded. 
Dui u praent to teach them 10 iaat 
when Ibey see no oaaitm for il g when 
thsy are ftill of joy at the preseace of 
ihefr Haaler, would be like pulling ■ 
piece of new cloth on an old garment ; 
or new wine into old bolllea ; or drink- 
m^ uopleiaanl wins, after one had 
•mted (hat which ii*aa pleannier. It 
would ail be ill-limed, in^^ropiiale, 
^nd ineonernous. 

t'oL, ir-.i 

into ne« bottle* ; and both era pre 

39 No man also having druak 
old iDiM straightway deeirelh new,; 
tbi be saith. The old ' is better. 

AND J- it came to pass on ^e 
second sabbath after the fiiat, 
that he went through the com-fields, 
and his disciples plucked the ears 
of corn, and did eat, rubbing lAtot 
Id lAeir hands. 

a And certain of the Phariseea 
said unto them. Why do ye that 
which I is not lawful to do on the 
sabbath^ ay si 

3 And Jesus anawering them, 
said, Have ye not read so much as 
this, what * David did, when hlm- 
aelf wesan hungered, and they which 
were with him ; 

t How he went into the honse of 
God, and did take and eat the shew- 
• Je.S.IS. /Hall.ia.l.ftc Har.a.nAe 

g Ei^aojo. ri.5B.i3. * 1 


1 — 11. See this passage explained in 
Notes on Matt, xii, 1—13. 

1. SttondtaHbaihaftiTthefLTit. &tm 
Matt. xii. I. This phrase has given 
great parplewly n 


vould ti 


fital sabbaih. The word o 

rhere else in any writing. Il is, ihere- 
are, exceedingly difiicull of inlerpreta 
ioQ. The most natural and easy in 
Cerpretalion is that propoied by Scsiiger 
The ifcmid day of the pesaover was ■ 
great featiial, on which the wave-sheaf 
I aSbr«d. Lev. uiii. 11. From tka> 
ijay Ihey reokonedieEtnuweti, or seven 
tmbatiit Is the day of penlecosL The 
nbbalh aAer that isvwl day was 
d the teeond prime, or thejiret from 
lecond day of the feasi. The iitond 
sabbaih was called the iteond leami, 
or the second sabbaiti Irom the second 
day of the feasi - the third, llie third 
teccnuf, &c, 7iu> day, therefore, on 
nhich Cbs Saviour went through the 
ielda, was jie hrat sabbath that occur- 
.-ed after the second day of liie feaat 
t JfaUiflg them in tktit Aanli. Tha 
"■ here mean" wlieal or berleir 

Iiread, and ga*e also to Uiein tbal 
weiB with him ; which ii is not 
iBvfnl ■ to eat, but for tne prieBls 

5 And he said unU them. That 
Ab Son ot man is Lord also of the 

6 And ' it came to pase also od 
■Dothei sabbath, that he entered in- 
to the synagogue, and taught ; and 
there was a man whose tight hand 
was withered. 

7 And the Bcribes and Pharisees 
watched him, whether he would 
heal OD the sabbath-da^ , ' that the; 
might find an accusation a^innt 

a Bnt he knew their thoughts,' 
and said to the man which had the 
' al^aiA »MEll,ia.lO,tc. Hsr^lAc 
eJ3.ll. 11.3. tJno.9.t(t. iIJobU.3. 

and not maize, as with us. They rpi- 
tcd it in their hands, to separals the 
grain from the chaff. 

8. But he JtfKw Iheir Ihoughtt- He 
knew their ihouehts — ^eir dark mali- 
laOMa desigriB — by the gaeitian which 

(Haiihew I In reply to their qui 
jesiu asked them whether they would 
not release a MKeep on the sabbath-day, 
if it was fallen into a pit ; and also ask- 
ed them, whether it was better to do 
good than to do evil on that day T im- 
plying that 10 omil to do good was, in 
bet, d oing evil. 

II. Were filled aithmaditeu. Prob- 
ably: 1st. Because he had shown hie 
poaier to work a miracle. 2d. Because 
Be had shown his power to do it con- 
Ira™ to what Ihty thought waa right. 
Sd, Because by doing it hs had shown 
Utal he was fraoi God. tJii that theg 
were, therefore, wrong in their views 
ofthe sabbath. And, 4ih. Because he 
had sttowa no respect lo iheir viemt 
of what ihe law of God demanded. 
Pride, obstinacy, malice, and diaap- 
pmnted self- confidence were all com- 
buied, therefore, in producing madneea. 
Nor were they alone. Men are often 
enraged becaiiae ottiers do good in a 
■ojr which tAcy do not approve of. God 

S'ves success to olhera, and becauae 
od has not accommodalcd himself to 

KU. lA D. M 

withered hand, Rise'up, end eCan^ 
forth in the midst. And he arose, 
and stood forth. 

9 Then Jesus said unto tliem, 1 
will ask jiou one thing; la it law 
ful on the sabbath-daja to do good, 
or to do evil 1 to save life, or to d^ 
atro; ■'( ? . 

10 And looking f round about 
upon them all, he said unto the man, 
Stretch forth Ih; hand. And hs 
did so ; and his hand was restored 
whole as the other. 

11 And they were filled with 
madness; and commnned ' one 
jrtth another what they might do 

lo Jesus. 

IS And * it came i« pass in those 
days, that he went out into a rnoun- 
a la.l£.4. Luiie]1.3L /Mar.U. / Pl3, 
IJJ. *Mall.H.23. 

their views of what is right and done it 
in the way which ihty would have pre 
■eribfld, they are enraged and filled 
with envy al men more eucceasful than 
themselves. S ConununnJ one vtiti 
another. Spoke together, or laid a 

BK/HHtain. Jesus was ( 
1 naort 10 such places u 
with God. Mark \ 
because it waa relired 
miption. and fitted by in 
and grandeur 

thoughts to the God that had formed the 
highhilla, and the deep shaded ^ves. 
t AH nighi in prayer to God, There 
has been a ditfcrcnce of opinion about 
this passage, whether it means that be 
spent the night in ihe act of praying lo 
God. or in a place q/' prayer. The Jews 
had plncea of prayoi — called orolorioj — 
built out of their cities or towns, where 
they could retire from Ibe bustle of a 
city, and hold communion with God. 
They were built on the banks of tiTers 
(compare Acts ivi 13), or in groves, or 
on hills. They were rude enclosures, 
made by building a rough wall of stone 
around a level piece of ground, and ca. 
pable of Bccommodatuig a small num- 
ber who might resort miihet to pray 
Bnt the more probable opinion 13, Iliol 
he apeni the whole night in supplica. 
tion. For: Isi. This is the obvious 
meenmgorihe passage 3d. The ob- 

A. D. 3b.] 


lain ■ to pray, aDd cooiinDed all 
night in prayer to God. 

13 And when it was day, hp call- 
ed unjo him his disciples : and of 
them lia chose twelve, ' whom also 
he named Apostles ; 

14 SimoD (whoa' tie also named 
Peter), end Andrew liia brother, 
James and John, Philip and Bar> 

15 Matthew and Thomaa, James 
(be Km of Alphena, and Simon call- 
ed Zelotes, ' 

. 16 And Jadas ' the brother o( 
aMulAS. tHatt.tO.IAc 
6£. iiJno.l.4S. dJudel. 

J' Bct for which he went out wi 
d. It was an occasion of grei 

apoHlles ; lo laf the foundatioa of his 
religion ; end he therefoie set apart this 
time specially to seek [he divine bless- 
ing. 4[h. It was no unusual thing for 
Jesus to spend much tune in prayer' 
and we are not to wonder tiial he pees 
ed an entire nighl in supplication- I 
it be asked whr Jesus etiould pray a 
Bil if he was Irvine, we - -- 

James, and Jadas [aca.-iot, mUiih 

IT And he came down witb 
Ibem, and stood in the plain, and 
the company of his disciplea, and 
a great multitude of people out of 
all Judea and Jerusalem, and from 
the sea-coaaC of Tyie and tJidoD, 
which came to hear him, and to be 
healed f of tbeir diseases ; 

18 And (hey that were veied 
with unclean spirits, and they were 

< M«ii.4.a5Ac. Mar.a7,*i:. /Pe.lSU 

plain when he delivered the following 
discourse. — There hoe been Bome doubt 
whether the following discourse is (he 
same as that recorded in the Sib, 6lh, 
and Tth chapters of Matltiew ; or whe- 
ther our Saviour repealed the subsianca 
of that discourse, and thai Luke record- 
ed it as he repeated i(. The reasons 
which have led many lo suppose thai 
they refer It -'-- '-- ""-■ 

a the 

blessing. There is 

Hencjr in his pranng, 

in his toting. Boib 

d bc!h e ■■ 

needing the mvi 

than there was 

en( with his being divine. 

was also Mtdiatnr, and as hucu u was 

E roper to seek the divine direction and 
leasing. In Ihii case, Jesus bsa set 
us an (jiample ibat ws should fol- 
low in his steps. In great emergencies, 
when we have important duties, or are 
about to encounter special difficulties, 
wo should seek the divine blessing and 
direction by praytr. We shouJd set 
apart an unusual portion of lime for 
Bupplicadon. Nay, if we pass (he tAalt 
*igla in prayer, it should not he charged 
as enihusiaam. Our Saviour did it. 
Men of the world oiien pass whole 
nights in plaoa of gain, orin diasipatioo, 
and shall \-. be esteemed strange that 
Chrisnans should spend an equal por- 

bnsiness of religion t 

13—16. See Noin, Matt. x. 1—4. 

IT. And itaed in thejilain. It is not 
affirmed, however that he slooi' in (be i 


And. 3d. That afltr the dis- 
iVBs delivered, botb aSirm that 
'en( to Capernaum, a ' ' 

5—13. Luke vii. 1— 10. Ontheother 
hand. Mailhae says thai the sermoii 
WOB dehvered on the matntain (Matt, 
V. l)j it is thonghl 10 be implied thai 
Luke affirms (lul it was in the plain. 
Matthew says that be tat ,■ Luke thai 
he tttod. Yet there is no resson te 
suppose that (here is a difference io ihe 
evangehsls. Jesus spent ihe n!gb( on 
(he moun(ain in prayer. In the morp- 
mghe descended inio (he open plain 
ana healed many. There is no impri 
prietyin supposing ibathe, being pi 
«j \ — — ,.,.„j — might -"'■"■ " 


. .... again, whero 

(he people might ba more lonveniently 
arranged and seated (n hear him. There 
he tat, as recorded by Ma((hew, and 
delivered (he discourse. For it is (o 
be observed (ha( Luke does not say (hat 
he delivered the sermon on the plain, 
but only that he healed the tick therg, 
HTurt and Sidm. SeeN— "-' 

18. ' r«ni. The word v 

1 Note, Mut 


19 -And Ihe vhtAt mnltitnde 
•oight to touch ' bim : far ' there 
wtnl Tinne out of him, and healed 

30 And < he lifted np his ejee 
hil disciplea, and said, BlesBod bt 
ye ' poor : for pour's ie the Icingdon: 
of God. 

SI Blessed ore y< that hanger 
■Dw : for ye shall be filled. ' BkflH- 
«d iir« ye that weep ' now : for ye 
■hall latigh. 

33 Blessed are ye when men 
■hall hate ' you, and when they 
•hall separate ' you from their com- 
pany, and shall reproach you, and 

u. (iH^.i. /PH.]07.a. fii-ai.; 

e by peity 

. ^ . lo torment — denoiing deep and 
heavy irisls. S Ujuiean ipiriti. De- 
tnODB that were impure and unholy, 
liaving a delight in tonnenung. and lo 
In^UnKpainful and loathsome diaeaaea. 

19. FirliiB. Healing power. See 
Note, Marti v. 30. 

20—19. Ilc6 this passage fully illuB- 
trated in the germon on ibe mount, in the 
Sth, 6rh, ani 7th chapters of Mallhew. 

21. 'not hanger tunc. Matthew has 
it, " that hunger and thirst after rigbi- 
•ousness." Matrhew has expresai^d 
mon/ully what Luke haa brisny, but 
there is no cantradiclion. 

24—26. Theaeverseshavebcenomit- 
tsd by Matthew. They aeem to have 
been spoken to the Pharieeea. ' 1^^ 
■re rieh. In this world's goods. They 
loved Ihem ; they had sought for them ; 
they found their consolation in Ihbm. 
It impUes, farther, that they would not 
■cell or receive consolation from tbe 
gospel. They were proud, and would 
not seek it: aatislied, and didnotdesire 
il : mled with cares, end had no lime 
O- djspo^tian to attend to it. All the 
consolation which they had reason to 
expect, they had received, Alas I how 
poor and worthless ia lucA consolaiioD, 
compared with that which the gospel 
would give. 1 Wo snlo you fioi art 
fuU .' Not hungry. Satielied witb 
Ihcu' wealth, and not feeling their need 
■fan) thing beltir than eanhly wealth 


cut oat yoni lume «■ evil, for tba 
Son of man's sake. 

23 Rejoice' ye in that day, and 
leap for joy: for, behold, yoar r» 
ward 11 great in heaven : for in the 
like manner ' did their fathers unto 
the prophets. 

34 But woe unto you that are 
rich! for ye have received "yom 

35 Woe unto you that are full ! " 
for ye ehall hunger. Woe onto yon 
that langh ' now ] for^e shall mourn 
and weep. 

36 Woe UDlo you when all men 
shall speak well ' of you! far 

' - :.s.4i. Co].i.a4. Ja.1.3. k AcT.a. 

They profess to be satisfied. They 
deaire nothmf; but wealth, and a suf- 
ficiency loi>alLafythe wants of the body. 
They have no anjaety for the riches 
that shall endure for ever. T Fe lAoS 
hanger. Your property shall be taken 

y ; you afiall leave it ; or you shall 

hat it IB of little value. And then 
shall see the need of something 
ir; feel your want, and wretchef 
neSB, and ahall hunger for somelbins 
to BBtiafir the desirsa of a dying, 9infi3 
aoul. fThat laagh note. Are happy, 
or ihonehtlese, or gay, or filled whh 
levity. ^ SlmU mourn and vieni- The 
time i» coming when you ahall sorrow 
deeply. In eickneaa, in colamily, in 
~hfl prospect of death, in the fear of 
iiernily, your laughter ahall be turned 
nto sorrow. Thert ii a place where 
rou cannot laugh ; and there you will 
«e the folly of having passed the proper 
time of prepsrinE for such scenes in 
levily and folly. 'Alas! howmanylbus 
' "' ■ youth. And many weep 
00 late. Cod gives them 
tghxaiTBEiR calamity, and 

Iheir fear cornea. Prov. i. 

26. To be happy in inieh icenet, it ii 
icesaary to be sober, humble, pious ia 
irly life. Then we need not weep in 
the day of calamity ; there is do terror 
death : there ia nothing to fear in the 


M did tbeil fii^era to the false pro- 

27 But I say unto you which 
hear. Love ■ your enemies, do good 
to them which hate joa ; 

39 Blesa them ^that curse yon, 
iind * pray for Ihem which deapitO' 

39 And' auto him that amiteth 
thee on the one cheek offer also the 
Other; and him ' that talieth away 
Ihy cloak forbid not to la/ce thy coal 

30 Give ■ to every man that asli- 
Bth of thee; and of him that taketh 
away thy gooda ask them not again. 

31 And f as ye would that men 
should do to yon, do ye alao to tfaem 

33 For if ye love them which 
lore yon, what thank have ye? for 
sinners also tore thoae that love 

33 And if ye do^ good to them 

which do good to you, what thank 

Et33.*fi. PraMl. HiltJU4. VBfJi. 


have yel fcr siuiers also do evM tc.S3.34. J 

ti.).«,*c. / Ml 

le.lS.TAlO' ^.19 

or applaud my doclrin'e. They ara op- 
pugal to il. And iherefore if iheys^ak 
well of jmi and of your leaching, it is 

Sroof that you do not teach the Irue 
octrine. If not, then there will bo 
woo upon you. If men leach falia doc- 
trinee for trus ; if ihey declare that God 
has spoken ^hat he has not Bpoken, 
and if Ihoy oppose what he ha> deliver- 
ed, Uien heavy puniahments will await 
.hem. TFrn-mdidrterr/aUers. The 
fatheri or atualan of ihia people, the 
iDcientJewa. ^ To the falte pnpieU. 
Men wlio pretended to be of God — who 
delivered iheir mnn doclrinea as the truth 
of God, and accommodated (bomselvea 
lo the desirea of ihe people. Of Ihia 

' Jeremiah, Ilc. 

Z7, 28. See Mall. v. * 

39. See HalL i. 39, « 

30. See Mall. t. 43. 

31. See Malt. vii. is. 
n-M. See Matt. t. 4 

a the 

34 And if ye lend to than of 
whom ye hope to receive, what 
thank have yel for ainnera also 
lend to eianers, to receive as much 

35 But love ye yonr enemies,' 
and do good, and lend, * hoping fix 
nothing' again ; and your reward 
shall be great, and ' ye shall be the 
children of the Highest: for he is 
kind onto the unthankful, and to 
the evil. 

3e Be ye therefore mercifiil, u 
yoor Father also is mercifnl. 

37 Judga) not, and ye shall not 
;ondemn not, end ja 

condemned : forgave, 
and ye shall be forgiven : 

38 Give, and it ahall be given * 
onto yoaj good meaeure, pressed 
down, and shaken together, and 
running over, ahall men give into 
your bosom.' For ~ with the same 

rwan. lPi.37.3a. 119.5. IHaIl-1! 
U. JMatl.T.I. ' 
/P«.7i.l2. « Matt. 73. Mai.t,24. 1*3 

37-^3. See Malt. vii. 1—9. 
38. Gmd BuaiuTe. They ahall gjVa 
von good measure, or full measure. 
1 Pret$ed dotim. As figs or grapes 
. and thus many more might 
10 the measure. T Slialceii tt- 
gtlier. To make it be more compact, 
-ndihuBlogivemore. V Running over. 
_i hill ihat the measure would over' 
flow. T Shall nun give. This ia said 
be the reward of giving to the poor 
And iBe meaning is that 
is liberal ahall find othen 
. m dealing with them, and 

m who is himself kind to 
lo has thai charaeler estab- 
lished— aholl find many who are ready 
help him abundanll); when he is in 
He thai ia oarsimonioua, eloae. 

ind needy, 
he man w' 
hberal to 1 
' a he 

t. A 

reference tc ^ 

nadoiu of making the boeom or ironl 
part <^ (heiT garment! targe, ao that m 

meware that ye tneti withaf, it shall 
be meaBuced lo yaa again. - 

39 And he spake a parable unto 
them : Can ■ the blind lead the 
blind ! shall they not both Tall into 
the ailch 1 

40 The » disciple is not above his 
masler: but everyone' that is^er- 
±ct shall be as his uiBRter. 

41 And why beholdeBt thou the 
mote that is in th; brother's eye, 
bat perceiTOBt not the beam that is 
to Itline own eyel 

43 Either how canst thou say to 
Ihy brother, Brother, let me pull 
out the mole that is in thine eye, 
when Ibou thyself behaldest not 
the beam that is in thine own eye T 
Tltoa hypocrite ! cast ° out first the 
beam out of thine own eje, and 
then shalt then see clearly to pull 
out the mole that is in thy brother's 

43 For ' a good tree brin^elh 
not forth corrupt fl'uit ; neither 
doth a corrupt tree bring forth good 

' fruit. 

44 For ' every tree is known by 
his own fruit : for of thorns men 

... ahta it firfetui u 
Rg.S.UIAc i IK 
33> * Agrapt. 

Jno. 13.18. 

KB. lA.D.3a 

do not gather figs, nar of a brwn' 

ble-bush gather Ihey ' grapes. , 

45 A-' good man out of the good 
treasnre of his heart bringeth forth 
that which is good ; and an evil man 
out of the evil treasure of his heart 
bringeth forth that which is evils 
for of ths abundance of the heart 
his mouth speaketh. 

46 And why call ye me, • Lord, 
Lord, and do not the things which 

47 Whosoever cometh to mo, 
end henreth my sayings, and doeth 
them, I will shew you to whom he 
is like : 

48 He * ia like a man which 
built a house, and digged deep, and 
laid the foundation on a rock ; and 
when the fiood arose, (he sUeam 
beat vehemently upon that hoose, 
and ' could not shake it ; for it wss 
founded upon a rock, J 

49 But he ' that heareth, and do- 
elh not, is like a man that without 
a foundation built an bouse upon 
the earth; against which the stream 
did beat vehemently, and immedi- 
ately it felt ; ' and the luin of that 
hoDSe was great. 

tides could be carried in tham, am 

iog the pnrpoBe of our pockcla. ( 

^ra Ei. Ly. 6, 7. Prov. vi. 27, Rulh 

_L 15. 

39. Aparahle^ A proverb, or Hiniili. 
tode. See Matt. iv. 14. 

40. Tka doddle 

not know 

no better. Tlua seems to nave been 
" V them that they wei 

|o beyimA ti 

that their disciplea i 

B bhnd, their followi 

. ould 
that if 

portanl for them lo understand fully the 
doolrinoe of the goapel, and not lo b~ 
blip>4 leaders of the blind. T Etiery i\ 
'to u p* -feet. The word rendered 


.1.10. Jud 

., G8.«.7. , 

«b1.1.«. 1 


mend, and is thus appbed to mendbig 
tua. MaiLiv.2l. Mark i. 19. Hence 
It means \a repair or amend in a moral 
sense, orlo make whole, or complete. 
Here it means evidently thoToiighty Ht- 
itmeted or rF/onaed. The ChnBIian 
shall be tike Au nuuler, holy, harmless, 
and undefiled. and eepaiate from mn- 
nera. He shall copy his example, and 
grow into the bkenessofhia Radeemer 
Nor can any other be a Chtislian. 

41, 42. See Matt. vii. 3—5. 

43, 44. See Matt. vii. 16—18. 

45. This verse ia not found in ine 
sermon on the Mount, as recorded by 
Matthew, but is recorded by him in A. 
xii. 35. 

46-^9. See Matt. viL 31—97. 




W'OW ■ when he bad ended all 

l^ hiH sayings In ibe audienne of 
ihe people, he entered into Caper- 

2 And a certain centurioo'e aer- 
f«nt, who was dQar ' uaio him, was 
■iok, and ready to die. 

3 And when he heard of Jesoa, 
■e sent unto him the elders of Ihe 
lews, beseeching him that he would 
come and heal his serranl. 

4 And when Ibe^ came to Jesus, 
they besought him instantly, saying, 
Tiial be was worthy for whom he 
Bhonld do this : 

5 For he loielh ' oai nation, and 
he hath built ns a synagogue. 

6 Then Jesus went with them. 
And when he was now not far from 
tb^ house, Ihe cenlurioQ sent friends 
to him. Baying uato him, Lord, 
Iroable ' not thyself; for I am not 
worthy that thou sbouldest enter 
ander my roof: 

7 Wherefore neither thought I 
myself worthy to come unto ihee ; 
but say ' in a word, and my serraot 
«bali be healed. 

tMtUASAe. tJobSl.lS. Fr.S9.91. 
IKi^l. Oal.S.S. lJu'a.3.14. S.1,3.' 


1—10. See Mail. viii. 5—13. 

I. In tAe audieiae of Ifte people. In 
be henrine of the pBoplo. 

S. Wh> mas dear unto him. Thitis, 

ae WBB valuable, truaty, and honored. 

4. They beioughC him itutantls/. Ur- 

''~ » earoesliy. ^ He mu aorthg. 

iturion. He had showed favor 

lo Ibe Jews, and it was not improper to 

ahow him a kindness. 

II. A' aty catUd Nai». This city 
was in Galilee, in the boundaries of the 
tribe of lasacber. It waa ahoul two 
miles Bouih of Mount Tabor, and not 
fia from Capernaum. It ia now a amall 
villnge inhabited by Jews, Mahometans, 

_ and Christians. 

13. The gate if the city. Ciiieswere 
■umnuidecT by walls, to defend them 
from their eneniiea. They were enter- 
9d thmugti galea placed at convenient 
dialances frcm oai^b other. In most 

8 For I aUo am b man set uidet 
authority, ba*ingundermu soldier*: 
and I say unto ' one, Go, and be 
goeth i and to another, Come, and 
he Cometh ; and to my servant, Do 
this, and he doelh it , 

9 When Jesus heard these ihin^ 
he marvelled at him, B(id turned him 
about, and said unto Ihe people that 
followed him, I say unto you, 1 have 
not found bo great faith, no, not in 

10 And theyjhat were sent, le. 
turning to Ibe house, found the ser- 
vant whole that had been sick, 

11 And it came to pass the day 
after thai be went into a city called 
Nain ; and many of his disciplee 
went with him, and much people. 

12 Now when he came ni^ to 
the gate of the cily, behold, there 
was a dead man carried out, the only 
son of. his mother, and she was a 
widow : end much people of the 
cily was with her. 

13 And when the Lord saw her, 
he had compassion on her, and said 
unio her. Weep not. 

14 And he came and touched the 
ttAii!^ •Pi.lOT.aO. ■ nummw. 

.. allowed v> bury, the 

dead within the walls. Hence ther 
were home to some eonvenient bntitd 
place, in the vicinity of the city. IA 
dead man carried aut, A funeral pro- 

— - — -sntly L. 

buried within the wbUb c 


s and distinguished per- 

uvlii. 3. 3 ffinas ixi. 18. 

The ctistom of burjiing within cities, 
and especially witbin the walla of 
churchea, or in their vicinity, had iu 
origin among Christians very early.i 
Yet perhaps Tew customs are more de- 
leterious la health than burials within 
laree cities, eapedally within the walla 
of frequented buildings. The effluvia 
dead bodies, is excessively un- 
nsomo. Burial places should ha 

if the gay and busy world, 
1... r^^Kl.^. n.,.,. h. .^<:n .„A 

68 LU 

* bier . and the; that bara him txood 
•till. And he eaiJ, Young man, 1 
say unto Ihee, * Aiise. 

15 And he that waa dead ' sat 
np, and began lo speak. And he 

' delivered hint to his mother. 

16 And tbere came a fear on all: 
" Bud tfaoy glorified God, aajing. That 

a great prophet ' ia tiaen up amons 
as; and. That ' God hath Tiailed 
hia people. 

17 And this rumour of him wenl 
Torlh throoghoul .all Judea, and 
throughout all the region round 

18 And the disciples of John 
shewed him of alt these things. 

19 And * John calling unlo Aim 

to health, froin the mouldering bodies 
of ihedead. 

16. Came aftar m aU. An aat, or 
■olemnit}' at me presence of one who 
had power to raise the dead, end et tho 
miracle which had been performed, 
1 Olorified Cod. Praised, or honored 
God, thai he had sent such a prophet. 
T And Chat God luilh uiiittd hii pemle. 
Some aoid one thine and some enotber, 
but all eipressing their beUaf that God 
had showed peculiar feior to the peo- 
ple. 1 Hath Builed. See Luke i. 68. 

The raising of this younij man was 

. le of the 
of our Lord' 
doubt that 1 

i^les. There was no 
dead. There could 


, and bya 

estored tim to life. All those 

who bad the beat opporlimitf of judg- 
big, the mother, the friends, beUcved 
him lo be dead, and were about to bury 
him. The evidence that he came ic 
life was decisive. He sat up, he spake, 
' and oU were impressed with the fuh 
asauranee that God had raised him to 
life. Many witnesses were present, 
and none doubted tbal Jeaus, by a 
w&rd, had restored him to hia weepmg 

The whole scene was alTeciing. Here 
waa a widowed mother, who waa fol. 

KE. [A. D. 30 

two of his disciplet, sent titan ta 
Jesus, laying. Art thou he thai 
ehould comel ^ or look we foi 
BPOlher T 

20 When the men were come 
Dnlo him, diey said, John Baptist 
halh seat us unto ibee, sayiog. Art 
thou he that shoald coow I or lodt 
we for another t 

31 And in the mine hoar he 
cured manj of their inflrroities and 
plagues, and of evil spirits ; and 
unto many titat were blind he gave 

33 Then Jesus, aDawering, said 
unto diem. Go your way, and tell * 
John what things ye have seen and 
heard ; how * that the blind sea, the 

dtl.ea sMsll.ll.& fZechSA glao. 

lowing her only son, her stay, and hope, 
10 the grave. Hs was borne along, one 
in the prime of life, and the oidy com- 
fort of nis parent — impreasive proof that 
the youne, the useful, ihe vigorous, and 
the lovely, may die. Jesus met ihera 
— Bpparenily a stranger, lie approach- 
ed (he procession, as if ha had some- 
thing imriortiuil lo aay — he touched the 
bier, anr] the procession stood still. Hs 
was full ul compassion for ibe wee(Mng 
parent ; and, by a word, restored ihe 

Siulb, Btretched upon the bier, to bfe. 
e sal up, and spake. Jesus therclore 
had power over tbe dead. He also has 

passes imd sins, to life. Ha can speak 
the word ; and. though in their death 
of ain they are borne along towards 
ruin, he can open their eyes and raise 
them up, and reaiore (hem revived to 
real life, or lo their friends. Often he 
raises up children In this momier. and 
gives ihem, convened to God, to theii 
frienda; imparting as real joy as he 

fave to the widow of Noin, by raismg 
er son from the dead. And every 
child should remember, if be has pious 

them aa bj 


?, and resolving to 

19—35. See tlda passB] 
in Matthew li. 3—19. 
39. The peapU. Tha o 





■aiDK walk, the lepers are cleansed, 
Che deaf hear, the dead ai'e raised, 
lo the poor * the gospel is preach- 

33 And biassed is he, nboeoever 
■hall not be offended * in roe. 

84 And when the messengers of 
John were departed, he b^n to 
■peak unto the people concerning 
John, What went je mh into tbe 
wilderness for to see 1 A reed 
•haken with the wind 1 

il5 But what went je out for to 
see 1 A man clothed in eof^ lai- 
mem 1 Behold, they which are 
gorgeously apparelled, and live de- 
licately, are in kings' courts. ' 

S6 But whalwent je out for to 
see? A prophet!' Yea, I say 
unco you, and much more than a 

37 This is he of whom it is writ- 
ten, • Behold, I send mj messenger 
before thy face, which shall prepare 
thy way before Ihee. 

SC4.I& Ja.a.5. &Ii.§.14.U. Ualllie. 
13^. c.3^ laoAK. ]Ca.J^l-3S. «S £(t.].3,ll. de.l.TB- tMtt.3.1. 

pie. 1 Tial hxard him. Th&l heard 
John. 1 Tit publicam. The tax-sa- 
therera, the wonl kiad of people, who 
hod however been converted. 1 JiuCt- 
■ffd Gat. Coiuidered God as jiuc or 
right in tbe coimsel which he gave by 
John — to wii, in calling men to repenl- 
ance, and denouncing foi"™ wmth nn 
ihf- — ■" 

. Comi 

1 Being taptiztd,, &.C. They t, 

Uod, by aubmitting to the ordinance 
which he camTnaiidcd, the ordinance 
of bapiism. This verse and tbe lblk>w- 
ing are not lo be considered aa tbe 
worda of Luke, but the continuation of 
the diaconrse of our Lord. He is sa;. 
ing what Took place in regard to John. 
Among tbe eamtsm pajpli he waa ap- 
proved and obeyed — among the rich 
mnd learned he waa deeplBcd, 

30. But the Phariieei and laayirt re- 
jerted, Ju:. Il appears fromMattiiLT. 
that tiMK of the Pt^riaeea came 10 John 
ID be baplized; but alill ihii ia eniiiely 
■•■atmaual with the lupponiion that the 

3S Foi I say onto jroa AmoDg . 
those that are born of women, Ihera 
is not a greater prophet than John 
the Baptist : but he that ia least id 
^e kingdoin of God is greater ihati 

29 And all the people that heard 
Aim, and the pablicans, juelilied' 
God, being baptized ' with the htp- 
tjem of John. 

30 Bui the Pharisees and law 
yers ' rejected the counsel *of God* 
against Chemselvea, being not bap . 
lized of him. 

3i And the Lord sa^d, Where- 
unto ' then shall I liken the men 
of this generation 1 and to what ata 
they like! 

33 They are like unto childrea 
sitting in Ihe market-place, and calU 
ing one to another, and saying, Wo 
have piped unto you, and ye have 
not danced ; we have mourned to 
you, and ye have not wepl. 

33 For John the Baptist came ' 
/FmAH. Ba.1.1. rMall.3J,e. c.aiS. 
1 or. frMUrtaiL k AcJOir. > or, wiMm 
Ucmiilv-. 1 Hati.iue.kc JMatt.}^ 

o laof Pharieeesand lawyera re 

lecled him. ^ The amtuel ^ Goi. 
The caiHMel ef God lowards them waa 
the solemn admoniiion by John, to re- 
peat and be bapiiied, and be prepared 

the MeaaiBh. This waa the 

or revealed will of God, ii 

relation to them. When it is said that 
they rejected the counael of God. ii does 
not mean that the; could fruatrate hta 
purpoaes, but merely that ihey violated 
his commands. Men cannot frustrate 
the real purpoees of God ; but ihef can 
— . 1..= — =-=,« I violate hia 

,__ .., ... Ti, and despia* 

the deMire which he manifests for iteu 
welfiire, ' Agait 

n hurt, 


lettion of the counael of God «ill deep- 
ly injure them. God is wise and good. 
He linows what ia best fot u>. He, 
therefore, that rejecta what God com 
ydfl, rejects it to his own injury. It 

jBl be well for any mortal lodevi** 

what God commands liim to dc 


Deilher eating bread dot drinking 

wine ; ani je bbj, He hath a deviH 

34 Tbs ■ Son of man ia come 
eatine ani drinking ; and je say, 
Behold, a gluitoDous man, and a 
wine-bibber, a fiiend of publicans 

35 But > Wisdom is justified of. 
■11 her chitdren. 

36 And * one of the Pharisees 
desired him that he would eat with 

' bim. And he went into the Phari- 
Bee'a hoaee, and eat down to meat. 
t ISA Tir.Se. h PT.S^a-36. IT 

31 — 35, See this paasago eiplained in 


n Mali 

Lard I-.- „ . 

almost all the mannacripta, and is omit 
ted by the best critics. 

36. One of the PtaritecM. His oami 
was Simon, ver. 10. Nothing more ii 
known of him. It is not improbable 
however, from what follows (vs. 40- 
i7,) that he had been healed by the Sa 

show h» gratitude, 
-i. The original word 
liat he placed himself. 

of E___. 

made thia fea5 


Jews. See Note ... 

Meat. Sappar. Food of any kind. Sat 

37. In tfu city. What city ia meant 
ia unknown. Soma bavo supposed it 
was Nain; some Caperaaum ; and 
■ome Jerusalem. T Which woi a lin- 
a depraved, or wicked. 

be a sinner— ~perb ape on abandoned 
womqp. or 1 prostitute. Tt ia certain 
that she had much to be fbreiveo ; and 
ahe had probably passed kcr lUe in 
crime. T An alataiter-bax, &,c. See 
Note, Mu-k xiv. 3. 

3S. Stood at kit feet. Tbey redined. 
M their meals, on theh left aide, and 
Ihfflr feet therefore were extended /roin 
the tBble,'sa that persons could eaail}> 
abroach them , See N^'" "-• — "■■ 

fl Beg. 

it feet. The 

iff :irhen they entered a home. It was 
m act of hospitality and kindness to_ 

KB. [A.D 30 

37 And, behold, a woman in the 
city, which was a sinner, ' when 
ahe knew that Jetiu aal at meat in 

the Pharisee's house, brought an 
alabaster'box of ointment, 

38 And stood at his feet tebind 
Aim weeping, and began to wash 
his feat with tears, and did wip« 
them with the hairs of her hecid, 
and kissed his feet, and anointed 
them with the ointment. 

39 Now when the Phansee which 
had bidden him saw ii, he spake 

c Hilt.26,B,&c. H».li.3,A^. Jno.ll.ZAe- 
dcJ.St »er.34. ITi.l.lS. 

fore, began to show her love for him, 
and at the same time ber humihty and 
pAiiteoce, by pouring forth a flood of 
tsara, and washing hta feet, in the man 
ner of a servant. T Sitied hit feet. 
The kies was an emblem of kive and 
afiection. In this manner she leatiSed 
her loVB for the Lord Jeaua — and at the 
eame time her humility, and sense of 
ain, by kissing his feet. There conld 
be few eipreanonB of penitence more 
md tender than were these. A 
of all her sins rushed over her 
; her heori burst at the remem- 
. . 3 of them, and at the presence of 
the pure Redeemer : with deep sorrow 
ahe humbled hersel'', and sought for 

.'-. .... love for him 

kiss of affection ; her humility, by 

1 feet 

L, by 

breaking a 


cured by a 

Ufe— and 


tie feet. In"' this 

way we 


mas the 

loved Re- 


his feet. 

and offsr- 

ng <Ul_ we 
earned m liv 

all that 

we have 


and mercha 

ndise. a 


While we 


ng alt I 

his ser- 

shall w 

if our repe 

and thu 

^XaM wS 



ipake ailhiit iimtelf. ThoughL 
IK iBerea projAet. The wordpro- 

Sa here means not one who predicts 
lurs events, but one who knows the 
hearts of men. If Jesus had been aeni 
' God as a prophet, he supposed he 
luld have known entirely Ibe charac- 
r of the woman and would have re 
bukedher. ^ WmldhavtbntiHi t.e. 

k. D. 30.] 


TilhJD bimaelf. Baying, This man, 
if* be were, a prophet, would have 
liDOwn who and what manner of 
woman (&u t'l that touched] him ; 
Tot she is a sianei. ' ' 

40 And Jesns, answering, said 
onto him, Simon, I have somewhat 
to BBf unto thee. And he Baith, 


n creditor 

1 There 
which had two debtois 
owed five hundred i pence, and the 
other Gfij : 

43 And when thej had nothing ' 
> jDn.9.34 »i:.1S.S, 1 See Msll-iaas. 

BecBiue JesuB did not rebuke her. and 
drive her Irum his presence, he inferred 
thai be could net he acquainled with 
her character. The Pluuieees consider- 
ed it iinpfoper lo hold communion wiih 
rhoee who were notoiiaua ainneis. They 
judged our Saviour hy iheir own rulea, 
and Buppoaed he would aci in the same 
way ; and Simon therefore concluded 
that he did not know her character, and 
could not be a prophet. Jeaua did not 
refuse the societ)' of the eudty. He 
came to save ifae lost. And no persoo 
erer came to him so aure of finding hun 
a friend, aa those who came canscioiia 
that they were deeply depraved. aiJ 
nouming on accouot of their crimes. 
1 ThM timd^tA Ann. The touch of a 
Gentile, or a person singularly wicked, 
ihey Buppoaed to be pollutmg, and the 
Pharisees avwded it. See Matt. a. 11. 
il. A eettaiit creditur. A man who 
had lent money, or sold property, the 

Kymeni for which was yei due. V Fitie 
iidred pence. About (69 26. ^ Fifty. 
Aboa 87. 

43. FnaOily forgave. Freely for- 
gave, or forgave entirely, without any 
compensation. I'his ie not deragned lo 
express any thing about the way in 
which Go* forgives sinners. He Em- 
gives — forgives freely, but it is in con- 
nexion wi£ the tttoneuumt made by the 
Lord Jesus. If it was n mere debt 
which we owed to Gcd. be might for- 
give as this creditor did, without any 
equivalent. But it is crime which he 
forgives. He pardons as a moral gover- 
□or. A parent might iurgive a ddit 
without any equivalent ; but he cannot 
■aidoa an oflendins child witbont r4- 

to pay he franklj* tbrga*e them 
both. Tell me, iberefore, which of 
them will loTe him moatl 

43 Simon answered and said, I 
BupposB that he to whom he forgave 
iiost. And he said unto him. Thou 
hast rightly 'judged. 

44 And he turoed to the woman, 
and eaid onto Simon, Seeat thon 
this woman 1 I entered into thine 
house, thou gavest me no water for 
mj feel : but she hath washed mv 
feet with tears, and wiped them wilb 
the hatra of her head. 

rf P». 118, 16-18. ICor.lS.O. !C'or.5.l4. t 

truth of 

. the 

tboiuh they i 
so figunUivel 

ings,the good order 

of his house, and the maintenance ot 

his authority. So our sins against God, 

''-- ":h they are called debti, a^e called 

" ■ 'i is not an affair of 

without maintaining hia word, the ho- 
nor of bia government, and law — in 
other words, without an atonement. It 
is dear that by the creditor here, our 
Saviour meant to designate GoD--aiid 
by the iehtort, sinners, and the woman 
present. Simon, whose bfe had been 
comparatively upright, was denoted by 
the one that owedjt/ly pence — the wo- 
man, who bpd been an open and shame- 
leas'ainner, was represented by the one 
that owed five hundred. Yet nnUer 
could pay. Both must be forgiven, or 
perish. ■ So, however much diireronce 
there ie among men, yet all need the 
pardoning mercy of God, and oil, with- 
out that, must perish. 
43. /mppni, &.C. He sawDOl Uu 
Lord's parable. 

Lord's reproof. 

4*. Seal thou iOm womoii r i ou sea 
what this woman has done to me, com- 
pared with what you have done. Slu 
has shown to me expressions of regard, 
which you, in your own house, hava 
nolshown. 1 1 entered into thine Iuu4t. 
1 came at your invitation, where I might 
expect all the usual rites of hospitably. 
1 Thou gnveit me no uulzr, &,c. Among 
eastern people it wac customary, beliire 
eating, lo wash the teet, and lo dotlu*, 
•r to brinji water for it, was one ol Iha 


o kiss : but 

In, hath not ceased to kiss injr feet. 
. 46 Mj* head with oil Ihou didst 

riles of hoapitalily. See Gen. xviii. 4. 
Judges itx. 21. The rcosong for Ihis 
wtre, ihal jhev wore wnAiZs whiclk 
eovsrod only ihe boilom of the feel, 
' and thai whon ihcy ute ihcy recimrd on 
couches or Bofas. Il bccnmo therefore 
oeceswry ihnl the feci should be often 

45. No kiMs. The kita was a token 
of Btfeclion. or a very common mode 



not anoint: bat this woman ha1l> 
anointed my feet with ointment. 

47 Wherefore I eay onto ibeck 
Her sins, which are many, am fop 

always express the most welcome. 
There maybe much insincerity— much 
seeking of populority, or some olhar 
motive — but no such motive could I\iivb 
operated in inducing a broken-hearted 
sinner to wash Ihe Saviour's feel wilb 

K, Jlfne head leilk oil. The custom 
if pouring oil upon the head was uni- 
'eraal among the Jews. The oil used 
WSB sweet oil, or oil of olives, prepared 
in such a way as to give on agreeable 
srnell. Il was also used to render Lite 
liair more smooth and elegant. See 
.. - aSurn. xii. 20; liv. 2. Pb. 
T With ointmeM. This oirH- 


_„ of VI_ _ 

as therefore far more costly 
lUS than the cil commonly 
lointing the head. Her con- 
pared with that of Simon. 
> tlierefore more striking. He did 
iiuL pve even (he common oQ for hit 
hind, used on such ocmsiona. She had 
apiilied to his feel a far more precious 
and valuable unguent. He, therefore, 
•howed comparatively liiUe love. She 
showed Blink 

47. IPheTtftre, I {n unto Ikee, Am 

the resnlt of this, or because she has 
done this; meaning by this, that alia 
had given evidence that her «iii* had 
been forgiven. The inquiry with Si- 
mon was whether it was proper for Je 
BUS to touek her, or to atlow her to 
touch him. because she waa such a sin- 
ner, (ver. 39). Jesus said, in subnance, 
to Simon, 'grant that she has been u 
great a sinner as you affirm, and even 
grant that if she had cnnltnaei so it 
might be improper to suffer her to touch 
me, yet her amduct shows that her Enns 
have been forgiven. She has evinced 

that she is no longer euck a smner as 
you suppose, and it is not therefore bn 
proper that she should be suffered lo 
come near me,' 1 F»r the hntd muek. 
In our translation this would seem to 
be given as a reason why her sins haa 
been forgiven — thsl she hsd loved much 
before they were pardoned. But this is 
clenrly not the meanine. This would 
be contrary to (he whole New Testa- 
ment, which supposes that love toe- 
ceeii, not preetdei forgiveness; B>>d 
which nowhere supposes that sins ate 
forgiven betatue we love God. Il would 
be also contrary to the design of the 
Saviour here. It was not to show lehy 
her sins had been forgiven, but to show 
that she had given evidence that ihey 
actually had b^n, and that it was pro 
per tberctbre that she should come near 
to him, and manifest this love. Ths 
meaning maybe thus expressed. 'Thai 
her sins, BO many, and aggravated, have 
been forgiven; that she is no '.ongei 
such a sinner as vou suppose, is mani- 
fest from her conduct. She loves much. 
She shows deep graritude,*penitenee,~ 
love. Her conduct is the proper em- 
preiiUm of that love. While you hava 
ihown comparatively little evidence 
hat you fell that your iiw were great, 
.„j — iparalively Lille ' ■■--- 

much.' » To fBhna litlle it farghim. 
He who feels that little has been for- 
given — (hal hie •■■ were not as gw a i 


given ; for she loved much : bnt to 
whom little is foi^iTea, the tame 
foveth little. 

48 And he said nnto hei. Thy 
eiDB are foreiTen. 

"49 And ihejr that eat at meet with 
bira began to saj within themselves, 
Who ■ ie this that forgiveth sins 

t M*1U9X3. Hir,«.T. i Hi.S.4. Malt. 
n^a. limiAM 10.St. e&48. Ep.KS. 

u ibose of others. A man's love [.> 
God wiil be in proponion lo Ihe obligs- 
lion ho ful* lo Him for forgivenees. 
God is to ba leved for hij perfsclions, 
■part from what he hu dmu for ua. 
But still it it proper that our love ahoiild 
be increased by s consideraiion of his 
^oodnesa ; and they who feel — as Chris- 
tiuia dcr— thai thev me lit chitfof ain- 
Hert, will Irel under infinite obligation 
to love Goa uid their Redeemer, and 
Ihot no txpfi tioM of love lo him can 
ba hevead wha is due. 
IS, Tistiiuartf,rgi«H. What a 

loving, ponilcnt ! Haw that voice, spo- 
ken 10 the troubled ainner, stills hia 
anguiah, allays hia troubled feehngs, 
and prtMluces peace (o the soul ! And 
how manifeat u ii, that he ihni could 
say ihuB, mmmI be God ! No ■■» has 
a right lo for^va ain. No man tan 
speak peace lo the soul, and give aa. 
■umnce that lis tranagressiona are par- 
doned. Here, then, Jesus gave indu- 
bitable proof that he waa God, as well 
as man — thai he was Lord of ihe con- 
science, as well as the pitying friend ; 
and that he was aa able to read the 
Sean, and give peace there, as to witness 
'' ' expressian of sonow for 

49. irh> u Ou, iti 
ncnt question. Who 
Gidf Man could not do it, and llicre 
w no wonder that ihtj were amaied. 

50. Tliy failk kath hived Ihtt, » » 
|Mre. ^e Mark v. 34. 


i.Swen/dly and elUagt. Of Galilee. 

* Tit tlod lidinii of tht kiHgdom <if 

0*d. That the kinidom of God was 

Vol. U. — 6 


AND it came to pass afterward, 
Ihat he went throLtghout everj 
city and Tillage, preaching agd 
shewing the glad tidings of the 
kingdom of God : and the twelve 
were with him ; 

2 And'cenain women which had 
been healed of evil spirits and in 
firraities, Mary called Mardalene 
out ' of whom went seven devils, 

3 And Joanna the wife of Chuza, 

ctaati.ST.SS. iIMtr.lG.a. ver.30. 

I about to be set up oi 
The I ■ 

3. Mnniliei.' Sic^ess. ^ Mary 
called Magdalent, So called from Mag ■ 
data, the place of her readence. It 
was aiiuaied on the sea of Gahlee, south 
of Cspemaum. To this place Jesud 
retired after feeding the four thousand. 
See Matt. Jtv. 39. T 0«i o/icAoiiiimni. 
By ihe power of Jesus. iSetwH deviU. 
The word araen ia often used ibr an in- 
definilB number, aiuT may signify merely 
nuHjr devila. The expression ia used 
to signify ihat she was grievously tor- 
mented, and rendered, doubilsss, in- 
sane by the power of evil apitits. See 
Mall. IV. 24. It haa been commonly 
aappoeed that Mary Hagdaleue was a 
woman of abandoned characler. But 
of this there ia not the least evidence. 
All that we know of her is that she 
wnsformerlyBrievoualy offlicled by iho 
presence of those evil spirits ; that she 
waa probably cured by Jesus ; and thai 
afierward she became one of his moal 
fsithrul and bumble followers. She . 
Di hia crucilixiDn |JohnxL(.3S) and 
it, (Mark XV. 4T,) and she waa 
IS those wha had prepared the 

•4lt> t/. Amkalm W.rr. fUttflf vui I 1 

cularly interesting in her history, she 
was the lirsl to whom the risen Re- 
deemer oppearcd, (Mark xvi. 9;) and 
his conversBiion with her is exceeded 
in inieresi and pathos by no paasBg;e ot 
history, saciedior profane. (John xz. 
II— I8.J 

3. Heivd'tUeward. Herod Anl^jai 
who reigned in Galilee. He was a 
son of Herod ihe Great. The wai4 

Kerinl'B stewanl, and Soeanaa, and 
BiBnf others, which ministered unto 

him ''of their substance. 

4 And when much people .were 
gathered together, and were come 
to him out of every city, he spake 
by a parable : 

6 A' 

seed: and as he sowed, so 
tfae way-side ; and it was 
down, and fowls of the ai 

me fell by 
trodden ■ 

S And 

some fell upon 

a rock : * 

withered away, because it lacked 

7 And some fell among thorns : * 
and the thorns sprang' up with it, 
and choked it. 

8 And other fell on good ground, 
and sprang up, and bare fruit an 
hundred-fold.' And when he had 
said these things, he cried, He that 
bath ears to hear, let him hear. ' 

9 And bis disciples asked him, 
aajing. What mi^htthi^parablebe? 

10 And he said. Unto you it is 
ffiven to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of God ; but to others in 
parables ; that seeing * they might 
not see, and hearing they might not 

' ooderatand. 

11 Now ' the parable is this: 
The I seed is the word of Gad. 

13 Those by the waj-sida are 
they that hear; then cometh the 
devil, and taketh away * the word 

cra.llB-lia. Mell.S.13. ilet^X ilci. 
1.3. fGtl».1S. /Pt.30.13. Je.13.lS. £9. 
4. *L>.G.g. iMalt.l3.J8. MIM.14.1lc 
ilFe.1.33. »Fr.4.3. la.U.II. Ja.l.33.34. 
]p>.ll)e,13,13. Il.SB.3. Oa.3.1,4. 4.U. la Pr. 
IS.3. Hn».(1.4. 

10 has charge 

tttrntrd. here, m 

of the domestic 

provide for it. This office 
tally held by a tlave who wa 
the most tiiithful, and was onen con- 
ferred Bs a reward of fidelity. ' Min. 
ulered. Impsrtidfor hia supporL ^ Of 
their labstaact. Their property ; their 
poHseseions. ChriatianB then believed, 
ivhtn they professsd to follow Clirkl, 

HE. LA o.ia 

out of iheir beans, lest they ahoald 
believe and be saved. 

13 They on the rock are ihetf, 
which, when they hear, receive ' 
the word with joy ; and Ibeso have 
no root, " which for a while believe, 
and in time of temptation fall away 

14 And that which fell amon^ 
thorns are they, which, when they 
have heard, go forth, and are uhokeil 
with" cares and riches and pleasures 
of thii life, and being no fruit ° to 

15 But that on (he good ground 
are they, which, in an honest and 
good heart, ' having heard the word, 
Keep it, and bring forth fruit widi • 

16 No' man, when he hatb light- 
ed a candle, covereth it with a ves- 
sel, or putteih it under a bed ; but 
seiteth it OD a candlestick, that they 
which enter in may see '>.e light. 

17 For * nolbing ii «cret that 
shall not he made mair ifst; neither 
any thing hid thar snail Dot be . 
known and come abroad. 

18 Take ' heed (Iterefors haw ye 
hoar: for * whosoever halh, to him 
shall he given ; and whosoever hath 
not, from him shall be taken even 
that which he eeemeth ' to have. 

19 Then 'came to him &u mo- 
ther and his brethren, and could not 

that il wsa proper to give all up to him 
— then properly, as.well as their hearlJ>. 
And ibe same ibing is still required- 
thai is, to commit all that we have te 
hia diBpoaal ; 10 be willing to part with 
it for the promotion of hia ^lary; and 
lo leave it when he calls ub away irom it. 

4—15. See tbe Parable of the Sown 
explained Ln Matt. liii. 1 — S3. 

IS— la See Mark iv. 31— 3S. 

.Coot^Ic - 

brelhien at 

nd wilhont, desiring to 

31 And ha answered and said 
unto them. My mother and my 
hrethien are these which hear the 
word of God, and do it. 

33 Now * it came to pass on a 
eertain day, that he went into a ehip 
with his disciples : and he said nnto 
them. Let us go over unto the other 
aide of the ike. And they launch- 
ed forth. 

S3 Bnt as they sailed, he fell 
asleep : and there came down a 
storm of wind on the lake ; and 
tbej were tilled with water, and 
were in jeopardy. 

34 And they came to him, and ' 
iwoke him, saying, Master, master, 
we perish ! Then he arose, and re- 
Suked the wind and the raging of 
*iie water : and they ceased, and 
there was a calm. 

35 And he said unto them. 
Where is your faith 1 And they, 
being afraid, wondered, saying one 
to another. What manner of man is 
this 1 for he commandeth even the 
winds and water, and they obey 

36 And * they arrived at the 
country of the Gadarenes, whiiih 
is over against Galilee. 

87 And when ho wsnt forth to 
land, there met him out of the city 
a certain man, which had devils 
3 clothes. 

any house, but i 

law Jeans, ha cried 
10 before him, and 
a said. What have 
o with thee, Jesus, thou Son 
of God most high 1 I beseech thee, 

oeilher abode ii 
the tombs. 

38 When he 
out, and fell do 

For oOenlimes it had eavi^ht 
him : and he was kept bound with 
chains and in fetters ; and he brake 
the bands, and was driven of tfae 
devil into the wilderness.) 

30 And Jesus asked him, sayipv, 
What is thy name t And he said, 
Legion ; because many devils were 
entered into him. . 

31 And they besought him ibst 
he would not command them to no 
out into the deep, ' 

39 And.therewas there a 
of many swine feeding on the 
mountain : and they besought faim 
that he would suffer them to. enter 
into them . and be sulTered them. 

33 Then went the devils out of 
the man, and entered into the swine : 
and the herd ran violently down a 
steep place into the lake, and were 

34 When they that fed them saw 
what was done, they fled, i and 
went and told if in the city sod in 
the country. 

35 Then they went out, to see 
what was done i and came to Jesus, 
and found the man, out of whom 
the devils were departed, sitting at 
the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in 
his right * mind : and they were 

36 They also which saw t( told 
them by what means he that was 
possessed of the devils was healed. 

37 Then the whole multitude of 
the country of the Gadarenes round 
aboiit besoaght him * to depart from 
them, for they were taken with great 
fear : and he went up into the ship, 
and returned back again. 

38 Now the roan cot of whom 
the devils were departed, besought 
him that he might be with ' him : 
but Jesus sent him away, saying, 

39 Return to Ihine own house, 
<Be.9aa /AM9.1e,l7. rFa.Sl.M. 

hAc.iex. Pi.iie.ii,ia. ji 

. CoQt^lc 

■nd shew how 

halh done unto thee. And he went 
his WHjr, apd published thraugliout 
the whole city how great things 
JoBUB had done unto him. 

40 And it cbdub to paas, that, 
when Jeeaa was returned, the petv 
pie gladly received him : for they 
were all wailing for him. 

41 And, behold, there * came a 
man named Jairus, and he waa a 
nilor of the Bynagague ; and he fell 
down at JesoB' feet, and besought 
him that he would come into Lis 

48 For he had one only daughter, 
about twelve years of age, and she 
lay a dying. But aa ha went, the 
people thronged him. 

43 And a woman having an issue 
of blood twelve years, which had 
Bueni ' all her living upon physi' 

' neither could be healed of 

44 Came behind Aim, and touch- 
ed the border of hia garment : and 
• immediately her issue of blaod 

45 And Jesus said, Whatoached 
mel When all denied, Peter, and 
they that were with him, aaid. Mas- 
ter, the multiiude throng thee and 
press Ihee, and sayest thou, Who 
touched me T 

46 And JeauH said. Somebody 
halh touched tne : for 1 perceive 
that virtue/ Is gone out of me. 2 And he sent them to preach 

47 And when the woman saw the kingdom of God, and to heal 
that she was not hid, ' she came the sick. 

trombliDg,*and falling down before I 3 And he said unto them, Take 
him, she declared unto him, before * nothing for ymir joarney, ne'thei 
all the people, for what canse she ; staves, nor scrip, neither bniad, 
had touched him, and how she was neither money ; neither hi 
healed immediatetj. 

48 And he said unto her, Daugh- 
■ Pilie.1,3. » Hiill,9.1S,fcc Hif.&SS, 

ter, bts o:' good con fort; thy faith 
halh made thee whotti : go in peace. 

49 While < he yet spake, there 
cnmelh one from the ruler) of the 
STuagogue'B house, saying to him. 
Thy daughter is dead ; trouble aol 
the Master. 

60 But when Jesus heard it, be 
answered him, saying, Feai not:* 
believe only, and she shall he made 

51 And when he came into the 
bouse, be snSered no man to go in, 
save Peler, and James, and John, 
and the father and the mother of 
the maiden. 

6S And all wept, and bewailed 
her: but he said. Weep not; she 
is not dead, but sleepeth. ' 

63 And they laughed him to <■ 
scorn, knowing tilat she waa dead. 

M And he put Ihem all oal, and 
took lier b^ the hand, and called, 
saying. Maid, "arise. 

55 And her spirit came again, 
and she arose straightway : and he 
commanded to give her meat. 

6G And her parents were aston- 
ished ; but he charged * them that 
they should tell no man what wa:i 


THEN f he called his twalva 
disciples together, and gare 
them power and authority over all 

. L1..I3.13. ft.6.n. I 

Phsan. BOL5.3. 

40— S£. See this passace elpluoed t\ 
Matt. ii. 18—26 \ and Itbrk i. 21 -^3 

coats apiece. 

4 And whatsoever house yii eotei 
i Msii.3.23A<> MirJ.^lJu. i nr.4% 
43. t J no. 11. as. Ea.4.17. fJiwll. 11,11 

■ r.S.U. pMtU.lO.I.^ 

Google . 


oio, there abide, and theace de- 

i And whosoever nill not le- 
jeive jou, when ye go out of that 
=ity shake ■ off the very dust from 
your feet, for a testimony against 

6 And they departed, and went 
tiuough the towns, preaching the 
gospel, and healiag every where. 

7 Nov^ * Herod the telrarch 
heard of all that was done by him : 
Lnd he was perplexed, because that 
it was said of some (hat John was 
risen from the dead ; 

8 And of some, That Elias had 
appeared ; and of oihera, That one 
of the old prophets was risen again. 

9 And Herod said, John have I 
heheailed : bat who is this, of whom 

10 And the apostles, when they 
were returned, told him all that 
they had done. And lie took them, 
and went aside privately into a de- 
sert place, belonging to the city 
called Beth said a. 

11 And the people, whan they 
knew ' H, followed him : and he 
received ' them, and spake unto 
them of the kingdom ^ of God, and 
healed them ^hat had need ~ ' 

13 And * when the day began to 
wear away, then came the twelve, 
and said unto him. Send the multi- 
tude away, that they may go into 
tlie towns and country roundabout, 

iNelSia. Ac.13^]. 18.8. » M«t.l4. 
tx. Mar.S.I4,<U. ec33.a WIto.10.1 
IT. 11B0&3J. /4C.S&31. tela. 
31. lte.i.W. t MiilL14,I3,kc Mar.fl.3 

and lodge, ant get victuals i foi w* 
are here in a disert' place. 

13 But he said unto them, Giva 
ye ihem to eat And they said. We 
ihave no more but fire loavea and 
two fisheB ; except we sbonld go 
and buy meat for at! this people. 

14 (For they were abeut five 
thousand men.) And he said to hi* 
disciples, ^ Meke thera sit down by 
fifties in a eompany. 

15 And they did so, and mad* 
them all sit down. 

16 Then he took the five loaves 
and the two fishes; and looking up 
to heaven, he blessed them, and 
brake, and gave to the disciples to 
set before the multitude. 

17 And they did eat, and were all 
'■ filled ; and there was taken up of 
fragments that remained to them, 
twelve baskets. 

18 And it ' came to pass, as he 
was alone praying, his disciplea 
were with him : and he asked ilfem 
saying, Whom say the people tiial 

19 They answering, said, John* 
the Baptist ; but some *ay, Elias ; 
and others tay. That one of the old 
prophets is risen again. 

■20 Hesaidunto them. But whom 
say ye ihat I am I Peter " answer- 
ing said. The Christ of God. 

31 And he straitly charged them, 
and commanded them to tell no man 
that thing; 

23 Saying, The ' Son of maii 
must sulfei many things, and be re- 

Pi.7S.IB^. Bit.34.3S. 1 

Cor. 14.40. tPa.ia 


t MBitiB-i: 

SI. 1T.S3. 


.1,3; Markvi 

7-9. See Malt xi 

10—17. Sea Matt, xh: 13—21 ! and 
Mark vi. 30—14. 

10. BHhiaida. A cit; on the easl 
bank of ihe rivor Jordan, near where 
thai river enters imothe aeaaf Tibeiiaa, 
In ihe neighborhood of that dty were 


13. Day legan ta jnear auoy. Drew 
towards evening. 

18—36. See Matl. xvi. 13-^J7; Marl 
ui. 27—38. 

20. TjSe Ciriit o/ Gad. The Am 
ointtd of God. The AfentaH appoint 
ed by God, and who had been lonf 
promised by bun. Oea Note on Malt 

L)^i.z.irt>,Coogle — 

jeeUi of Ihu elders and chief priesta 
Jind scribes, end be bIbiii, and be 
reJBpd the third daj. 

33 And be said to lien el], IF' 
any man will nome after me, let him 
deny himsBir, and lake up his orois 
daily, and follow me. 

24 For whosoever will save his 
life, shall lose it; bat whosoever 
will lose his life for my sake, the 
■ame shall save il. 

36 ForwhalisamanadvsD(aB[ed, 
■f he gain the whole world, and lose 
Himself, or be cast away 1 

36 For * whosoever shall be 
ashamed of me and of my words, 
of him shall ibe Soo of man be 
ashamed, when be shall come in 
his own glory, and in hit Father's, 
and of the holy angels'. 

97 But • I tell you of a iruih, 
there be some stanaing here, which 
■hall not ' tasle of death, till they 
tee the kingdom of God. 

38 And * it came to pass abonl 
BD eight days, after these ' aayings, 
he took Peter and John and James, 


■ HatLlO.38. 16.34. Mar .8^. c.I 
8.13. C0I.SS. *Mail.J0.33. Mi 
Tl.a.12, c MxtietSS. Har.9.1. 
SB. BeJiA 

88 — 36. See an Kcoounl of th_ 

figuration in Matt. xvii. 1 — 13, and 
A&rk ix. 3—13. 

20. Tie frahion. The appearatKs. 
1 Gtateriiig. Shining tike bghtning— 
of a bright, dazzling whiteness. A9 
*'--' ■■ white than anj; ful- 

l up 1 

39 And as he prayed, the fashion 
of his countenance was altered, and 
his raiment woi while and glister- 

30 And, behold, there talked witii 
hin iwa men, which were Moset 

and Ellas, 

31 Who appeared in glory, ana 
spake of his deceale which he 
ahonld accomplish at Jerusalem. 

33 But Peter and they that were 
with him were heavy^wilh sleep: 
and when they mere awake, they 
saw his 'glory, and the two men 
that stood with him. 

33 came to pass, as they 
departed from him, Peter said unio 
Jesus, Master, it * is good for us to 
be here : and let us make thrct 
tabernaclee j one for thee, and one 
for Mobes, and one for Ellas; not 
knowing ' what he said. 

34 While be thus spake, there 
came a cloud, and overshadowed 
them: and they feared as thej en- 
tered into the cloud. 

35 And there came a Toiee on 
of the cloud, sayiug. This ' is mi 
beloved Son ; hear ' him. 

i /DtM 

e. Mar.9.3,&c. ■ or, ijkiiwi 
/Jnn.l.Il *Ps.*7.4.^ 

Mark SB 

le appear- 

31. la glory. Of a gloria 
ince. Of an appearance hke thai wuitu 
he eainls have in heaven. ^ His de- 
tate. Literally, his exit, or departar 
The ward translated here deceaie — thai 

of iBrael fi _„,, . . 
tt^ out from bondage, pain, a 
•"JO, So death, to a sai-ii, 1 


forth from a land of captivity and Ihral 
dam. to one of plenty and freedom; to 
the land of promise, the Canaan in the 
skjea. 1 He ilumld accomrUUL Which 
was about to lake place. Compare Acts 
liv. SG. 

32. rieacy Kith ileep. 
with sleep — oppressed, 
eleep. hmayseem remarkablethat they 
ahould bll asleep on euch an occasion, 
Bui wa are to boar in mind that thii 
may have been in the night, and tha* 
they were weary with the toila of the 
day. Besides, they did not fall nlarf 
while the transfiguration Iflflted. WhiUi 
Jeans was praying, or perhaps after he 
closed, they fell aalcep. WhUe they 

changed, and Moses and Elias appear, 
ed. The Grst that ihev ea» of it wa» 
after thev awoke, being probablj 



36 Anil nlien the voice wae past, 
Jesua was found alone. And tliej 
kept it close, and told no man in 
lho«e days * any of (hope things 
whirh ihey had se-so. 

37 And * it came to pasa, IhBl on 
the nait day, when they were come 
down from the hill, much people 
met him. 

3S And, behold, a man of the 
company cried out, faying, Master, 
I beseech thee lool£ upon my eon; 
for he is mine ' only child : 

39 And, lo, a epirit takelh him, 
and he suddenly crielh out ; and it 
teareih him that he foamelh again ; 
and, bruisioj; him hardly, departelh 

11 And Jesus answering Baid, O 
bithlesB * and perverse i genera- 
a Ee.3.1. t HBtt.lT.14^. Wai.V.llA^ 

iwaked by the dtuoiiig of the light 
WDund them. 

3e. Jemtmufa 
die two men had 

Mfauitd a3ane. That is, 
uad left him. In respect 
«o £jinn ne was alone. 

37 — 43. See this passage explained 
D Matt. zviL U — 21, and Mart ii. 14 

.. .. .__*,Bndwho 

account had praised and glorified God, 
On ihat ground ihey had acknowledged 
him lo be Chrisl. As^if he had said, 
' I anf about to die. Fou will ihen be 
disconsolale, and perhaps doubtful about 
toy being the Christ. TAm do you re- 

fessiona of the people — the evidence 
whiqh I gave you that I was from Gkid.' 

o die, a 

I let my saying* i 

will have need of n 

Greek aa the former. 

UoD ! how long tball I be irilh yoa, 

' suffer yout Brng thy too 

42 And as he was yet a comiog 
le devil threw him down, and tare 
I'rn. And Jesus rebnked i the an- 
lean spirit, and healed the child, 
nd delivered him again lo his fa- 

43 And they were all amazed * 
t the mighty power of God. Bui 
/hile they wondered every one at 

all thin|PB which Jesaa did, he laid 
unto his disciples, 

44 Let these aaytogs sink down 
into your ears : for ' the Son of man 
shall be delivered into the hands of 

45 But ' they understood net this 
saying, and it was hid fioia them, 
that they perceived it not; and they 
feared to ask him of that sayjng. 

46 Then < there arose a reasoning 
rUar.l.aT. kY*.VX).it. ZecSA tMain 

iT.iS. jasa.atii * Mai.9,32. tiwo. j& 

M J Hall,IB.l,du:, Mn(.9.31,Ju:. 

45. It DOf hid from tkem. They had 
imbibed the common nolions of the 
JewB thai lie woa lo be a prince and a 
conqueror, to deliver tha naiion. They 
could not understand how ihai could be, 
if he was soon to be dehvered into ihe 
bands of hia enemies to die. In this 
way it waa hid from Lhem — not by God 
— bui by their prsviaus false belief. 
And from this we learn, that the plain- 
est truths of tha Bible are uninleljjgible 
lo many becatae ihey have embraced 
some belief or opinion belbre which ia 
erroneons. and which ihey are unwill- 
ing to abandon. I'he proper way of 
reading the bible is to lay aside all pre- 

God. The apoatles should have sup- 
posed that their provious norions of the 
Mcgsiah were wrong, and should bare 
renounced them. They should haira 
believed that what Jeeua thtn said wu 
consistent with bis being the Christ 
So we should beheve that oU that Goa 
asya is consstenl with Irulh, and should 
fotsake all other opiniona, 

46— SO. See Matt, iviii.l—*; Mai* 
ii. 33—38. 

H. ShaiidbeTeemtiuf. The word 

tinoag them, which of tiiem ahauld 
be greatesL 

47 And JeBug, perceiring the 
thought of their heart, took a child, 
and Bet him bj him, 

48 And said anlo them, Whoso- 
ever * shall receive thia child ii 

«*er shall receive me, receiveth hi 
ttiat sent me: for 'he that ie least 
among yoa all, the eame shall be 

49 And John answered and said. 
Master, we ' saw one casting oul 
devils in thy name : and we forbad 

bare inmelMed 'received up" means ]il- 
enJIy a removal from a lower 10 a high- 
er place, and bera il meana svidetilly the 

LUKE. [A.D.S8 

him, beonse ho i fllowelh not with 

it is often uifflj to describe thai great 

Ho Iheiefore madi 

Bvent. See Acta i. 11,22; Mark ivi. 

hand, anJ thus hae 

19; 1 Tim, iii. 16. The time tippoint- 

ed for bim to be on the eanb was about 

for' IbL'^ly^of" 

Jeeiu made a DulHiieary sacrifice; ibatbe 
efate to give hia Ufe for the aina of men. 
HumaDly apeaking, bad he ramaiiitd in 
Galilee he would have been safe. But 
that it might appear that he did not 
n danger, and that he was reellv a 

,__, andtbat h 

Bolaatanf sacrifice — 

ia Jife e: 

ptrmitled (John __, ... ._ 

put himself in the way of danger, and 
even to go into acenea which he knew 
would end in bia death, t He lUad- 
fatlly let ha face. He determined lo 

Iiitely. When a man goes toward an 
object, he may be said to set bis face 
toward it. The eipreason here meang 
only that be remJEsI to go, and il im- 
plies that be was not appalled by the 
dangers — thai he was determined to 
brave all, and go up into the midal of 

92. Sent mtnatgert. In the origi- 
nal tho word is aiigeli ; and the use of 
(bal word here shows (bat the word 
angel, in the Bible, does not always 
mean heavenly beings. T Ta make 
ready. To prepare a place, lodgings, 
mftMnmeni*. lie bad no reason to 

60 And Jeeua said onto hini, 
Forbid kim not i for ' be Ihat is do! 
against us, is for uB. 

51 And il came to pass, when 
the lime was come that he should 
ba received ' up, he steadfastly sM 
his face lo go to Jeruaalem, 

53 And sent messengers before 
hia face : and they went, and enter- 
ed into a village of the Samaritans, 
.'^to make readj for him. 

S3 And Ihej did not receirs him, 
because his face was as thotigh he 
would go to Jerasalem. 

dUau.J3.30.cie.I3. •Mar.lS.U, Ac 
1.3. / Jn o.i^ 

expect that he would e 

guard against want and poverty. V Sa- 
trilont. See Matt. i. 5. They bad 
1 deabnga with the 'Jews. John iv. 9. 
53. Tlu^ did not recent him. Did 

m with kindnesa. i Became hii/aee 
u, &c. Because they ascertained 
at be was going to Jerusalem. One 
of the aubjecls of dispute between the 
Jews and Samaritans was in regard to 
the proper eiluation of the temple. The 
Jgwb contended that il should be at 
Jeruaalem; the Samarilans, on moani 
jeriiim ; and accordingly tbey had 
luilt one there. Thev tiad prdnbly 
leard of the miracles of Jeaus.aiHl that 
le claimed to be the Meeeiah. Pet 
hapk Ibey had hope that he would de- 
ide that Ihey were right in regard 10 
le building of the temple. Had he 
ecided in thai way, they would have 
gceived Inm as ihe Measiab gladly, 
lut wbenibey saw he was going to th« 
ews — that bg gw^g be wouid dedde 
1 their favor — ^ ihi y resolved to have 
nothing to do with bim, and they re- 

Csd him. And from thia we may 
n, let. Thai men wish all the teach- 
ers of rebgion to fall in with thau- viewa. 
2d. That if a doctrine di«s not accord 
" ibHrselSabdeBiea, they are van 

A. D. 39.} 


M Andwhe;ihisdi«cip ei.James 
■nd John, saw UUi, they Riid, Lord, 
vilt thou that we command lire 10 
come down from heaven, and con- 
■nme them, even as Eliae ■ did 1 

55 But he turned, and rebaked 
them, and said, Ye know not what 
Manner of epirit ye are of. 

66 For ' the Son of man is not 
MOM to deatroy men's lives, but to 
Mvfl lAem, And tbey went to an- 
other village. 

67 And ' it came to pass, that, as 
they went in the way, a uertain man 
said unto him. Lord, ( will follow 
thee whithersoever Ihou goetU 

aSKi.LlO.Il. Haa^n. lUT. 

■pt lo reject it. 3d. Thu if a religious 
uacher or a doctrine lavorsarival sect, 
il is commonly rejeeled without eiami- 
nuion. And 4lh. That men, from a 
rogBrd to their own views and selfish- 
ness, often reject reliirion, aa the Sb- 
marilaiiB did ihe San of God, and bring 
upon themselves swift destruction. 

M. Jama and Jelm. They were call- 
ed BaaHtTggi, sons of thunder, proba- 
bly on account of their energy and 
power in preaching the gospel; or. of 
their vehemeni and rssh leal — a le- 
tnsrkahle example of which we have in 
this instance. Mark iii. IT. H ITiK 
tha*. &.C. The insult had been offer- 
ed to Jesus, their friend, and they (eh 

spiiitbad. \ engeance beloniB to God, 
It was not theirs to 1 Fire 
from JIaiiien. Lightning, to consume 
them. 1 Ai Eliiu did. By this iheji 
wished lo justify their rash zeal. Per- 
haps, while tbcy were speaking, they 
■■w Jeeus look at them with disappro- 

55 7t buns not wAol manner of 
ipirilgt are of. You auppose that you 
•re actuated by a proper love for me. 
But yon know not yourselves. It ia ra- 
ther a love of revenge; rather itnproper 
feelings towards the Samaritam, than 

e roper feelings towards me. We learn 
ere, Isl. That apparent zeal for God 
ina_' be only improper opposition to- 
wanbon fellow men, 2d. Tkal men, 

6B And Jesus said unto him. 
Foxes have holes, and birds of th« 
air Ttattt nests ; bat the Son of man 
hath not where to lay Ai'i head. 

Sd And he said onto another, 
Follow me. Bui he said, Loid, 
suffer ' me first to go and bury roy 

GO Jssns said unto him. Let the 
dead bury their dead ; but pi tboii 
and preach the kingdom of God. 

61 And another also said. Lord, 
I will follow thee; but let trie firsl 
go bid ihem farewell which are at 

eiatnine their spirit, and see if there b« 
*r feeling 

incotiaialeni with 
e him, ao^ 

seTI'w tie Son ^'mh, &.c, Yoo 
should imitate, in your spirit, the Son of 
man, Ht came not to destroy. If he 
had, he would have destroyed these 
Samaritans, But he came to save. Ha 
is not soon angry. He bears patiently 
opposition to himself, and t/au should 


self, snd w» a, 

kirn. You should 

emper your leal lika 

; and be mild, kind. 

57—60. See Matt. viii. 19—33, 
61. Bid them farttuM. Totakeleave, 
inlbrm them of the design, and SM 
things at home in order, Jeaua did 
not suffer this because he probably saw 
that he would be influenced by a love 
of his friends, or by their persuaaiotis, 
not to return to him. The purpose to 
be a Christian requires Heeition. Men 
should not tamper with the world. 
They should not consult earthly ^ndi 
about it. They should not even allov 
worldly friends to give them adzict 
whether to be Christisns or noL God 
is to be obeyed rsther than man, and 
they should come forth boldly, and 
resolve at once 10 give themaelvM to 

■nan haTing put his hatid lo the 
plough, and laoking back, is lit for 
llie kingdom of God. 


AFTER ■ these things the Lord 
appointed other seventy also, 
and Bent diem two and two before 
his face into "every city and place, 
whither he himselr would come. 
3 Therefore said he unto thi 
< Hill. 10.1, bt. Mbi.E,T,&c tM 

verbial eipreeeion, (o signify uadermking 
' any buuness. In order ihat a plough- 
man may accompUah hia work, ii is ne- 
oeaeary lo look onward — io be intern on 
hia employmooL — noi [0 be liking back 
with regret that he undertook it. So in 
religion. He that enterBonii muaido i( 
witb hia whole heart- He muat give up 
tlie world. He that comes elill laving 
the world — -atill looking with regret on 
its pleaaurea, its wealth, and its honors — 
thai baa not wAaUy fi>rsaken ihem aa his 
portion, cannot ba a Chriatian, and is 
not lit for the kingdom of God. How 
searching ia ihia teal to those who profess 
to be Chriatians '■ And bow solemn the 
duly of ail men lo renounce all earthly 
objecte, and lo be not only almott, bill 
altagetlier, followers of the Ron of God! 
Il is .perilotia to lamper with the world 
— lo look ai its pleasures, or to seek ila 
society. He that would enter faeavett 
must come with a heart full of kive to 
God — giving all into his hands, and pre- 

Ced always to give up all hia property, 
health, hii fhenda. hia body, hia soul 
Lo God. when he demands ihsm, or he 
cannot be aChristian. Religion Is eve- 
ry thing, or nothing. He Ihai is not 
willing to sacriiice etf^ry thing for llie 
cause of God, is really willing to eacri- 
Gee aothiDg. 

1. A/ler thai iJixJigi. Aliei the ap- 
pointment of the twelve apostlee, and I he 

chapters. V Olher inwnfy. Se\ 
aibers besides the apostles. They were 
appainied for a diiferent purpose from 
the apostlea. The apostles wer 

LE. fA-D 3S 

The haneal Inily is groat, but the ' 
labourers are few ; pray ye lher» 
fore the Lord of iht harvest, Ihat 
he would send forth labourers into 
hia h arrest. 

3 Go jour waya : behold, I send 
you forth as lambs atnong wolves. 

4 Carry ' neither purse, nor scrip, 
nor shoes : and * salute no man b« 


a4,33,M. 3Ki.l.a9. Pi 

prochuRi all these ll 

im mediate ly,*nd '■hiefly where he him 
self was about lo come. They were 
^pointed forateniparary object. They 
were lo go into the villages and towns 
and prepare the way tor hia coming. Thf 
number menty was a favorite number 
among the Jews. Thus the family ol 
Jacob that came into Egypt consiaied of 
seventy. Gen. ilvi. 27. The number 
of elders that Mosea appointed li 


The number which composed the great 
.Sanhedrim, or council of ihe nation, 
vas the same. Il is not improbable iha. 
lur Saviour appointed this aumber witii 
eterence to the fact thai h so ofien oc- 
:urred among the Jews, or afier the ex- 
ample of Moaea who appointed seventy 
lo aid him in his work. Emilia evident 
that the office waa temporary — that il 
■ecific design — and of course, 
uld be improper to atlempt " 

the Christian minialry. T7 
There waa much wisdom 


I Ihia n 

ubtless, that they might aid one 
by mutual counsel; ibat they 

Sit Bust^n and comfort one another 
eir persecutions and trials. Our Lord 
ihis, siiowed the propriety of having 
religimii frie^, who would be a con 
tidani and help. Every Christian, and es- 
pecially everv Chrisuan minister, oeeds 
such a friend j and shoidd seek some 
nboaom himself 
miogls hia feel 


house ;e 


1 Ihia 

6 And if the son • of peace be 
there, jour peace shall real ' upon 
it', if not, it shall lurs to yon again. 

7 And in the aame house remain, 
eating and drinking bucIi things aa 
(Ley give : foi 'the labourer is wor- 
iliy of his hire. Go net from bouse 

e And into whatsoever city ye 

■ach things as are set before you : 

9 And hea] the sick that are there- 
in, and say unto them. The' king- 
dom of God is come nigh unto you. 

10 But into whatsoever city ye 
•nter, and they receive you not, go 
your ways out into the sirens of 
the same, and say, 

11 BvcD ' the very dust of your 
city, which cleaveth on db, we da 
wipe off against you : notwilbr 
standing, be ye sure of this, that 
the kingdom of God is come nigh 

• fc.ftd. STh.3.18. 6J».3.(8. (ICoi. 

IS But I sty uLto yoD, that il 
shall he mJte tolerable in thai day 
for Sodom, than for that city. 

13 Woo » unto thee, Chorawn, 
woe unto thee, Beihsaida! for ' if 
the mighty works had been done in 
Tyre and Sidon, which have been 
done in you, they had a great white 
ago repented, sitting in sackclotL 
and ashes. 

U But il shall be more tolerable 
for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment, 
than for you. 

15 And thou, Capernaum, nhich > 
art exalted lo heaven, shah be thriuri 
* down lo hell. 

16 lie ' that heareth you, hearett 
me; and be" thatdespisetbyou, de- 
spiseth me ; and ■ he Ihet despiseth 
me, despiseih him that sent me. 

17 And the seventy relumed 
again with joy, saying, Lord, even 
the devils are subject unto ua 
through thy name. 

18 And he said unto Ihem, 1 be- 
held Satan ° as lightning fall from 

la periorm 

Mid even proelratinna of the body oi 

ground All this required much tinte; 
and as the business on which the seven- 
ty were sent was urgeni, they were re- 
quited not It drfoy their joucney by long 
and formal sslutalions of the peraona 
whom they mat. "If two Arabs of 
equal rank meet each oiher, ibey extend 
lo each other ihe right hand, and having 
clasped, they elevaie them as if to kisa 
them. Bach one iben draws back hia 
hand and kissea it instead of bis friend's, 
and then places il upon his forehead. 
The panics then continue the salutafion 
by kissing each others' beard. They 
pve thanks "" " ' ' ' "' 

a ceremony which con 
ime ; and it was on ihii 
_r Lord, on this occasion, 
delay their journey t« 


o God that they 
1 the Almighty 

his be hall 

forbad tl__ ._ , . 

greet olhets. A aimitai dueclion i- 
found in 2 Kings iv. 29. 

5. See Matt. t. 13. 

6. Till im of ptace. That is, if the 
home OT famly be vxHhy, or be diapos 
ed to receive you in peace, and iundness 
See Matt, I, 13. Tht son t^ fence meas.t 
one iitnoted to peace, or peaceful and 
kind in his dispoailion. Compare Matt. 

' 7. See Matt. i. 11. 
8—13. See Man. \. 14. 15. 
13—15, See Matt, a, 21^24. 

16, See Matt, i. W, 

17. Tht dtvilt are tiHgttt unto «• 
The devils obey ua. Wo have beet 
able to cast ihem out. 1 Thnmgh lA$ 
lURW. When commanded in thy name 

i Bslutation of mends. 

_ . ...whoar 

I. JhditU Solan. icK. 

19 Bphold, I ^ve unto yoa power 
to tread sn serpents * and scorpions, 
and over all the power of the ene- 
my ; and nothing shall b; an; means 
burt you. 

20 Notwithstanding, in this re- 
joice not, that the spirits are subject 
unlo you ; biit rather rejoice be- 


21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced in 
• A«.%.5 »ei.Xt.^ Pi. 

ttM. UA.3. D*.I2.1. Pli.t.1 He.l3.» 
K«.1X& 30.12. 31.H. 

denotes evidemly the prinue of the de- 
vils who had been cast out by the ee- 
venty disciples — Tor the diecourfe was 
reiipecting iheir power over evil »pirils. 
LighlHiiig LB an image of npiditii, or 
..7.i_... 1 ...., gl^an fall quickly, 
■ ■.— The 

'ed to the lightning, and does not mean 
that he saw Satan fall /ram Kearen, bo 
that he fell as quick as lightning from 
heaven, or from the clouds. The whole 
expression ihen may mean, ' 1 saw at 
your command devils immediately de- 

rrl, as quick as the flash of lightning, 
gave you this powai — I bbw it pul 
torth — and I gave also the power to 
tread on serpema,' &.c. 

19. To tread m itrgtnti. PreaervB. 
tion from iteneer. If you trend on o 
poisonous reptile that would otherwise 
injure you, /will keep you from dan- 

Elf you fo among bitter and ma- 
ant enemies that would seek your 
. / will preserve you. tScarpunu. 

The si-srpion is an animal with eight 
feet, eight «yes, and a. long jointed tail, 
ending in a pointed weapon -r sting. 
\% is found in tropical climates, and sel- 
dom niceeds four inches in length, lia 
ttina is eitremely poisonoit*, and It ia 

KE. [ 

spirit, bikI laid, I thank thee, O Fa- 
ther, Lord of heaven and earth, that 
thou hait hid these thin^ from the 
wise and prudent, and hast reveal- 
ed them upto babes; even ao. Fa- 
ther ; for so it seemed good id thy 

23 All ' things • are delivered to 
me of niy Father: and no ' maa 
knowelh who the Son is, but tiie 
Father; and who the Father is, but 

ipin, ki itii. 

Ilallje.l& in0.3. 

sometimes fatal to life. It is in scrip 
lure the emblem of malicious and cndty 
men. When rolled up, it has some re- 
semblatice to an egg, Luke xi, 12. 
Exek. ii. 6. The annexed cut will give 
an idea of lis ;.si'sl form and appear- 
ance. ^ThttHOKy. Satan. The mean- 
ing of this verse is, that Jesus would 
preserve them from the power of Satan 
and all his emissaries — fiotn all wicked 
-and crafty men ; and this shows thai ha 
had divine power. He that can con 
irol Satan and his hosts — that can be 
present to guard from all their machi- 
nations — see all their plans, and dostror 
all their deigns, must be clothed with 
no less than Alm^hty power. 

90. RMier rtJBire, &.C. Though ,1 
was an honor to worii miracles — ihough 
it is an honor to be endowed with ta- 
lents, and influence, and learning, yel 
it is a subject of ckief joy that we are 
nambered among ihe people of God, 
-^d have - ■^■■- - --— ^- " "' 


1 in Ami 

eople of G 
■erTasting 1 


accustomed to be written in a book, or 
rcgisler, from which they were blocied 
out when (hey bseame unwrathy, or 
forfeited the favor of their eounlry 
Compare Fs. biix, £6. Ex, xxxii. 33 
Dent. ix. 14. Rev. ilL 5. Thai theli 
names were vrilten in Keavea, means 
that they were eititfiit of heaven : that 
they were friends of God, and approwd 
by him, and would be permitted to 
dwell with him. This was of fiir mvn 
value tlion all earthly honor, power, oi 
wealth ; and t» this, men should rejoice 
more than in eminsnl endowments of 
induence, learning, talents or posng 

31,' 28. See Malt. Jd. 2S—9' 

, CoQt^lc 


iIm Son, and he to whom the Sod 
will TOTenl ktm. 

S3 And h^ turned him unto hit 
disciplpB, and Baid privaieiy, Blesa- 
ed are the eyes which see the things 
that ;e see : 

34 FcT I tell jou, that • many 
prophets and kings hsve desired to 
■ee those things which ye see, and 
hare not seen ihtnt and to bear 
those things which ye hear, and 
baTs not heard tAtm. 

35 And, behold, a certain lawyer 
stood up, and tempted him. Baying, 
Master, vhat * shall I do to inhe^t 

eternd life 1 
■ IFc.l.lo. 
i Da AS. • Le.lB.l8. 


well elMlIed 

HoMii, and whose buBinesB It was io 
eipliun ihem. ^Sloodm. Roe«--(ip- 
peared lo sddrew him. 1 Tempttd hiwi. 
Feigned a desire to be instructed, bul 
did il 10 perplex him, or to lead him, if 
poseible, lo conlrndiol eome of the mnx- 
1 .i.. 1 — 1 1nherit eienuU life. 

Be saved. This 
uuirr among the Ji 
■'•- slksepthi 



2fi. Wkat _.. 

ferred him lo the law as a ufe rule, and 
Mked him what was said there. The 
lawyer was doubtless endeavoring to 
juslif7himselfb7t)beyinblhe low. He 
trdsied to hia own worRs. To bring 
him oif Irom thai ground, to make him 
feel that il waa an unsafe foundation, 
Jesus showed him what ibe law n- 
n^rtd, and thus would have showed 
riim that he needed a belter righteous- 
ness than his own. — This is the proper 
use of the law. By comparing ouraelves 
with IhU, vie see our own defects, and 
are Ihua prepared to welcome a belter 
iIlhleouincBs than our own — thai of the 
Lord J:9-JS Chi^si. Thus the law be- 
comes a srhool-maner lo lead ua to him. 

27, 28. See this subject explained in 
Matt. uu. 3T— 10. 

39. TV jdnlify himtelf, Desiroua lo 
tmem blameless, or to vindicate him- 
Kir, and show ilia, he Itod kcpl ihc law. 


37 And he aAswenng said, Thou ' 
shalt love the Lord Uij God with 
all thy heart, and with all thy Boul, 
and with all thy strength, and with 
all thy mind : and thy * neighbor as 

38 And he said onto him, Thoa 
hast answered right : this do, and ' 
thou shalt live. 

39 Bat he, willing to joalilir * 
himself, said unto Jesus, And who 
is my * neighbour ? 

30 And Jesus answering said, A 
fCi.iei. E»«l.ll,ai. Ka.lQ.S. 
Ca.3.13. r Jobas-a. Ko.49. Bi. JI.3.S4. * Matl.S.43,44. 

Jesus wished lo lead him to a view of 
bis own ginfulneBB, and hia real depar- 
ture from the law. The man was de- 
sirous of showing that he bad kept the 
law ; or perhaps he was desirous of 
juatifying himself for asking ibe ques- 

3 the 

l( of Ibe . 
was still 

law did not 

<hal was meant by neighbor. The Plia- 
sees held Ihal the Jem only were to 
e regarded as such, and thai the obli- 
eiioii did not extend at all to the Gen 
lea. The lawyer was probably ready 
> sHirm that he bad diaeharged ftulh- 

Id justify 

C''/f"*S hlmtdf, 1 
. his own works. 

destroys its spirituality ; and brings 
dmcn the law lo hii standard rather than 
etlempl lo (mae hia life by itt require 

30. Jem anncerlng. Jesus answer- 
ed him in a vary diifeient manner from 
what he expected. Bv one of the moM 
lender and affecting narrauvea to be 
found any where, he made the lawyer 
his own judge in the case, atid con 
strained him to admit what at' first be 
would probably have denied. He com- 
petled him to acknowledge that a Sa- 
1 ... ^r ^ . 1..-...J «f -n 


OMtain mri t/ettt down ftom Jem- 
Mlem to Jericho, and foil among 

thieves, which stripped him of his 
raiment, and woanded htnt, and de- 
parted, leaving Aim half dead. 

31 And bj chance theie i 
down a certain priest that waj ; and 
when he saw him, he passed by ~ 
on the other aide 

■ P»3BI1. »Pl.1(N.3S. Fr^.10, 

ecwjtCryiiKn. ^ Fron 
<Aa. Jericho was aiiualed about fifteen 
milei to ibe norlh-oael of Jerusalem 
and aboul eight weat of the river Joi 
dan. Bee Notes on Msti. xx. 29. ^ Fell 
ammg Ihinti. Fell among ritbeT 
The word thieva means ihase wl 
merely lake property. These wei 
highwaymen, and not merelvlook l) 
propeny, but endangered the life. The 
were ratben. From Jeniaalem to j< 
richo the country was rocky, mountab 
Ota, and in some parts scarcely inbabi. 
ed. It afforded, tbereibre, among the 
rocks and faslaesseB, nCDnvenieur-'-- 
fbr highwaymen. This was also 
frequented road, Jericho was a 
place, and there was much iravelbng to 
Jerusalem. At this time, also, Judea 
abounded wilh robbers. Joeepbua says 
that at one time Herod the Great dis- 
missed forty thousand men who had 
ueen employed in building the temple — 
a large part of whom became highway- 
men. — Josepbua' Aniic^uiiies. 15. 7. 

31. By dianet. Accidentally, or, as 
it hai^ned. It means that he did not 
doit with adaign to aid the Samaritan, 
T A certain prieil. It is said that not 
less than Iweive thousand priests and 

, Iieviles dwelt at Jericho ; and as their 
business was at Jerusalem, of course, 
there would be many of them constant- 
ly travelUng on that road. 1 W&en he 
sow kirn. He MW him lie, but came 
not near him. I'atted iu on tht other 
tide. On the ferther inde of the way. 
Did not turn out of bis course even to 
come and see him. 

32, A Levile. The Levites, as well 
as the priests, were of the tribe of Levi, 
and were set apart to the duties of reU- 
gion. The peculiar duty of the priest 
was U i^er laerijice at the temple, to 
present mcense, prayers, the morning 
aud otunngscrvieoscf the (cmolo, &c. 

33 And likewise a Levite, whoa 
he Vas at the place, Ciune and look- 
ed ' on him, and passed by on the 
other side. 

33 But a ceEtain Samaritan, * a* 
he journeyed, came where he was: 
and when ho saw nim, he had com- 
passion ' on him, 

34 And went to him, and bound 
cJdo,4.9. dEl.S.6. (PI.I4T.3. Ii.l.e. 

The of!ice or duty of ibe Levilei wai 
to render asaislance to The priestr il 
theu- services. In the journey of lh( 
Israelites through the wilderness, il wa: 
their duty to transport the various pert; 
of the tabernacle, and the various sacred 
utensils. It was their duty to see thai 
the tabernacle and the temple were fcpni 
clean ; to prepare supplies for the si 

uory, E 
They had the ci 



, . .5, 4,0, , 
e of the sacred reve- 
B lime of David, thei 
-' - >of Ihetera 
.5 — 23. 1 
'. 27 

■nd looked oi ,. 

IB remarkefl liy critics here, that the ei- 
pression used does not denote, as in the 
case of the priest, that he Bccndentally 
saw him, and took tio farther notice of 
him, but that be came and looked m him 
more aUentivtly, but still did nothing 
to relieve him. 

33. A ceHain Samarilan. See Matl. 
I. 5. The Samaritans were the most 
inveterate foes of the Jevra. They had 
no dealings with each other. See Notes 
on Matt. X. Si It was this fact which 
rendered the conduct of this good man 
so striking, and thus set in aueb strong 
contrast the conduct of the priest and 
the Levite. They would not help their 
own afflicted and wounded countryman. 
He, who could riot be eipected to aid a 
Jew, overcame all the usual hosiihty 
between the people ; saw, in the wound- 
ed man, a neighbor, a brother, one who 
needed aid; and kindly denied bimself 
to show kindness lo the stranger. 

' --' ■ '■■ Thet* 

e often 

: aJ and w. 

.0 heal 

quality. How strikingly is 

itrasted with the priest anu Liev 
id bow particularly, as well as bi 

tiMly by dua, doos our SavJaHr d 



up his wonndi, ponnng in oil and 
wine, aad set Mm on his own beast, 
BDd brou^t him to an inn, and took 
nam of him. 

35 And on the moirow when he 
departed, he took out two * pence, 
•Dd gave lion to the host, and said 
unto him. Take caie of him ; and 


1 Pr.19.17 

whn; me ought lo do to those who are 
in circumetanceaof need '. He does not 
mere); say in rtncral thai hs showed 
torn kindneBB.ljut be liM iav! it was 
done. He stopped — eune where he 
was— pitied hiin — bound up lus wounds 
— wi him on his own beaat — conducted 
him lo a tavern — passed the night with 
him, and then secured the kiDd attend- 

for lUs trouble — and all this 
without deHiriuff or expcctijig any re- 
word. If this bad been by a Jtu, it 
would have been signal kindness. If 
it had been by a Gentile, it would also 
haTe been greal kindneea. But i( waa 
by a ,S'aniirifiii — a man of a nation 
moat halafiil to the Jews, and Ifaerefore 
it nioet strikingly shows what tat aie to 
do to (nenda and foes when they aie in 

35. Ttm pence. About twenty-seven 

but we are lo remember that that sum 
was probably ten times as valuable then 
•■ now— that is, that it woidd purcbaae 
tan times as much food, and tbe com 
Don necessaries of life, as ihe samo 
mm would now. Besides, it is protja 
bl« dial all the man wanted was a»«is 
liM and kindnesa, and lor all these, it 
waa the purpose of the Samaritan to 
Bay when lie relucTWd. 1 The hml. 
The innkeeper. 

per feellnM m a neighbor. Tbe Uwyer 
had naked him who was bis neighbor! 
Jems, in this beautiiiil narrative, show- 
■d him wbo and wnat a neighbor was, 
and showed him in a way that disarmed 
his prefudice, deeply affected him in re- 
nid to his own duty, and evinced the 
beaatT of leUf^on. Had he atfirit told 
bim (hat a 5cDMiriean might be Lneigh- 
bor to a Jaw and deserve bis kindneBs, 
ke would hara been at once revolted at 
iL But when, by a boanlifnl and atlect- 

whstsoerer dura spenilest uom, 
when I come again T will lepajr ' 

36 Which now of these thtes, 
thinkest thou, was neighbour umo 
him that fell among the dtieves 1 

37 And he said. He that shewed 
merej * on him. lien stud Jesoa 

larrative, he brought the nan im 
■f^losee thai it migbi be, he Y'ltacon- 
euamed to admit it. Here we see tba 
beaut; of a parable and its use. It dia- 
anned prejudice — filed the attention- 
took the mind gently, yet irresistibly, 
and prevented the possibility of cavil oi 

37. Ht thai ikaiBed wierty. HisJimi 
iih prejudice would not permit Mm fw 
Rmu Uie Samoiilan, but there was no 
impropriely, even in his view, in aayina 
that the iDBD who showed so much 
mercy, was really the neighbor lo iha 
afflicted, and net he who profeited to 
be his neiebbor, but who would &> lu- 
tkiHg {or his welfore. 1 Gi, and dt 
Ihm lAflctis. Show the same kind- 
ness to oil — to fiiend and Ibe, and tita 
you will have evidence that you keep 
the law, and not (tU then. 01 ihismim 
we know nothing fiuther ; but from tliis 
inimitably beautiful parable, we may 
lenni! 1. That the knowledge of die 
law is useful to make us acquainted 
with our own siDliUneas and need of a 
Savtoui. 2. That it is not he who pra- 
fettei most kindness that really loves 
us roost, but ha wbo vrill most deny 
himself that he may do us good In tunea 
of want. 3, That religion requires oa 
to do good to aS nieHi however meet 
dentally we may become acquaiuted 
with their calamities. 4. That we shoula 
do good to our enemies, Real love to 
them will lead us to deny ourselves, 
and to sacrifice our own weliare, that 
we may help Ibem in times of distress, 
and sllevtate their wants, i. That kt 
is really our neightnr who does ub tlte 
moat good — who helps u« in oar neces- 
mliee, and eapedsll; 'f he does tliia 
when (here has been a eontrwMtn tr between us and him. 6.Ws 
hence see the beauty of reUgion. No- 
thing else will induce men to sarmonnl 
their prejudices, to overcoroa oppuai 
tir I. and lo do iiou'' ut tliOBe who are 

■nto hixD, Go, and do thoa like- 

38 Now it came lo pass, as tUey 
imnt, that he entered into a certain 
village : and 
«d Martha, ■ reoeiTsd him into her 

39 And ihe had a sister called 
Harj, <irtiioh also sat * at Jesna' 
feet, and heard bis word. 

aJsa-lLll. 1S.U *JmMS. AtSiJ. 

•I enntitf with thgm. True religion 
teachei us to regard every man u onr 
neighbor ; prompts us lo do good to all ; 
to loqiet all nadonal or Beciionsl dis- 
tincdons, and to aid all those who are 

If religion were valuable for noihing Jul 
thU, ii would be the most lovely and 
desirable principla on sanli ; and ill, 
especially in their earty yean, should 
wek it. Nothing that a young person 
can gain, will bo so valusble ss the feel- 
ing mat regards all iha world as one 
great (iii{uly, and to learn early to dc 
good TO ALL. 7. The difference be- 
in the Jew and the Samariiau. 

., that, while 

J -ubjeclBof religion, 

while they are zealous for wbal 

they hold to be the irutb, suit thsy 
(hould treu «aeh other kindly; aid 
ettcli other in necessity ; and show that 
religien is a prindple mperior to the 
love of seol ; and that (ho cord which 
binds man to man ia one that ia to be 
auudored by no difference of opinion, 
and that Christiui hmdneas ia to be 
marred by no (bima of worship, and no 
bigoted attachment for what we ealoem 
the doctrines of the gospel. 

38. A erriain vtUage, Bethany. See 
John xi. 1. It waa on Ihe esstem de- 
clivity of the mount of Ohves. 1 Ee- 
teivei him. Received him kindly and 
hoepiiably. From ibis it would seem 
that Martha was properly the mistresB 
of ihe house. Poasibly she was a 
widow, and her brother Iaibtus and 
rounger sister Mary lived with her, 
AimI as ale had the core of the house- 
hold, diis will also show why she was 
dijigenlly employed about domestic sf- 

iX. IA.D.M 

40 Bnt Martha was cumbered 
about mach serrins, and cams la 
htm and said. Lord, dost dum not 
care that my sister hath left me to 
serve alone I bid her therefore thai 
she help me. 

41 And Jems answered and said 
nnto her, Martha, Martha, then art ■ 
careful and troubled about .manj 

e Hir.4.ig. C.S1.H. lCa.T.K-3a. 

ancient posture of disciples, or ieamora. 
They sat at the feet of then' teachera ; 
beneath ihem, in a humble 
Hence Paul is represented aa 

been brought upatthe/ee* of 

(jundiel- Acts uii. 3. When it is 
said thai Mary sat at Jesus' feet, it 
means that she waa a diteiplt of his ; 


suitably ti 

vpinion, and from ll 
laller, we may !eE— 
differ in opi'itiMU oi 

:h distracted with 
of the family, and providing 

J J} entertain the Saviour, fi 

should be said here, thai there is no 
evidence that Martha had a worldly or 
dispoailion. Her anxiety was 
le suitable entertainment for 
the Lord Jesus. As mistresB of Ihe 
family, this care properly devolved on 
her i and the only (aull which can be 

to make such entertainment, when 
might have su with Mary at hia 
feet. and. perhaps, too much hssle 
and hrelfulnesa in speaking to Jesus 
about Mary. 1 Doit IA™ ntl can, tc. 
This was Bu improper reproof of our 
Lord, as if *e encouraged Mary in ne- 
gieciing her duty. Or perhaps Msitha 

J .L., fg^^y ^jj silling ihere 

the nmOPT BIores91QnB of 
at Mtfy 


39. SatatJttut'fttl. This w 

mrlesy and hiniui 

without his direciion and permission 

'^' e, therefore, hinttd to Jesus her bos* 

iployments; her need of the aid of 

■ sister ; and requested that JesuF 

would signify his wish that Mary should 

, 7%ria art cartful. Thou art <hui 
_. «17V«Ueif. Disturbed, distract- 
ed^ very solicitous, 1 JHony tiingi. 
Tbe many objects wliich eicile yuur 
-"— ■— -n the familv. Tliie «ras pro 


4S But on* thin^ ■ ia 
and Mbj7 hslh chosen tiiat good 
part, wfaioh ahall not be taken awaj 
■ Pi^ £e.IS.». Hmr.&se. cie. 


n. ico-i^a 

bsbly dea^nad u s sligbt reproof, or 
a lender hint ihw she was improperly 
anxious about those things, and that 
she should, with Mary, rather choose 
to bear the discoursea of heavenly wis- 

I of uitle importance. Thia ^oiJd 
IK secured jlnt, and then all other 
diingB will be added. Se« 1 Tim. iv. 8. 
Malt. vi. 33. ' That good part. The 
portion of the gospel: the love of Giod; 
and an intereat in hia kingdom. She 
has choeen to he a Chnsuan, and lo 

r've up her time and aflections to God. 
Wiidi thifi not be taken avay. Cod 
will not take awav his grace from his 
people ; neither ahall any man pluck 
them out of hia band. John x. 


lesm : 1st. That the caiea of this life 
are dangerous, even when they seem 
to be most lawliil and commendable. 
Nothing of a worldly natore could have 
been more proper than to provide for 
the Lord Jesus, and supply his wants. 


reproved her. So ■ 

:? for out 

lof oi 

ad. It IB of more imporlE 

10 the instnictians of (he Lord Jesus, 
than to be engaged in the ajfaira of the 
world. The one will abide for ever ; 
(he other will be but for a little time. 
3d. There art times when il ia proper 
to suspend woridly employments, and 
attend to the afTairs of tne soul. It tooi 
pnper for Mary to do it. It would 
have been proper for Martha to have 
done it. It is proper for all — on the 
sabbath, and even at other occasional 
seasons — seasons of prayer, and for 
seari^liing the word of God — lo suspend 
worldly concerns, and attend to religion. 
4tb. If attention to religion be omitted 
at tie proper Ibh, it will always be 
iimitted. If Mary bad neglected to 
kcBT Jcnu Usn, ue micht never hav* 


AND it oame to pass, that aa ha 
waa piajine in a certain place, 
when he ceaaed, one of his disci* 
plea aaid unto him. Lord, leach ua 

heard him. 5lh. Piety ia the chief thing 
needed. Other things will perish. We 
shall soon die. All that we can gain, 
we must leave. But the io»l will live. 
There ia a judgment-seat i there is a 
heaven : there is a hell. And oU that 
is needful lo prepare us to die, and l« 
make ua hqipy lor ever, is to be a 
friend of Jeaus, and lo listen to fair 
teaching. Gib. Piety is the chief orna- 
ment in a female. It sweetens every 
other virtue ; adorns eveir other grace ; 
gives new lovehness to the (endemeas, 
mildness, and grace of the femaie cha- 
racter. Nothing ia more lovely Iban a 
female sitluig at the feet of the meek 
and lowly Jeeus, like Mary ; noihing 
more anlovely than enure abaorption in 
(he aSatrs of'^ ihe world, like Maitfaa. 
The mon lovely female is she who baa 
most of the spirit of Jeaus. The leaat 
amiable, she who negtecta her soul ; 
nhoia proud, gay, ihoughlleaa, envions, 
and unlike the meek and lowly Re 
deemer. At hia feet is peace, purity, 
joy. Every where else an alluring and 
wicked world itaals the afiections, and ~ 
rondera ua vain, gay, wicked, prood. 
and unwilling to die. 

At he mu^raying. Luke baa 
taken notice of ou 

Thua. at his builiim 

. , in the wilderness (en. v, 1_, . ,_ 

fore the appointment of the apoattei, be 

ilinued all night in prayer (ch. vi. IS) ; 

was alone praying (ch, ii. IS) ; his 

nsBgursiion also took place when ba 

It up to pray (ch. ii. 38, 29). ^Tendt ■ 

Co pray. Probably they had been 

struck with the ezcelieney and fervor 

of his prayers, and recollecting tlial 

John had langhl his disdpias to pray, 

;y ashed him also to teich iJiem. Ws 

...-m, therefore: Ut. That (he gifts 

and graces of others should lead ua t» 

'eaie the aame. Sd. That (he tmi 

..jethod of praying can be learned only 

from the Lord Jesiu. Indeed we can 

pray accaptably at all, unleaa Gos 

I teach ua how ti-jmr- 3d. Tlw 

lo praj,aa J An also t&ngbt his dia- 

3 And he luid onto -them, When 
ye p«j, Bay, Our • Father which 
•It m hearan. Hallowed be thy 
Dame : Tb j kingdom come : Thy 
will be done, aa in heaven, so in 

3 Give «8 ' daj by day our daily 

4 And foi^ve us out sine ; for * 
w« also forgive every one &at la in- 
debted to ue : And lead us not into 
temptation i but deliver ua from evil. 

■ MaU.6.«Ac lor./orUuiar. - 

it i> proper lor us to meditate b^>re- 
band what ws are to ask of God. and 
to arrange our ihougbls, that we may 
Dot come tboaghtleBalf iolo his pre- 

2 — 4. See thia pasaige explained in 
Matt. vL »— 13. 

4. For Hw dlta fargive, &.C. Tiue is 
Bomewhat difierent fiom the expresgion 
in Matthew, though the seoBe is the 
game. The idea ia, that uolesa we for- 
give others, God will not forgive ua ; 
and unleaa we i»ine lo bim really for- 
giving all others, we cannot expecl 
pardan. It doea not mean, that by 
forgiving othera we (fa»ertw fijrgiveness 
OnrseWea, or merit £e, but that it ia a 
dtqiositioii wtihout which God caimot 
CDnBiBienlly pardon ua. 1 Every one 
tial it indthted It ut. Every one that 
has injured ua. (t ioea not refer to 
pecuniary traneactlaus ; but to offences 
Bi7"'l"r to those wbicb tee bnve co mmiited 
agaioBt God, and for whicb wb baIe for- 
giveness. Besides the variations in the 
ttpreiiuHU in this prayer, Luke has 
omitted the doioto^, oi close, alto- 
gether : and this shows that Jesue did 
■ not intend that we should always use 
jaat this/bm, bat ibat it was a general 
oireciion how to pray ; or rather that 
we were to pray for these Uin^s, though 
■lot always uaing the aame words. 
, 6, 6, 7. Ami M mid unto ticm, &c. 
jesus proceeds to show that, in order 
to obtAm tbfl blessing, it was neceaeary 
to penevere in asking for h. For tbia 

Surpose he introduces this case of a 
iend's aeklng bread of another for one 
who had come to him uneipectsdiy. 
Uia deaicD is aolelr to show the oeces- 

KB. [A.a» 

5 And he laid unto them, Whieh 
of yon shall faave a friend, and 
shall go unto him at midnight, and 
Bay Qiiio him. Friend, lend me three 

6 For a friend of mine * in hi* 
journey is come to me, and 1 have 
nothing to Bet before him : 

T And he from 'within shall an 
Bwer and Bay, Trouble me not . tho 
door ia now shut, and my children 
are viiib me in bed ; I cannot liae 
and give thee. 

8 I Bay nnto yon, Thoufj^ he 

1^Se. tor.tuttftU «w|P- 

aity of being u^erltinale or parseverina 
in prsver to God. 1 At mtdmght. A 
lime when it would be most inconvenient 
for bis Iriead to help bim. An hour 
when be would naturally be in bed, 
and his house shut. ' !Z5lr« Idom*. 
There is nothing particularly denoted 
by the niunlMr iKrtt ia this place. Je- 
sus ofleo threw in such particulars 
merely lo fill up the story, or (o pre- 
servo the consifltency of it. T My ail- 
drea an wiU me in btd. This does not 
mean that they were in the tame lei 
with him, but that they were aS in 
bed, the tiause was still, the door was 
shut, and it was troublesome for bim 
to rise at that time of night to accom- 
This is Ml to be applied 

> God, > 

if it n 
he sought V 

9 troublesome u 

reply U 

manner, out oU that is lo he wplied 
to God in this parable is umply that it 
is proper to pertevere In prayer. As a 
Ran often gives because the request ia 
repealed, and as one is not discouraoed 
because the favor that he asks of bis 
neighbor is delayed, so God often give* 
after long and iinportunale requests. 

8. Itellvou. The Latin Vulgate here 
adds, " if he shall continue knocking." 
Though this is not in the Greek, yel 
it is imlispensablB that it shoold be un 
derstood m order to the sense. Knock- 
ice would not denote imporianilv, 
was because he a>ntinK^ knock- 
1^ Hit onportHniiy. His trouble- 
some perseverance ; his continuing to 
disturb the man, and refiiaing to take 
any denial Tba word npnr'amljr de- 
perseverance in an object, witk 



will not rise and give him becaasu 
he is his friend, yet because of his 
impurtunity • he will rise and give 
him as many as he needeth. 

Q And 1 say unto you, Aek, ' end 
it shall be given you ; seek, and ye 
shall find ; knock, and it shall be 
opened unto yoo. 

10 For eve^ one that asketh re- 
eeiveth ; a&d he that seeketh find- 
eth ; and to him that knocketh it 
shall be opened. 

1 1 If a son shall ask bread of 
any of you that is a father, will he 
give him a stone T oi it he oak » 

'fish, will he for a fish give him a 

13 Or if he shall ask an egg, 
will he offer ' him a scorpion t 

13 K ye Uicn, being evil, know 
bow to give good gifte nnto your 
cbildTen, now much more shall yaar 
heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit 
to them that ask him ! 

14 And ' he was casting o 

jc.lS.l-8. *Malt.r7. Sl.Sa lai 
IJI.e. IJII0.3.S3. igiee. 

ou( any regard to time, place, oi 

■e him what ho asked. This is 

God ic 

I olher 

ifial he often heara prayera and grants 
bleBBinga, even long after they appear 
lo be unanswered or withheld. He 
does not promise to give bles^nga of 
tnee. He promisea only that he will 

often causes his peapte long to wait. 
He tries their faith. He leaves them 
to peraevere for months or years, until 
they feet entirely their dependence on 
him; nndl Ihey see thai they can ob- 
tain the blesung in no other way ; and 
until they are prepared for it. Often 
they are not preparid to receive it when 
they ask it at first. They may be 
ptoud. or have no just sense of their 
dependence, or they would not value 
the bleaaing, or it may at that time, not 
be 'lest for them to obtain it. But let 
nt me deapair. If the thing ia for wr 
ti I, and if it is proper that it thmld 

devil, and it was dnmb. And H 

casae to pass, when the devil wti 
gone ouC4he dumb spake; and \\.t 
people wondered. 

15 But some of them said, He 
casteth out devils Uirough ' Beelza- 
bub the chief of the devils. 

16 And others, tempting him, ' 
sought of him a sign from heaven. 

17 But he, knowing ■ their 
thoughts, said unto them, Every/ 
kingdom divided against itself ia 
brought to desolation ; and a house 
divi&d against a house, falleth. 

18 If Satan also be divided 
against himself^ how shall his kii^' 
dom stand 1 because ye say that 1 
cast out devils throngfa Beelzebub. 

19 And if I by Beel7«bub cast 
out devils, by whom do your sons 
cast them out ! therefore shall they 
be your judges. 

20 But i? I with the finger* of 
God cast out devils, no doubt the 
kingdom of God is come upon you. 

IS.IB. dMall. 111.3^. 16.1. ejlia.3.3£ 
/Milt.19.33. Mar.S-tM. ;Ei.a.t9. 

our need of it; let us inquire whether 
God haa preniied (ticA ■ blesang ; and 
thai let as peraevere until God gives it. 
Aeain : men, when they ask any thins 
ofGoJ -" -■ '-■— '^'■ — 

len give over seeking. They 
Ifu once, aoi if it is not gratngd, they 
are discouraged. It ia not bo when vre 
ask any thing of men. Then we per- 
severe ; we take no denial ; we go again, 
and prai the matter till we obtain it. 
So we should of God. Wo should go 
again and agam, tmdl the ptayer i* 
heard, and God grontB what we ask of 

9 — 12. See this explained in MatL vii. 

12. A Korpian t See Note, Luke X. 
19. The body of the ahUe scorpton 

gure IB used, therefore, 

14—33. See this passage 
lalt. m. 82—30, 


SI When.a Btrong man umed 
keepeth his palace, his goods are in 

33 But when a stronger ■ than 
tie shall come apon him, and i 
come him, he taketh from him all 
bis aimoar wherein he busted, and 
dirideth hie spoils. 

33 He that is not vith me is 
•gainst me : and he that gathereth 
Dot with me, scaltereth. 

M When the unclean spirit is 
ffone out of a man, he walketh 
thraugfa dry places, seeking rest; 
and finding none, he saitb, 1 will 
Tetnrn nnto mj house whence I 

35 And when he cometh, be fiod- 
eth i' swept and garnished. 

SG Then goeth he, and taketh to 
him seven oUier spirits more wicked 
than himself; and they enter in, 
and dwell there : and the last ilatt 
of that man is worse ' than the 

37 And it came (o pass, as he 
■pake these things, a certain woman 
of the company lifted up her voice, 
and said unto him. Blessed ' tt the 

28 But he said, Yea, rather bleBB- 
ed ' are ihey that hear the word of 
God, and keep it, 

39 And when the people were 
gathered thick together, he began to 
say. This is an evil generation : they 
seek a sign ; and ' 'Jiere shall no 
• Ii.S3.ll Cal.S.15. »Ji,o.5.l4. Uc.«.«. 

19.30,47. ttt. 

24—96. SeeMatt-iu. 43-15. 

87, 28, J Mrtam «w™n. 3 ne of the 
erowd. ^ Bleated is lluvimA.ii.c. She 
Aonght Ihal Ihe mother of such a per- 
son must be peculiarly hMps. in having 
such s son. t Yea. JeBuaadmita that 
she was happj' ; thai it wan an honor to 
b« his moiher. - ^Rather bletied. ft,c. 
Bui he aaya (hat ihe chief happinesg, 
the bishMt honor, was tn ohtj the 

KE. [^ D. 39 

sign be given it, but the sign o! 
Jonaa the prophet. 

30 For as Jonas / was a wgn 
unto the Ninevites, so shall also um 
Son of man be to this generation. 

31 The queen ' of the south 

shaU r "-■ ^ 

the me 

deran them : for she came from the 
utmost pans of the earth to heH 
the wisdom of Solomon; and, be- 
hold, a greater titan Solomon u 

33 The men of Nineveh shall 
rise up in the judgment with this 
generation, and shall condemn it 
for* they repented at the pceaching 
of Jwnas : and, bc.hold, a greater 
than Jonas u here. 

33 No ' man, when he hatli 
lighted a candle, putteth t'J in a se- 
cret placs, neither under a bushel, 
but on a candlesii.k, that they 
which come in mny nee tlie light. 

34 TlieJ light of the body is die 
:ye : therefore v, hen thine eve is 

,.»»1» lU-. .«U.«I.. L»J. .!..» :« |l,ll 

■ thy whol 
be full of light, ' having ni , 
dark, the whole shall he full of 
light, as when ' the bright shining ** 
of a candie doUi give wee light 

r I Ki.lO.l Ac * J<>n.3.S,lD. i Matt.!. 
iSie. Mar.4.21. r.a.lO. j Mall.fl,K,*c 

' IB in keeping :he aov^ 
I of God, and "fling pre- 


i. D. 33.] . CHAFl 

37 And M he spake, a certain 
Phaiisee besought him to dine with 
him : and he went in, and sat down 

38 And ' when the Pharisee saw 
if, he marvelled that he had not 
ftist washed before dinner. 

' 39 And the Lord said unto liim, 

■ Mm.T-3. 

37. And oi is ipake. While he naa 
fcddresginf the people, and paniculirly 
while ho was reproving liisi generation, 
and declaring us crimes. 1 A eerlam 
PharUee, The Phariaeewas onearaong 
others that was reproved by the dis- 
coureeof JesUB, He therefore uiterrupl- 
ed ChrisL, and invited him to go home 
viith him. There is httle doubt that 
this was for the purpose of drawing him 
away from the people ; ihai he did it 
with a mHlignonl inleation, perhaps 
with a de^n to confute Jesua in pii- 
vale, or to reprove him for thus con- 
demning the whole nalion as he did. 
He might have seen that those who at- 
tacked JeauB pahiiely were commonly 
unsuccessful, and he desired probably 
to encounter him more piivalely. 1 Be- 
KMght him. Asked huD. 1 To dine 
Kilh him. The Jews, as well as <ha 
Greeks and Romans, had but two prin- 
cipal meals. The first was a slight ra- 

o'clock Af our time, and consisted chief- 
ly of fruit, milk, cheese, &c. The se- 
cond meal waa partaken of about three 
o'clock, P. M., end wos their prin- 
cipal meal. The frit is the one Vre 
intended. S Ht <ce)U in. Though he 
knew the evil design of the FharisBe, 

S:t he did not dedine the invitslion. 
e knew that it might afibrd him an 
oiiporiunity to do good. These two 
thin^ are to be observed in regard to 
our Saviour's conduct in euch matters : 
]bI. That he did not decline an inviia- 
t'on to dins with a man, simply because 
lie was a Pharisee, or because he was 
a wicked man. Hence he was charged 
ivith being glulionous, and a friend of 
^blicans ami unners. 2d. He seized 
upon all lucb occsnons to do eood. He 
never shrank from decUring uie truth, 
ajid malting tbem the means of spread- 
ing the gospel. If Christians and Chris- 

1, and mighi ' 

Now ' do ye Pharweea makd cLesu 
the oatude of the cup and the plal> 
ter; but 'yoiur inward part is full 
of ravening and wiakedneas. 

40 Ye fools, did not he that raads 
that which is without moke that 
which is within also } 

lMsu.93.3I. c-nt.i.JS. 

plaees a vast amount of good. TiSat 
dtmn. Reclined at the table. See Note, 
Mall. »riii. 6. 

38. Saw it. Saw that be sat hnme 
dialely down wilhonl washing. 1 Mmr 
vdltd. Wondered. Was ainaied. Il 
was so unusual, and in his view so im- 
proper. ^ Had not ^nt woMhed. He 
wondered particularly, as he had been 
among a roued multitude, and they es- 
leemed the touch of sm;h persons pol- 
luimg. They never ate, therefore, with 
out such viaehing. The otigin of the 
custom of washing with so much for- 
mahiy btfort they rartook of their 
meals. Was that they did not nae as we 
do knives and forks, but used their 
B Iheir hands 
in a dish on the table, 

_. proper that theyehoulo 

be washed clean before eating. Nor 
was there .impropriety in- the thing 
itself, but the Phariseea made it a 
matter of ceremony ; they placed no 
small pari of their religion m such ce 
remomes ; end it was righl, iherefbro, 
that our Lord should take occanon to 
reprove them for it.. Compare Mark 


39, See Matt. uiii. 2 
Robbery, plunder. Hen 
the cup and platter were filled with what 
had been unjustly taken from others. 
That is, they lived by their wickedness , 
their fb<>d was procured by dishonestj 

bla charge j and as it was applied, 
among others, la the man who had in 

viled the E 


I that notbir;g w 

dealing faithfully with the eoule of m 
Even m the Pharisee's own house, t — 
when eipresaly invited to partake of 
his hOBpitality, he loved his soul eu 
much. lliBt he faithiijlly warned him of 

40. Yefocla. How unwise and vrich 
ed U your conduct ! The word denotes 
not only rant ^leiiilun, bnt also net 


41 Bat ■ nihet mo Biros 
noh thian u ye have; and 
hold, all Uiin^ are clean unto yon. 

48 Bat woe * unto you, Phari- 
■MB ! for je tithe mint and 
■11 manner of heibii, and p 
Judgiaent and the lore of God : 
-'---- ought ye to have dons, and 

ttot to leave Uie other undone. 
43 Woe unto yon, Pharisees 
aU.SB.7. ci^n. 


tlnttt. Compare Pa. liv. I. Pror. 
xui. 19; liv. 9. VouT conduct ia not 
merely failith, but it i« ■ closk far am 
— designed lo eoontenance wickedaeea. 
^Did not ie, &.C. Did not God, who 
made (he ledy, make bUo the awl' 
You Fhariaees take great puna tr 
eleuue the boda, under a preieDi . . _ 
pleaaing Ocd. Did he not alio maki 
the mind, and ia it not of aa much 
portaace that that ahonld he pure, aa 
that the body should t 

41. Alau. Charity. Bene&ctions to 
the pool, f SaiA thmgi <u y« hatie. 
Your properly: Ihough it hae been Rain- 
ed unjuBlly ; though you have lived by 
rapine, uid have amaaaed wealth in an 
improper ittanner, yel tinei ym have it, 
it fa TOUT duly lo make the beat of it, 
and do good. By gtving la the poor, 
you maj show your repanianoB of your 
Crimea m amaaaing money in this man- 
tier. You may ahow that you diaap- 
oroTB of your (ormer comae of life, and 
are diapoaed henceforward lo live ho- 
aestly. If this be the meaninc of tlda 
paaaage, . then il ahowa what ia UiE 
of thoae who have by unjiiat gain 
come weallhy, and who Ihem are coo 
verted to God. It may not be poaubU 
for Ihem in every case to make e;[BC 

, jured. Thouaanda of ii 

a ihey 

Many pereoi 
' layhavediei 

. ^ _..^ . . , by giving lo 

athera, that they do not think iheir 

whom they have injured may have died. 

hey ha^ 
1 ihey 

may show, by j 

a acquired honestly, and that they 
truly repant. They may devote then- 
tiropeny to God, diatrlbale it to the 
poor, or give il lo Bend the goepel lo 
the heathen world. Thus- may Ihey 
»how that they diaapprove of their for- 
tter conduct ; and tnua may be aeen 
<iiw great principle of God • goven- 

foT * je lore the uppennost teats ii 
sjnitgogiies, and gteetinga ii 

44 Woe unto yon, Bcrihes i 
Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye aic 
* graTea which sppeai not, and 
men that walk over lAem are 

menl, thai goad fnally tama tat i^ nil. 
1 And hthiM. Slc. Doing this will 
show that you are a tme penitent, and 
the remainder of yoiir property you vrill 
anpy with a feeling llul you have done 
your duty, and no longer be smtlter 
with the ctmaciouaneaa m hoarding uD- 

J'liet gaina. The abject of the Savioui 
ere aeema to hare been la bring ihe 
Pharisee to repentance. Repentance 

«iot <t 

, and in for- 

sakuig It. Thia he endeavored to pro- 
duce by showing hun , lat, ihe ml and 
hypocnay of hia contluct ; and, 2d, by 
eiihorting him \afaraake bia aina, and to 
>Am ihia by doing good. Thus doing, 
be would evince tbal the mind ^vaa 
clean aa well aa ibe indy ; the uuide aa 
well aa tbe mUide. 

ii. See Matt, iiiii. 23. ^ S^. Thia 
ia a email garden plant, and ia oaed aa 
B medidne. It lua a roay flower, a 
biller, penetrating laatt^ and a strong 

43,*44. See Mall. iliiL 6, 37. 

43. LaiByert. Men learned in ihe 
law : but it ia not known in what way 
ihe lawyera difiered from the nrAet, 
or whether ibey were Phariseea nr Sad- 
duceea. 1 7^ "tying, thtm, &c. He 
felt that the remarka of Jeaua about 
loving the chief aeals, &c., applied lo 
them as well aa to the Pharisees. Hia 
conadenpe told him that if Ihey were to 
blame, ht waa, and lie therefore applied 
the discourse lo himself. 1 Keproaci- 
«t. Accusest, Dost calumniate, or 
dost blame 

a often 


reproadi. They know not 
rate Ibem. Jeeua did not 
reproach or abuae them. He dealt 
feuhfully with them; reproved iWem; 
■ ' ' ■' "" '■ varnished truth. Sudi 

e; but when it ii and 



ttioa Baying, llioii repioachesL ns | foundation of the world, mflT bi 

also. quired ' of this ee "^ — 

46 And he said. Woe unlo joq -■ "^ .. tt 
lUo, yt lawyers ] foi ye lode men 
„:.L c.._j — --ievoua to be borne, 
res touch not the 
ne of joui Sngers. 
you ! for ye build 
flie sepulchres of the prophets, and 62 Woe unto yon, lawyen 
yocr fathera killed them. -- . - - i - 

■" '" ■ ' -J that ye 


with Surdene 
and ye youree 
buidens * nilh 

47 Woe 

49 Truly yebearwi 
allow * the deeds of vi 
(or they indeed killed them, ' 
ye build their sepulchres. 

49 Therefore also said the 
dom of God, I will send tiiem pro- 
phets and apostles, and aome of 

WB niiut eipacl thmt men will flinch, 
perhaps be enraged ; and though their 
UHiscieDces tell (hem they are guilty, 
nil) tbey will coiuider it is abuse. 

46. See Malt. uiii. 4. 

47 -SI. See Matl. uiii. 29—36. 

49. Theaadoae/God. BvlhetDit- 
ftmtfGgd, hBre, ia undoubtedly meant 
tlie Saviour himaelC What he imuie- 
dialely saya ia not written in lbs Old 
Tenainenl. JasuB is called the aord 
^ Gad {Jalm i. 1|, because be ia the 
medium by which GadnxaJbiarmakeB 
hia wiU known. He U called (^ <H>. 
dam af God, because by him God makea 
his msdam known in creation (Col. i. 
13 — 18), and in redemption. God shows 
oRiHlf mite by what Jeaua naya and 
does 10 redeem men. The aanie name 
la giTen to him in 1 Cor. i. 30. Many 
have also Ihougbtthat the Messiah was 
referred to in the eighth chapter of Fro- 
vsrbs, under Iha name of wisdom. 1 / 
■nS »aid. &c. See Luke i. 3. Matt x. 
16. ShaH aZaVi ^c. Compare John 
■vA. %. -Acta VII. 53, 59. Jamea v. 10. 
Actsiii.2; niL 19. 3 Cor. xi. 34, 25. 
e Chron. izivi. 15, 16. 

5S. H^sdMajKHi, lowyrrt. SeeNole, 
Mstt.nnii. 13. ^Theit^^knm^dgt. 
A key b msd>i to open a lock or door. 
By their fidsa interprelauoa of the Old 
rrmunent, llwy hikd taken away ibr 

51 From thellood of Abel ' un- 
to the blood of Zacharias,-' wtiich 

perished between the altar and ^e 


ye entered i 
yourselves, and them that were en- 
tering in ye ' hindered. 

53 And as he said Uieae things 
unto them, the scribes and Phari- 
sees began to urge AiujTehemently, 
and to provoke ' him to speaJt of 
many thine;s ; 

54 Laying wait for him, and 
eeeking. to catch something out of 

S.7. 'or,/«-i«rf. JlCo.lIS. jMir.ja.l3. 

true kev of understanding h. They 
iiad hindered the people from imder- 
atanding it aright. ' You endeavor to 
prevent tbe people also from understand- 
me tbe acriaturea reapecting the Mea- 
aiah; and those who were coming to 
we ye hindered,' If there be any ain 
of peculiar magnilnde, it is that of keep- 
""" 'le people in ignorance. And few 
are so guilty as they who by ialae 
ictiana prevent tbem from coming 
knowledge of the truth, and em- 

Td urge him vehimaUly. To 
press upon bim oiolentlB. They were 
enraged against him. Tfliey (heretorg 
iressed upon him ; asked him many 

iuestiona; sought to eatrsp him, that 
ley might accuse him. -*—-•-■■- 
tc. liiis means thai 
luestione to him about 
without saving him prop,:r time tp an* 
Bwer. They proposed questions as fiat 
as possible, and about sa many things 
aa possible, that they might get him 
'' e hurry, to aay something tliat 
I be wrong, that they might thus 
e him. Tbia was a remarkable 
instance of their cunning, maligmty, 
and unfaimeas. 

54. Laying toail for hOi, Or, rathoT, 

laying iiieret for him. It mean* thai 

endeavT'cd lo entangle him in hb 


hii month, that thnj might tu 


IN ■ dte mean time, frhen there 
were gathered together an umu- 


talk ; that (her did 8S men do who 

bird* — who lay soaies, and deteive 
■■- — d take them uoBWarei. ^That 
It ocruc him. Before the aan- 
Dr great couacil of the nuion, 

secure his being put lo death. 

From thie we may learn, Isl. That 
bithful reproob must be expected to 
Kxale oppoailLon and hatred. Though 
(he ecHuneim may be roused, and may 
leatify against the man^hat is reproved, 
yet that does not prevent his hating the 
reproof end the reprover. Hd. We see 
here the manner in which wioked men 
will endeavor to escape the reproofs of 
conacdence. Inicead of repeating, they 
■eek vengeance, and leeolve to put (he 
reproTertashaioeoriodeatb. 3d. We 
ae« (he eicMding malignity which men 
may have against the Lord Jemig. Well 
wae it said that he was set for the fal! 
of many in Israel, (hat thereb; the 
thoughta of many hearts might be re- 
vealed ! Men, nou, are not by nature 
leaa opposed (o Jeans than they were 
then. 4ih. We see (he wjadom, purity, 
and firmneBs, of the Saviour. To their 
aoals he had been faithful. He had 
boldly reproved them for (heir sins. 
T^e V sought his life. Multitudes of the 
artful andleamed gathered arotmd him 
to endeavor to draw out aomethine <^ 


ui vain. Not a word fell from his lip& 
of which they could accuae him. Every 
thing tliat he said was calm, mild, peace- 
ful, wiae, and lovely. Even hia cunning 
and bitter adverHanea were always con- 
founded, and retired in aliame and con- 
fusion. Hera, surely, m'lsl have been 
aomething more than man. None but 
Gad MsHi/at in the jtak could have 
<nown aU their desigrii, seen all their 
Wickedness and (heir wiles, and eacaped 
die canning siralagems that were laid 
IV coafound and onlingte him in hia 
eanversation. Sih. The same inlinilely 
wiee Saviour can still meet end can- 
firjnd all his oven enemies ond those 
sf hit people, and deliver all hia fbllow- 
wa, ■• he did hiniHlf. ftnm all the! 

KE. LA D-» 

merable matiitnde of people, iii»» 
much' that thev trode one upon wh 
other, be betran to aay unto his dis- 
ciples first of all, Beware ye of dk« 
leaven of the Pharisees, whieh » 

■nares laid by a wicked world to Ism) 
them to ein and death- 

1. In til mtan time. While he mt 
diseouraing with the ecribes and Phari- 
recorded in the last chapter. 

^ Ah innamertMt Boiltiltiilt. The oi 
ginal word iamyriadtr or Ian thousands. 
It is tised here to signify thai there was 
a great crowd or collection of people, 
who were anxious to hear him. Mul- 
titudes of people were attracted to out 
Saviour's ministrr ; and it ia worthy ol 
remark that he never bad more to bear 
him than when ho was most faithful 
and severe in his reproofs of wnnera. 
Men's consciences are on ibe side of 
the faithful reprover of their sins ; and 
though they deeply feel the reproof, ye( 
they will often sltll rmect and heat 
him that reproves. 1 Ta hU diicipltt 
Srtt of all. This does not mean that 
his disciples were, before all others, to 
avoid hypocrisy ; but that this was the 
Jtri( or chief thing of which they were 



heiBare,' Sec, 1 fte Itatteti. See Note, 
Matt. ivi. 6. 1 midi u hypB-ritj. 
See Note, Matt. vii. 5. Hypociisy ■ 
hlie leaven, or yeast, because, lat. It 
mayeiiBtwithout being immediately de- 
lected. Leaven miiS in ftour ia not 
known until it produces its efiecta, Sd. 

le the whole r 

I will ■ 

pervade the whole mass. So hypocrisy 

wilt, if undetected and unremoved, soon 

pervade all our eicrcises and tsehngs. 

3d. It is sweiluig. It pufCs us np, aitd 

'"- IB with pride and vanity. No man 

)re proud than the hypocrite ; and 

ie more odious to God. When Je- 

iButions (hem to beware of thta, 

. ...eana that ihey should be caatiotrf 

abou! imbibing their spirit, and beomc 

ing Uke them. The rcligiini of Jeiua 

" - le of amcerity, of humility, of an 

B want of difu^ise. The humblaet 

is the best Cbriitian ; aiid he whia 

has the ietn disguias ahoul ^ ly im% 
is moat Uke bia maMer. 



hid, that shall not be known. 
3 Tharefiiri) whatsoever ye 
Hpoken in darineBB eball be heaid 
in the light; and that which ye 
have <poken in the ear, in closets, 
•ball be proclaimed upon the houae- 

luL tliB body, and aAei that have no 
DVHe tlia^ the^ can do. 

5 But I will forewarn yon whom 
J6 shall feai : Fear him which, af- 
ter he hath killed, hath power lo 
east into hell ; yea, I say unto you. 
Fear him. 

6 Are not five spairows sold for 
two farthings % ' and not one of 
Ihem is tbrgotien before God : 

7 But even thevery hairs of your 
head are all numbered. Fear not, 
therDfore : ye are of more Talua 
than many aparrowH. 

8 Also I say unto you,* Whoso- 
ever shall confess me before men, 

sUatt.IO.U. c^.lT. tIno.IS. 
14. cls.Sl.T-I3. Min.msSAc >Sea 
Matt. 10.99. dlS>.«.30 Fi.II9.46. 9Ti. 

i.1% Se.a.10. 

- 2—9. Natkim centred. See Nole, 
Miif I. 26—32. 

10. See Note, Mall. lii. 32. 
n, 12. See Nole, Mall. X, 17—20. 
12. Oiu ^ tilt aa^ny. Onsoflbe 
mnllitude. He had protablf had a dis- 

Ee wiib bis broiber. Buppodng that 
brother had refused lo do him jus- 
tice. Conceiving that Jesui bad power 
over the people — ihal what he said must 
be perforined — be endeavored lo secure 
him on bis side of [he diepule, and gain 
his point. From the parallel which Ibl- 
lo'va, it wonld appear thai this man had 
no JHit claim on the inheritance, but 
woB influenced by covelouanesB. Be- 
ndes, if he hod any jiut claim, ic might 
have been secured by the laws of lbs 
land. 1 Spak la my broticr. Com- 
mand my brother. 1 Ztindi (Ac tnAer- 
ifama. An inheritance is the property 
wbien is lefl by a laiber to his children, 
Amniw the Jews the older brother bad 
two sDsrea, or iwiea •■ much ss anv ; 

him shall the Son of man also con 
fesB ' before ^e angels of God : 

9 But he that denieth / me before 
man, shall be denied before the an- 
gels (of God. 

10 And whosoever shall speak a 
word against the Son of man, i; 
shall be forgiven him : but unto 
him that blasphemeth against the 
Holy Ghost, it shall not * be for- 

1 1 And when they bring yon un- 
to the synagogues, and unto magis- 
trates and powers, take ' ye no 
tiiought how or what thing ye shall 
answer, or what ye shall say : 

' 13 For the Holy Ghost shall 
teach ' you in the aame hour what' 
ye ought to say. 

13 And one of the company ni'i 
unto him. Master, speak to roy b;4- 
ther, that he divide the inheritance 

14 And he said nnto him, Man, 
who made me a judge or a dividei 

eJudpZI. /Ac.3.13.14. Rs.3.e. fMstt. 

33.31. AMBit.l3.3l. tMalt 
10.1B. Mar.13.11. c.Sl.H. jAcAlO. Ac. 
SU. tEn.33.31. IJno.ia.JS. 

other child. Dent. xii. 17. The re 
msinder was ibeu equally divided among 
all lbs children. 

14. ^Vhomadt ma judge t Ilisnot 
my bnsinesa u> eetile coniroverBtee of 
Ibia kuid. They are lo be settled by 
the maffistraie, Jeeus came for ui- 
olher purpose — to preach ihs gospel, 
and so bnng men to a villaignat to da 
right. Civil aifairs are lo be left lo tha 
magislrate. There is no doubl Thai Je- 
sus emU have told him which waa right 
in ihia case ; bi t then il would have 
beeu interfering with the proper office 
of the magistrsteii ; it might have led 
him inlo controvers;? with the Jiwa; 
■nd it was besides evidently apart from 
the pri^r business of his life. We 
ramark. also, that the appropriate 

> of the Rospe 
is to attend lo apiriLuol concerns. Thev 
should have hills to da with ihe tempo 

r the poo 

them, Take 

lu And he said 
heed and biswara ol 
fur a man's life ' consistoili cot 
the ubundance of the things which 
he possessBth. 

16 And he spake a parable ui 
tteni, saying. The g^iound of a o 
ta:n rich man brought forth plen 

Tight ; but ihey have no power to lake 
toe place of a roBgiatrale and settle con- 

15. Beaarc ^amioustKit. One of 
these broihers, no doubt, was guilty of 

'custom, took occaeion to warn his dis- 
ciples of its danger. CotetaUinai, An 
unlawful desire of the properly of an- 
('her; also, adeure of gain, andricheB, 
liBjondwhal is necessary forot 

in of the lenth 
ment (t;x. u. 17), and is expreasiy 
called idolatry. Col. iii. 5. Compare, 
also, Eph. V. 3. and Heb. idii. S. ^ A 
■aii'i life. The word Wt is some- 
times taken in the sense of happiDeaa or 
feliciiy ; and some have supposed Ihis 
to be the meaning here, and ihai Jesus 
meant to say that a man's comfort does 
not depend on affluence — i. e., onmora 
than is neeessary for bis daily wants. 
But this meaning does not suit Ihe par- 
able following, which is designed to 
show that property will not lengthen 
out a man's hfe, and therefore la not 
(00 ardently to be sought, and is of 
little value. The word life, therefore, 
is to be taken literally. ^ Coruiit- 
eti Hdf. Ratber d^tendelh not on hia 
possessions. His possessions will not 
prolong it. The passage, then, means : 
Be not aiiiioua about obtaining wealth ; 
for however much you obtain, it will 
not prolong yoitr life. Thai depends on 
tha will Ql God. and it requires adiffer- 

16. A parabU. See Nola. Malt. liii. 
i. ^ PleatifuUf. His land was fertile, 
and produced even beyond his eipecta- 
lioos, and beyond what he had provided 

[A 9. S3. 

17 And he thou^t wifliin hiin- 
self, aajing. What ahalj 1 do. be- 
cause I have no room where to be- 
stow my fruits 1 

18 Aijd he said. This will ' 1 do : 
I will pull down my bams, aaf 
biuld greater; and there will I b^ 
stow all my fruits and mj goods- 

19 And 1 will say tt> my sotu, 

Riches increase thought and perplexiiy. 
Indeed this is almost their only effect, 
to engross the thoughts and steal the 
heart away from better things, in order 
to take care of the useless wealth. TAb 
nwm. Every thing was full, t To be- 
tlDw. To place, to hoard, to collect. 
TT My /mil,. Our word fruilt. ia not 
applied to grain. But the Greek word 
is applied to all the produce of theeariii, 
not only fmii, but also grain. I'his is 
likewise the old meaning of the English 
word, especially in the plural number. 

'IS. IteiitpuUdoaniitybaTni: The 
word barai. Usre, properly means gn- 
nariti, or places exclusively designed to 
put wheat, barley, ifcc. I'hcy were com- 

Lonly made, by the ancients, unrlcr 
griHtiid. where grain could be kept a 
long time, more safe from thieves and 
- vermin. If ilbeasked whyhedid 
et the old ones remain, and build 

. 3uld be esi 
excavated ii 


19. Mach goodt. . Much property 
Enough ID last a long while, so that 
there is no need of anxiety or labor. 
1 Take thine eate. Be free from care, 
aboulthe fulure. Have no anxiety about 
proviMon for want. ^ Eta, drink, ami 

.u. Epicureans and Atheints. 

s '. too often the doctrine i ~ 
ihosB who are rich. Thej think that 
" ' t is valuable in hfe Is t~ 
ink, and be cheerfal, on 
Hence their chief aniietv is to obti 
luiuriee of all the world; to seCL 
productions of every clime at ai., — 
~~nsc; and to be distinguished for splen- 
' lus living. What 


is for 

folly to think tbat all that a mxa 

lives for ia to ■alisfy hia sensual ajq>etilesi 

' U lia tui an iDidlM io be 


.4.D SB.] 


Soul, ■ tlion hut much (roodfl laid 
up for many /eara ; take Slice eas«, 
eat, ' drink, and he merry. 

20 But God said unto him. Thou 
foul ! this niffbt ' Iby * bouI shall be 
required of tnee : then whose shall 
Ihooe thinn be, which Ihon bast 

21 So it he that laTeth up trea- 
%VK for himself, ■ and is not rich ^ 
l«>WBrd God. 

29 And he said unto his disci- 
ples. Therefore 1 say unto you, Take 
■ Pii.49.IS. »Ecll.9. ICa.lS.aa Jg.S. 
Si ' or, Wt Oaf nnir* Mf tnl. c Job SO. 
W-33. S7.R Fl5S.T. Jb.1.14. 

cnltinited, a bean to be purified, a sout 
lo bfl nrfld from elernnl death. 

20. 31toii/DaJ.~Iftbereisaay ■oprame 
folly, it is this. As though riches could 
prolong the life, or aven for a moment 
ibe approBch of pain and death. ^Thit 
nigSl, iu:. What an awfut Hntenos to 
a man who, as he thoajrht, had got juet 
ready 10 hve and enjoy mtiwelf! In do* 
nogle moment all hia hopei were bfaa 

, Id burtied to a world where 

a no pleasure, and wbere alt their 
wealth cannot purchaae one momeni'" 
ease from the (mawinEB of the w< 
that never d- -<>■''■■ 
Ihx. Thou 

» Tiat wlmte, i.cT 
be ia of little cotueqai 
that loet hia soul to ^aui mem. cut 
(hey are often left to beue that diieipate 
(hem much aooner than the &theT pro- 
eared them, and thus they secure titeir 
ruin aa weU aa hie own. See Ps. irii. 

SI. Sa it he. This ia ihe portion, or 
the doom, &c. ^ Layelh »p ITttaart 
farhimtelf. Acquire! richsBtarhiaOwn 
use — for himttif. This ia the chatacler- 
kBCic of the cOYHtooa man. Ii ia ail for 
Umtdf. HU plana teiiiinale here. He 
livea only for himself, and acta only with 
regard id hia owri interest. ^iSiditc- 
wardi God. Has no inheritance in the 
kingdom of G 3d — no riches laid up in 
beaTen. Hia aflectiona are all do ibe 
irarld , and be has none fbi God. i 

' no thought for your life, what ye 
shall eat ; neither for the body, wlul 
ye shall put on. 

33 The life is more than meat, 
and the body it more than raiment. 

34 Consider the ravens: ' for 
they ndthei sow nor reap; which 
neither have store-house nor ham; 
and God feedelh them. How much 

liC. J Job SMI. Ps.UT.B. 

FromthisinstrucTiTe parable we leam: 
lat. That wicked men are often signallv 
proapered — iheii ground biinga fortli 

elenlituUy. God givea them their deairc, 
ut senda learmeas into tlieli souls. Ed . 
That riches bring with them alwava an 
in creasing loadofcareBai 
That they ateal away the sifectiona from 
God— -are sly, inKnualing. and danger- 
ous, lo the soul. 4ih. That the anxiety 
of a coveloua man is not what gotd he 
may do with his wealth, but where he 
may hoard it, and keep it secure from 
doing any good. 5th, That lichea cM- 
not secure their hanebty owners from 
the crave. Death will come upon them 
Buddenly, uneipociedly, awfully. In 
the very midat of the bnriiteai anticipa- 
tions — m a momenl — in the twinkling uf 
an eye — it may come, and all his wealth 
cannot alleviate one pang, or drive away 
one fear, orprolong one moment of hia 
hfe, 6th. 'That the man who ta trneting 
to hia riches in this manner, is a fool in 
the sight of God. Soon, also, he will he 
a fool in his nm eight, and will go to 
hell with the coniciousnea that his life 
baa been one of eminent folly. Tlh. 
That the palh of true wisdom ia lo seek 
fiiat the kingdom of God, and to b« 
ready to die ; and ihtn it matters hllle 
what is our portion here, or how sud- 
denly or soon we are called away te 
meet our judge. If our aflections are 
not hxed on our riches, we eliall leave 
them without regret. If our Ireaaurea 
are laid up in heaven, death will be bul 
going iiome, and happy will be that mo 
ment when we are caJled to our rest. 

22-~31. See this pas 
ii Matt. vi. 2»-«3; 


36 If ye thun be not able to do 
ttiM thinr which ie least, why &ke 
ye thought fur the rest! 

S7 ConMder the lilies, haw they 
groin i they toil not, they spin not: 
and yet I say unto you, that Solo- 
mon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of these. 

S9 If then God so clothe the 

grass, which is to-day in the field, 

mnd to-moiTow is cast into (he oven, 

bow much more will he clatic you, 

' O ye of little laith ! 

S9 And seek not ye what ye shall 
eat, or what ye shall drink, ' nei^er 
be ye of doubtliil mind. 

30 For all these things do the 
nations of the worid seek after: and 

<>. ■ HbII. 


32. Little Jlo^, Our Saviour often 
represents himself ae ■ shepherd, and 
hi* followers as a flock, or aa sheep. 
The figure was beautiful. In Judea it 

flocka. The ahepherd waa with them, 
defended them, provided lor them, led 
them to green paaturea and beside Mill 
waters. In all these things. Jeaus was 
and ia eminenlly the Good Shepherd. 
Hia flock was small. Few radly fol- 
lowed him, compared with the multitude 
who refuaed to love him. But thaugh 
small in number, they were — " ' 

small in number, they were not to fei 
God was their Friend. He wouU pr 
tide for tbem. It was bla nirpMC .. 
give them the kingdom, and they had 
nolhine to fear. See Matt. vi. 19—31. 
33. Sell Ihat ye have. Sell your pro- 
perty. Eichange it for that which ye 
can uae m dialnbuiin^ charity. This 
was the condition of ihnr being disciples. 
Their property thej" gave up ; they for- 
look it. or the; put it into common slock, 
or the sake of giving alms to the poor. 
A.CIa ii. 44 ; iv. 32. John xli. 6. Acta 
f. e. 11 Bari aihiiA vjox mn old. The 
word hiji,Tiere, means fmrMa, or the 
bags attached to their girdles, in which 
Ihey csrried their money. See Notes, 
Halt. T, 36. By bags which wai not 
old, Jesus means that we should Iny up 
Inasare in heaven; Ihat our aim should 
ba (o bs prepared to enter there, where 

iE. [A. D. 3S 

youT Father knownth that ye bxn 
need of these things. 

31 But * rather seec ye the king- 
dom of God ; and all ' these things 
shall be added unto you. 

32 Fear not, little flock; ' for il 
is your Father's good pleasure to 
give yon the kingdom.' 

33 Sell ■ that ye have, and 
give alms : provide yourselves bags 
whic;h wax not old, a treasure f tn 
the heavens that laileth not, where 
no thief approachelh, neither me' 

34 For where your treasure t, 
there will your heart be also. 

35 Let ' your loins be girded 
about, and your lights * burning; 

^Malt.aui. Jno.I8.3a. He.lS.3a Ja.I. 
SFe.l.ll. Be.1.6. StS. (MalUS.Sl. 

C2.M. 4.34. / iTi.e.iv. gBo 

14. lPe.1.13. * MBll.SS.l,ia 

all our wanla will be for ever provided 
fur. Purses, here, grow old and useless. 
Waahh takes to itaelf wioga. Riehea 
are easily acatlered, or we muat Boon 
leave them ; bnt that wealth which ta iu 
' eaven abides for ever. It never ia cor- 
iipted J never Siea away j never ia to he 
lit 1 Wax. This word is &am an 
Id Saxon word, and in the Bible means 

35. Let jwurlsuu, Slc This alludes 
ancient manner of dress. They 

1 king flowing robe as their ouiei 

garment. See Nolee, Matt. v. 3S— tl. 

When they labored, or walked, or ran, 

was necesaaiy to gird or tie this up 

a tath or girdle alwut the body, that 

mighl not impede their progress. 

Hence, to gird up the loina means to be 

ready, be active, be diligent. Compare 

""^-gsiv. 29, ii. 1; Jer. i. 17; Acts 

1 Year llgUe tmming. This 

98es the same meaning. Be ready 

timaa to leave the world and en- 

o rest, when your Lord stall call 

Let every obstacle be out of the 

every earthly care be reDOved 

e prepared to follow him into his 

ready for the coming of their Lord, If 
in the night, the]? were eipacted t« 
keep their lighla trimmed tnd bumiif 
This Bipreauon refefs lo the duty i 
tl«n thsir inswer i><a cwn 




36 And ye jwmA'fia like onto 
men diat wdt for their lord, when 
he will return from the wedding; 
ttiat, when he c6metb and knock- 
eth, they may open unto him imme- 

37 Bleised ■ are those ^Bervanta 
whom the lord, when he comelh, 
ahall find watching': reiily I say 
mDto you, that he shall gird him 
■elf, and make them to eit down to 
meat, and will come forth and serve 

38 And if be shall come in the 

second watch, or come in the third 
watch, and hnd them so, blessed are 
those servants. 

39 And this know, that if the 
good man of the house had known 
what hour the thief * would cnme, 
he would have watched, and not 
have Buffered hiahonse to be broken 

40 Be ye therefore toady ' also : 
frr the Sod of man comeui at an 
liDur when ye think not. 

*tid when he would return from a wed- 
ding, as iher knew not the hour, they 
were to be continually ready. Compare 
Notes on Matt. uv. So we. as we 
know not the hour when God shall call 
ua, should be olmyi ready to die. 

36. See Nolea on Mall. xjtv. 1—13. 

37. ShaU gird hiauelf. Shall lake 


It himself. 

who waited on Ihe labli 

f*rded !a the manner described above. 
SliaU make that til, &.C. Shall place 
(hem al his table, and feast Ihetn. Tbis 
evidently mesne ihal if we are faithful 
"II Chiisl, and are ready ' ' 


— hooven, will admit u( ... _ „.. 

and make UB happy tbeTe-'fts if jl« should 
serve us and minuter to our wants. It 
will be SB if a maaier, instead of sitting 
riowti St ine table Aimietf, sho ild place 
Ms &ithfitl lenomd ihern, and be hini- 
leir the servant. This shows ihe ex. 
ceeifiag kindaees and condeacenaion of 
anr Lmd. For m, poor and guiliy sin- 
oen, he denied himaelf, took the form 

41 Then Peter said unto him, 
Lord, speakeat thou tliis parable 
unto ua, or even to all 1 

42 And the Lord said. Who then 
is that Mthful and wise steward, ' 
whom hit lord shall make ruler over 
his household, to give ihem litir 
portion of meat in due season^ 

43 Blessed ' it that servant 
whom his lord, when he cometh 
si all find BO doing. 

44 Of atmth I sayunto you, that 
he will make him ruler over aU that 
he hath. 

45 But and if that servant say in 
his heart, My lord delayeth his 
coming; and shall begin to beat' 
the m«i.servantB and maidens, and 
to eat and drink, and to be drunken ; 

46 The lord of that servant will 
come in a day when he looketh not 
for Aim, and at an hour when he is 
not aware, and wCl ' i:ut him in 
sunder, • and will appoint him his 
portion with the unbelievers. 

47 And that servant which * 
>Ter.3T. /HattJR.6. > or, cm U> tf- 

/ Fi.JI.e. Mil *JaA17. 

jf s Bervanl.(Phil. ii. 7), and miniaierBd 
:o our wants. In i>ur nature he hsa 
wrought out EralvBiion; and hsa done it 
n one of the humblest conditiona of the 
jbildren of men. How should our bo- 

la burn with gralitude ti 

■ ■■ -«biv^'"- - 

e Not. 


38—46. See Mali. iiiv. 43— SI. 1 
StcoHit tDofcA. See Matt. liv, 25. 

47. WhiiAlnuiwhiiIj>t<rtiBiU. Who 
knew what his maaier wished him la 
d.>. He that knows what God ci.m 
manda and requires. ^ Many itripet 
Shall bo severely and juetlv ponished. 
They who haie many privileEes; who 
are often warned; whobave the gospel, 

good works, eWl be far more severely 
punished than others. They who are 
early taught Ir Sunday achools, or by 
ninkin rwrpntR. oT in other ways, and 
and impenitence, will 


bne^ lia Wd'a irill, utd prep&red 
not kiiate^ , neitbei did according to 
his will, shall be beaten * with manjr 

43 Bnt he ' that knew not, and 
did commit th.jigB worthy of stripes, 
■hall be beaten with few atripa. 
Par * unto whomsoever much ia 
given, of him shall be much re 
quiied : and to whom men have 
oommi^d much, of him thejr will 

k them 

e U send fire on the 

Thnf will jastly sufier more than b1- 
moat any Other clus of mankind. 

48. Ftartripa. Ths Jews did not 
iolUct mora than fort; Mnpea &r one 
offence. Dem. xiv. 3. Foi enullei 
offences tney inflicted only four, five, 
tax, &.C., Bccordiog to the naliite of the 
crime. In allusion lo this out Lord eayi 
that he that Anew not — that is, he whi 
had comparaiively little knowledge — 
ahall suflet a puniahmeot proporlionall; 
light. He lefet^, doubtless, lo thoaa 
who have fewer opportunities, emaUer 
g^is, or more ignorant or fewer teach- 
GIB. T Matk u givm. They who 
have much committed to their disposal, 
OS stewards, &.c. See the Parable of 
the Talents, in Matt. ixv. 14—30. 

49. /oma^ne, &,c. Theresukofmy 
coming shall bo that there will be di- 
_.^ J .___ Jig jg^ m,, 

mean that he came /or that pui 
that he fought and daired it ; but that, 
Buch was the state of the human heart, 
such the opposition of men to the truth, 
that that would be the ^ed of his coni- 
ioe- See Malt, n. 34. t Fire. Fire, 
here, is the emblem of discord and con- 
tetition, and consequently of calamilieB. 
ThusilisuseiinP8.Ii>i.l2: Isa.iLii. 
2. ^ And<Dhat<i!^I,li,i:. This pas- 
sage migbt be better expressed in this 

even dedroufl that they should 
Since the greatest bleasing of 

KE. [A.D.32. 

eaith ; and what will I if it be al 
■KtAj kittdled 1 

50 Bat 1 have a baptiem to be 
baptized with; and how am I' 
straitened till it be accomplished ! ' 

51 Suppose ' ye that I am come 
to pve peace on earth! I tell you, 
Nay; bnt rather division: 

52 For from henceforth there 
shall be five in one honae divided, 
Aree against two, vfA two against 

53 The lather/ahall be divided 

«all.lO.M. / 

did n 

It they al 


t wish evil m ilaelf; bat, as it 
e occaoon of good, he waa de- 
— _ that, if. it mutt lake place, i( 
should take place soon. From this we 
learn, 1st. That the nroraotion of reU- 
gion may be expected lo prodace many 
conlestB, and'bttter feahngt. 2d. That 
the heart of man must be exceedingly 
wicked, or it would not oppoae a work 
like the ChristiaB rehgion. 3d. That 
though God cannot look on evil with 

^bation, yet, for the sake of the be- 

which may grow out of it, he is 
ig to permit it, and BuHer it lo 
mlo the world. 
...A bajtiim. See Matt. xi. S2. 
^ Am I ttTiateiui. How do I eatneatly 
dcKTc that it were passed ! Since theae 
ings mutt be endared. how anxioua 
that the time should come ! Such 
the foeltngs of the Redeemer, in 
of his approaching dying hour. 
We may learn from il, lal. That it is 

^ct'T^^n'' ' 
}\e event ; and it is impossible that we 
ihould look at it aright vfiihoiLt feehng 
—scarcely without tEembUng. Sd. Ilis 
lot improper to desire thai the time 

should come, and that the day of om 
' ihonld draw nigh. To the Chris- 

liAn, death is bnt the entrance to life ; 

and since the pains of death nH<i( be 

endured, and since they lead to heaven, 
. __. ittie how soon be paisaes 

through these sorrows, anu rises to hia 

51—53. See Matt. i. 34—36. 

A. D. 3«,j 


againBt die Bon, and the bod BgaJoBt 
the father ; the mother against the 
dau^ter, and the daughter agfiinst 
rtie moUieT ; Ibe mptheMn-law 
against her daushter-in-law, and 
the daagfater-in-MW against faei 

' 54 And he said alao to the people, 
When * ye see a cloud rise out of 
the west, straightway ye say. There 
nometh a shower : and bo it is. 

65 And when ye tu the sooth 
wind blow, ye aaj. There will be 
heat : and it cometh to pass. 

56 Ye hypocrites ! ye can dis- 
cern tlie &ce of the sky, and of the 
SBTth : but how is it that ye do not 
diacera this time % 

a H«tl.It.3Ac tlCnr.ll.t4. cMatt. 

bia, Egypt, and Ethiopia, all warm or 
hoi regiona, and consequently the air 
that cune from ihoae qaarleni was 
greallf heated, 1 Tha time. Yoa see 
a cloud riae, and predict b. shower ; a 
south w[nd, and expect heal. Tbeee 
tre regular events. So you see m; 
■uitBclee; you hear my preaching; yon 
bare tbe predictions of me in the pro- 
phets : why do you not, in like muiner, 
m&t ihai Uu u tht time when the Mea- 
riah aboold appear t 

98, 59. See Nolea, Matt. v. S5, 26. 

i. Thtrt were pretent. Or same 
came to him who told him. 1 Al that 
ttatan. At that time, that is, the lime 
mentioned in the laat chapter. At whal 
period of our Lord's roinisfry this was, 
It ia not easy la determine. 1 Seme lliai 
told km. This was doublleae an event 

bable, had not before heard of it. Why 
they told Jesus of il, can only be a 
matter of conjecture. Il might be fiora 
the derire (o get him to eipresa an opi- 
pioa respecting lbs conduct of PiUte, 
and thus to invoWe bim in difficuliy 
with the reigning powers of Judea. It 
might be as a mere matrr^f nf dawa 
But from ihe anawer of Ji 

&7 Yea, and why ereti of * youi 
selves judge ye not what is right 1 

58 When ' thou goest with thine 
adveiaary to the magistrate, as thpa 
ori in ' the way, mye diligence that 
thou mayest be dUiTeied &om him ; 
lest he hale thee to Ihe judge, and 
the judge deliver thee to the ofBcei, 
aad the oSicei cast tAee into prison. 

59 I tell thee, thou shelt not de- 
pait thence, till thou hast paid the 
very ' last mite. 


THERE were present at that 
season some that told him of 
the ■ Galileans, whose blood Pilate 
had mingled / with th«i sacrifices. 
3 And Jeans answering, said 

haslily judg- 

oiceedingly fond. The answer of Jesua 

ie areprooloftheir habit! 

ingthe oharaclei of oihen _. 

People who lived in Galilee. See Note 
on Matt. il. 22. They were' not under 
the jurisdiction of Pilate, but of Herod, 
The Galileans, in the time rf Christ, 
were very wicked. ^ Whate Uaod Pi- 
late had mingUd, ice. That lb, while 
they were sacriiicing at Jerusalem, 
Pilate came suddenly ar"" '' "~ 

mentioned by Josephus, undue . ^ 

more is known of it than what is herr 
recorded. Ws learn, however, from 
Josephus, that the Galileans were verv 
wicked ; that they were much diapoeea 
to broils andsediuona. Itappeara, also, 
that Pilate and Herod had a quarrel 
with each other (Luke ]uiii. 13), and il 
is noi improbable Ihal ?ilate might feel 
a particular enmity If the subjects of 
Herod, It is likely toat the Galileans 

denly upon them, and show bis oppoai- 
tion to them and Herod, by slaying 
them. ^ FSate. The Romangovemot 
of Judea. Note MatL iiviL 2. 
2, 3. Suppete ye, &.C. From thil 
iswer, i>, would appeu that they sup 

onto thorn, Sappoxe ye that (l^se 
Galilmna were Hianers ahove all 
the Galileans, becange they suffered 
nch things 1 

poaed that the fact that these mei 

Man slain in thai manner, proved that 
Ihof were very great unners. 1 1 lell 
yn, Tfay, Jeaus assured [hem thBt*" 
Woa not right to draw auch a conclueio 
reapeciing ihem men. The fact thi 
men come to a sudden and violent death 
H nnt proof that they are peculiarly 
'' T Exttpl ys repent: Except 

-at, and turn to God. 

n, contrary to their 


Tou forsake youi 

that fad 

warn them of [h< 
«r suffered a Buiuble 
withoat warning the 
eating meri to forsaki 

Here he had reference, no doubt, to the 
Calamitiea that were conimg upon them, 
when thouBanda of [he people periahed. 
Perhaps there was never any reproof 

than this. They cams 10 him. believ- 
ing ihal [heae men, who had perished 
were peculim'ly wicked. Jesus did not 
lell [hem that tkev were as bad as the 
"-'■'- — ■■■■■'- left them to ia/erii— 


GaUlL , 

for if ihey did 

n in the tempi 

while offering sacrifice: (houaanda pe- 
rished in a way very aimilar to (he Ga- 
lileans. Comp. Notes on Matt. miv. 
From this account of the Galileana we 
may learn (1.) That men are veiy prone 
lo infer when any great calamity hap- 
t:ei)B to othera. that they are peculiarly 
guilty. See the book of Job. and the 
ressoniaeB of hia three ^'/rignda." 

1'bet that conclua 
«y it 

rejunt, * ye shall all ikewise perieh. 

4 Oi those eighteen, upon whom 

the tower in Siloam fell, ami ilew Be.S.«.S. 

and puaiaheB it. So we may infer of 
the eBecv of licentiousness. But ^ra 
should not thus infer when a man's 
house IB burnt down, or when his chil- 
dren die. or when he ie visited with ■ 
loss of health. Nor should ve int^ it 
of the natiotu that ars affiicled with 
famine, or the plague, or with the la- 
vagBB of war. Nor should we infer it 
when a man is killed by lighming, or 
when he perishes by the blowing up of 

'Orld of retribudon. Good ejid 
evil are mingled ; the good and the bad 
aufier, and ul are exposed here to cala- 
mity. (4.) There is another world — a 
future stale — a world wherft the good 
shall be happy and the wicked punished. 
There oil thai is irregular on earth will 
igulated ; all that appears unequaJ 
— be made equal; all that is chaotic 
will be reduced to order. (5.) When 
men are diaposed to speak about the 

Kat guilt 01 others, ana the calamities 
t come upon tbem, they should in- 
quire about Ihemidtn; What la tlair 
' icterl What is their condition 1 
ly be that they are in quite as much 
danger of perishing as those are whom 
' aa BO wicked. (6.) We 
T. We must ALL repent 
. _ .. perish. No matter whai 
be&lla others, me are sixmera ; <h are to 
shall be lost unless we repent. 
.. _. then think ot ourtdeei rather 
\iianoSolhen; and when we hear of any 
signal calamity happenmg to others, let 
'IB remember that th^re la calamity in 
mother world aa well as here ; and that 
while our fellow ^nners are exposed to 
trials here, we may be expoaed to more 

Wo lAere is eternal - 

here, a calamity Uke that produced bya 

4. Or thote eightitn. Jesus himself 
adds another similar case, to warn them 
— a caee which had probably occurred 
. „ " . " vhich it is likely 
they judged in the same manner. 
T Upon uAmi the tamer in Silagm ftU 
The ronnlain of Siloam was situated at 
the foot uf ntaunt ^ioo. Near to .his 



liem, think j e that they were ' sii 
nera above all man thai dwelt i 
Jerusalem 1 

6 He spake atflo this parable : A 
-* certain nuui had a fig-tree planted 
In bis vlD^aid ; and ne came and 
•ought * fruit thereon, and found 

7 Then said be nnto the.diesser 
oThis vineyard, Behold, these three 

13. From ihis fountain . 

were earned to two pooiB, called the 
upper and lower poola. •Compare Notes 
on Ibb. vii. 3 ; «ii. 9. John ijt. 7. For 
what purpOBe this tower in Siioem was 
erected is unknown. It might have 
been tor guarding the place, and fbi 
koeiBng watch. Such towers wen 
common od the walls, ond in the neish- 
borbood of a city, and it is not improba- 
!i might have been 
— ---L In time* of 
uard this foun. 

5. 1 till ym. Nay. It is improper to 
■Oppose thai thow on whom heavy 
judjinents fall in ibis world are the 
worst of men. This Is not a world of 
retribution. Often the moat wicked are 
■nfl«red to prosper here, and their pun- 
lahmenl reaervod for another world, 
while the righteous are called to suffer 
much, and qwanr to be under the sore 
dinleanire t^ God. Pe. LudiL This 
onlr we know, thai the wicked shall 
not aluagi escape ; that God ia jusl ; 
aud (bat none who do snfier hero, or 
bereafler, anfler more than ihey richly 

6. Thit paraae. See Matt. liii. 3. 
f Vmeyard. A place where vines were 

e.led. Il was ool common to plant 
reaa b them, but our Lord repre- 
Miltsil as having been lometimei done. 

7. 7%* drtner of hit viiusard. The 
jisn ffhocc duty it vis to trim (he 

years I come Meking fhiit an this 

fig-tree, and find none : cut it down : 
• why cumbereth it the ground ! 

6 And he answering said unto 
him. Lord, let it alone ' this yeai 
also, till I shall dig about it, and 

9 And if it hear fhiit, vielli and 
if not, lAtn after that ■ thou shalt cut 
it down. 

10 And he was teaching in one 
of the synagogues on the sabbath : 

eEi.3S.IO. rfFi.lM.t3. SP«.3.B. iJno 

vines, and take care of his vineyard, 
f Tkae Uree ¥«f»- These words are 
not to be referred to the time which 
Christ had bean preaching the gospel, 
as if he meant to specify the exact pe- 
riod. They mean, as applicable to the 
vineyard, that the owner had been a 
long time expecting Iruil on the tree. 
For three successive years he had been 
disappdnted. In his view il was long 
inougli to show that the tree wae bar- 
es, and would yield no fruit, and that, 
herefore, it should be cut down. 1 Wit 
eumberelk it Ue ground T The word 
' !r here mesna to render iarrtn, or 
e. By taking up the juices of tbe 
earth, thia useless tree rendered the 
grouiid sterile, and prevented tbe growth 
of the neighboring vines. It was not 
;rely tudai, but was doinir mischief, 
which may be said of all sinners, 
and ajt hypocritical professors of reH 

a Saviour^s calbng the Jewish ni 

repentance. It was spoken to illus 

ite the dealings of God with them. 

id their own wickedness under all hia 

kindness. And we may understand the 

dtHerent parts of the parable as designed 

■ resem.lst. God, by the man who 

le vineyard. 3d. The vineyard as 
ewisb people. 3d. Tbe comina 
•■ owner for h-nit, tbe desire of God 
that ihey should produce good worka. 
4th. The barrenness of the tree, the 
;kcdnesB of the people. Sth. The 
dresser wss perhaps intended to denote 
Saviour^and the other mesaengera - 
of God pleading that God would inaie 
the Jews, and aave them from uisir 

11 And, behold, there was a wo- 
aia.i which had a spirit of inRrmilT 
* eighteen yeare, and was boned 
together, and noald in no wise lift 
up herulf. 

12 And when Jesna saw her, he 
e^Ied her to him, and said unto heT, 
Woman, thou * art loosed Irom 
bine infinnity, 

■ Pl.62, »Jiw^3.)0. sMBMB-ia Ag.9. 

of ihe dreaser, thai he might then 
it down, denotes the acquiescence oi 
■II, in (he t>elief that such a heavy judg- 
ment would be just. 
_ Wamay also remark, that God frosts 
■innerB so now; that he sparee them 
long ; that he gives them oppartuniiies 
of repentance ; thai many live but to 
eumber the ground ; that Ihe]^ are not 
only useless to the church, but perni- 
cieus to the world ; that in due lime, 
when ihey are fairly tried, they ehall be 
cut down; and ibai all the universe 
wilLhovj 10 the awlhl decree of God, 

IL. A tpirii d/ tnjErfnily. Was' in- 
firm, or tras wealt. and afmcted. . This 
wasproduced b};Satan,ver.l6, ^ Eigk- 
tKK yean. Tula alHiciion had eonnn- 
aed a long lime. This shows that the 
miracle was real, that the diaease was 
notfeignied. Though ihi "' 

lugh ihua afflicted, yet. 

3 regular in attending 
Be worship of God in the aynngogue. 
rhere, in Ihe sanclusry, is the place 
where the niQicied find consolation ; 
and tbere il was thai the Saviour met 
her, and restored her to health. Ii is 
in the sanctuary, and on iho sabbath 
also, thai he commonly meets his peo- 
ple, and gives them ihe joya of bis sal- 

12. Thmarllaucd. This was a re- 
markable declaraiion. It does nol ap- 
pear that the woman apfiiei to liim ti>r 
■ eure. Yet Jeans addressed her, and 
ibe disease departed. How clear would 
be such evidence that he was the Mes- 
Mah! And hew mighty the posver of 
Urn that by awanieouhi restore her 

U Giar^jM Otd Praised God. 

KB. IA.D.39, 

13 And * he leM hit handa on 
her: and immediately she was made 

straight, and glorified God. 

14 And the niler of *e ajtia- 
gogae answered with indignation 
because tiat Jeaus had healed ' on 
the aabbatk-day, and aaid' unto the 
peoj>le. There * are six daya ii 
which men OD^t to work : ill them 

rfM>tl.1!.I0. Har.3.2. o.fl.T. H.3. JnoJ 

IS. ( ^.90.9. 

Gave thanks to him for heahns her. 
They who are restored lo heallbfrom 
flickncBs. owe it to God; and tbey 
should give their spared hves to his ser- 
vice, and render praise to him that he 
baa spared them. 

14. Araaeml aith indignatitn, b&- 
anuE, &.e. ■ Ifs eonsiderea ihiseviola- 
lion of the sabbath, doing work con- 
trary to the tburth commandment. It 
he bad reasoned aright, be would have 
seen that he who could have performed 
sneb a miracle, could not tie a violsloi 
of the law of God. From this conduct 
of the ruler, we leain, 1st. Thai men 
are often opposed lo g.iod being done, 
because it is nol dune u(.\eir aim my, 
and aeeording to llirir nsn Biem. 2d. 
That ihey are more apt to look at what 
they consider a violation of the law in 
others, ihan at the good which aihers 
may do. 3d. That this opoosidon is 
manifested nol only againii ihooe who 
da good, but also against those who are 
benefited. The ruler of ibia Bynafrogue 
seemed particularly indignant that U* 
peofU would come to Christ to be heal- 
ed, 4lh. Thai ibis conduct is the result 
of envy. In this case it was ralhet 
hatred that the people should follow 
Christ, instead of Ihe Jewish rulere, 
than any real regard to religion. 5ih 
That opposition lo the work of Jbsub, 
oflen puts on the appearance of great 
professed regard for religion. Many 

ivivals, r 

Mons, Bible i 
schools — strange as il 

rhey, like the ruler hen 

attempting to spread the gospel throofh 
out ibe world. 


cHAytKR xm. 

therefiire come and be healed, and 
not on the-sabbath-day. 

15 The Lord then answered him, 
and said. Thou hypocrite ! ■ dolh 
not each one of you on the sabbath 
loose * his ox 01 kit ass fpim the 
stall, and lead Aim away to 'wate> 

16 And ought not this woman, 
being a dauffhter ' of Abraham, 
whom Satan liath bound, lo these 
eighteen years, be loosed trom this 
bond on the sabbath-day 1 

17 And when he had said these 
things, all his adversaries were 
•shamed : ' and all the people re- 
joiced for all the ' glorious things 
that were done by him. 

18 Then said he. Unto J" what is 

me for an action, mid jti allow one ex- 
actly similar. You condemn mt for 
doing lo a woman whal you do to a 
beast. To her 1 hove done good on 
Ihe Bobbath, you provide Ibi your cat- 
tle, and yet blame me for working a 
miracltf. f Stall. A place where cat- 
tle are kept to be fed, and sheltered 
from Ihe weather. 

Ifi. A daughter of Abn^ara. A de- 
■cendanl of Abraham. Compare Malt. 
i. 1. She was therefore a Jewess; and 
the ruler of the synagogue, professing 
a peculiar regard for the Jewish peo- 
ple, considerine them as peculiarly fa- 
vored of God, should have rejoiced that 
■he was loosed from tius infirmity. 
T WUm Sata7t halh ivund. Satan is 
the name given to the prince or leader 
of evil spirits, called also the devil, 
Beelzebub, and Ihe old serpent. Matt. 
>ji, 34. Rev. xii. 9 1 u. 2. By hU 
brndtHg her, is meant that he had in- 
flicted this disease upon her. It was 
not properly apMniiiM of the devil — 
for ibal commonly produced derange- 
m:nt; but God had suffered him lo af- 
ffict her in this manoei — similar lo Ihe 
way in which he was permitted lo iry 
Job. Job i. 12 ; ii. 6, 7. It is m ninm 
MpnAuUe that God would sulTe 

the kingdom of Ood lihel and 
whereunto aball f resemble it * 

19 It is like a grain of mnstaid- 
seed, which a man took and e<ist 
into his garden ; and it grew, and 
waxed a great tree ; and the fowls 
of the air lodged in the bfonchM 
of it 

20 And again he said, Where- 
unto shall I liken the kingdom of 

21 It is like leaven, which a wo- 
man took and hid in three ' mea- 
sures of meal, till the whole was 

33 And he went tiirough the cities 
and villages, teaching, and journey- 
ing toward Jerusalem. 

(Ei.13.11. Fi.111.3. 11.4.3. /MaU.ia 
31. MBr.4.3l>A<:. > S« Hall.I3.33. 

another, which i 

ilh the liie. He that sauces a 
OUB man, and leads him lo inlemper- ' 
ance ; or be that wounds him, or stnkes 
him ; may disable him as much as Sa- 
tan did (his woman. If God permits it 
in one case, ha may for Ihe same lea- 

17. Advenarttt. The ruler of the 
synagogue, and ihose who fell as he 
did. fAa the people. Tho perBuia 
who attended ihe Hynagogue, and who 
had witnessed ihe miracle. It is lo bo 
remarked, Isl. That those who o^ 
posed Christ were chielly the mien. 
They had an tufernl in doing il. Thell 
popularity was at stake. They were. 
afraid that he would draw off the peopU 
firom Ihem. 2d. The common people 
heard faim ehuliy. Many of them be- 
hevcd in him. The condition of the 
poor, and of those in humble life, is by 
far the most favorable for religion, ant) 
most of the disciples of Jesus have tieen 
found there. 

18^-21. See these parables eiphiined 
in Matt. liiL 31—33. 

23. Citiet and rflloBet. Chiefly of 
Galilee, and those which were between 
Galilee and Jerusalem. 1 TeaiAmf ani 
jottme^ing. This evinces the diligence 
of our Lord. Though on a iourtiey, 
yet he remembered his work. He dn 
nol excuse himself on the plea that bit 
wa« in haste. ChristiBai, and Chiia 

33 Then laid one onto hkn, 
Lord, are there few that be saved 1 
And be said unto them, 

24 Strive^toenter in at the strait 
gate : for * many, 1 say unto you,, 
nil) seek to enter in, and shall not 

■isn ministers, should remember lh 
wbbn their Master travelled he did n. 
wniial his character, or keep bacli tl 
bet chat be was a professor of religioi 
or think Ihnt he wiie Iben freed troi 
Obligaliiin II) do good. 

23. TAen tail one. Who ihu wa 
does not appear. It is probsble that I 
was Dot one of the disciples, but one ( 
the Jews who cune either to perplt 
bim, or to involve him in a conlroverey 
with the PhariseeB. ^ Are there h 
' I'-it be lavedt It was the preSBlci 
.■..inion among the Jews that few woul 
EJiter heaven. As but two of all the 
hosts that trame out of Egypt entered 
tnto the land of Canaan, so some of 
Ihem maintained that a proportionally 

wished the opioiii 
question of idle cv 

a such idle inquiries, and 

httle good. 

Krtant for the mai . . 
stion than to indulge 

in specu- 
, advised 

24. Slrim. Literally, ngoniw. The 
word ia taken fi-ojn the Grecian games. 
Id their races, and wrestlings, and va- 
rious athletic eiercisea, they iirwe, or 
agBnixed, or put forth all ihelr powers 
to gain the victory. Thousands wit- 
DOBsed them. They were long trained 
for the conflict, and the honor of victory 
waa one of the highest honors among 
the people. So Jeaus says, that we 
•bould strive to enter in. And be 
means by it, that we should be diligent, 
bo active, be pressing, that we should 
make this our first, and chief burincss 
to overcome our sinful propensides, 
ind enter into heaven. This same 
figure, or fusion to the Grecian gomes, 
is often lued in Ihe New Testament. 
Notes 1 Cor. ii. 34—26. Phil. ii. 16. 
Iltb. ifi. I. S Strait eale. See Note 

i£E, IA.U.KI 

35 When ' OHM the itauMc d 
the house is risen ap, and hath shni 
' to the door, and ye begin to stand 
without, and to knock at the dooi) 
sayingj Lord, ' Lord, open unlo uai 
and he shall answer and say untu 
you, I )inow you not whence je 

i M9tl.£S.10. 


Many, in varioiu ways, desire 

' Tbey seek it, but do not 

and hence they are shut 

ore probable meaning of 

passage is that which refers this 

._ _ .:-.. jIj^, g|jg]] [jg,^ . . 

up, ke. In this bfe, they negleci 
concerns of reiigkm, and ore engaged 
iiher things. ■ - ■ ■' 


, they will seek 

will be tt . 
lut ; and because they did not 
rebgion the chief busineBS of 

life, they cannot thex enter in 

T Shall not U able. This is i»t de- 
igned to afHrm any thing respecting 
the inability of the sinner, provided he 
seke m a proper time, and manner. It 
Leans, that at the time when many 
ill seek — when the door ia shut — they 
lall not be able thm to enter in, agree- 
}]y to Matt. vii. 22. In the proper 
me, when the day of grace was 
ngihened out, they might have ?"'"•- 

will b 

v>ill « a time, when 

closed, and death will come, and 
the doors of heaven be barred against 
How Important, then, to strive 
in, while we have opportunity, 
and before it shall be loo lale ! 

25. WTkh once the nuuter, tt.c. The 
figure is taken from the conduct of « 
housekeeper, who ia wilbng to see his 
'" ' id who at the proper dma 
doors open. But there is a 

10 for closing them, when he 

1 not see his guests. At night, it' 

uld be improper, and vain, to seek 

entrance. The honse would be shut. 

there is a proper time to seek an on. 

nance into heaven. Bnt there will be 

a time, wien it will be loo late. At 

death, the time will have passed by, 

and God will be no longer gnciaae to 

2G. We lave HAeH, &c. Compn* 



SC Then shall yo bogin to sai 
Wo have eaten and dnu^ in th 
thou hast taaght i 

37 Bat f he shall say, I tell you, 
t Imow yon not whence ye are; 
depart from me, all ye worken * of 
intqnity- . 

!^ Thera ' shall he weeping and 
gnashing of teeth, when ye shall 

> Mall^ia. 13.0. 

Hatt. viL S3, 23. To have eaten with 
one, is evidence of Bcqutuntanceslup, or 
ftiencUhip. So the lumBr m&y allege 
thai he was a professed follower of Je- 
!ue, and had some evidence that Jesus 
was his friend. Theie is no sllusioa 
here, however, to the sacrament. It ia 
a figure taiien &om the customs of men, 
ina means simply Ihil they had pro- 
tessed attachment, and perhaps sup- 
posed that Jbbub was their friend. T Jh 
Oiy praaiee. With ihee— as one friend 
does with another. 1 Tliou ibut It 
Thou didst bvor us, as though 
didst love us. Tbou didsl not turn 
sway from us. and we did not drive 
thee away, AU this is alleged as proof 
of friendship. It shows us, Isl. On 


lendance on (be preach- 

With Ihi 
wretchedness and wo! 

professed __ , __. 

death ! How easily they are satisfied 
about their own pieiy ' ' — "^ — '■ — 

«g oi the word. 

or a decent external bfe, is all they 
have, and all they — >■ "'■•'■ ■'■- 
they go quietly 

Sd. Nona of these things will avail ._ 
the day of judgment. It will be only 
real love to God, a real change of beart, 
and a life of piely, that can save the soul 
from death. And oh I liow important it 
ts, LjBt all search themselves and see 
what is the real fonndatioD of theii hope 
chat they shaU eater into heaven. This 
Msaage (vs. 33—07), mav teach ns the 
(allowing things. (1.) That rehgion is 
the first and ntosl important thing to be 
attended to. IX.) That there is great 
danger thai the mind will be lamed 
away from personal religion by some 
siwculiuivc iuquiiy, lluv iiatiual it is 


sve Abiafatmi, and Ibu«, ud Jsiooh. 

and all the piophots, in the king- 
dom of Goo, and yuu yoantiiia 
tbmat out. 

39 And they * shall oome from 
the east, KtA from the west, and 
from the north, -iMAfrom the south, 
and shall sit down in the kingdain 
of God. 

30 And, behold, ^ere' are laat 


to ask whether many or few shall ha 
saved ! How interesting and important 
the inquiry seems ! How woncFerful il 
seems that the .Lord Jesus did not an- 
swer the question \ Why did he not, 
it may be asked. I answer, it may 
have been for one of tw "-- 

would have been ^ — , 

have gone away without any hirtl 
concern. The other might have bei 
that if he had answered the questii 
the man might hi , ■ - 

show that JeEiis 
>ng — and thus his mind migltt 


have done him no good. His business 
was plain and direct. '" " " 

were esved. In like i . 
often start some speculative innuiry 
which they Insist on having solved be 
fore ihey embrace the gospel. The 
mind is occupied by some met^hy- 
sical or abstruse subject, until life wears 
away, and il ia loo IsM (o be saved. 
Man's first business is religion ; and he 
should not allow his mind to be divert- 
ed from il by any reference to any 
Bpeculalive inquiry whatever. (3.) We 
would itrt'ee to be saved. We should 
agonize to enter in. We should do it (o' 

; wiU 

worth uU the eflbrt which 

„ coal us; (6) because thsre 

are great hindrances from the love of 
sin. or the world, or oiu passions, or 
the fear of ridicule, to oorbBmBsavod;(e 
because the lime will soon be passed 
when it is possible (o be saved. Dtatk 
«^ cj»t Ju daf q/' solvalim *m" 
UBtaK ecers tsnenKsnt awa- 

27. See Malt. vfi. 23. 

28—30. See Matt. viii. 11, 12. 

31. CcuM fcrtsMi tf Uk iWusst 

which shall be fint, and there aie 
first which Hhall be last. 

31 The same day there c-^me 
certain of the rhariseeB, saying 
anto him, Get thee out, nnd depart 
hence : for Herod will kill thee. 

Their coming to him in Ihia manner 
iroald have the appearance of friend- 
■hip, BB if they had conjectured, oi ee- 
i^retlf lenmed, that it was Herod's in- 
LentioD 10 kill him. Their suegestion 
had much apDearance of probability. 
Berod hod killed John. He knew that 
JeBui m^e many i^ciptes, and waa 
drawing away many of the people. 
Herod was. a wicked man, and he m;glit 
be Buppoeed to fear the preeence of one 
who hEid 80 Strang a regamblancB lo 
John, whom he had slain. It might 
•eem probable therefore that he intend- 
ed to take the hfe of Jeaua. and thia 
might appear as a friendly hint lo es- 
cape him. Yet it is more than poa^blo, 
that Herod might have sent these Pha- 
riseSB to Jeaus, Jeaua was eminently 
popular, and Herod might not dare 
openly to put him to death. Yet he 
derared hie removal, and for this pur- 
poae he sent theae men, as if in a friend, 
ly way to advise him to retire. This 
a'u prabably (he reason why Jesus 
called him a fox. T Htnd. Herod 
Antipaa, ason of Herod ihe Great. He 
ruled over GaUlee, and Perea, and 
wished Jesus to retire beyond thi 

%i. Ttll ihal /«. A fox is an ei 
blem of slyness, of cunning, and 
artful mischief. The word is also used 
to denote a disgembler. Herod was a 
wicked man, but Ihe HrttcuZar thine 
to which Jeans here allude* is nr- '-- 
ain, but his eunning, his aiiiJL , 
endeavoring to remove him out of his 
territory. He had endeavored to 

by itralagem — by sending iheae 

who pretended great frieMship for his 
tife. T SdoU I aul nU devili, &.C. 
Announce lo him the trulh that I am 
vorkins miraclea in his territory, and 
ihal 1 shall continue lo do ii. I am not 
afraid of hja art, or hja omnily. I am 
"n my . appropriate work, and 

5. , LA-D.3S 

33 And he a.'i'.d unto them, Gn 
ye, and tel! that fox, ■ Behold, 1 
cast out devils, and I dc cures to- 
day and to-morrow, and the third 
duy 1 shall be ' perfected. 

33 Nevertheless, I must walk to 
1 He .a. 10. 

proverbially to denote a short space ol 
' e. Let not Herod be uneasy, 1 
doing no evil. I snt not violating 
the laws. I only cure the sick, fcc 
'' ■' time, this pan of my work 
le, and I shall retire Itom hia 
ITAe third day. After s 
Perhaps, however, ho mcnnl 
lillraUy that he would depart 

Jerusalem; ihatfortv... __ 

days more he should remain in [ha vil- 
lages of Galilee, and then goon his way 
lo Jerusalem. 1 1 thall he perfetted 
Rsthefj I shall have ended my course 
pn/wied what I pnr- 

in spite ofhis ar 

ler, 1 snai 
; I shall I 

pose to do ill Gali 
to his ptfional perfection — for he was 
always perfect — but it means that he 
' ' taiva Jiniihed, or ampltttd what 
rposed lo do, in the rcgiona of 
Herod. It does nol mean that he woijd 

ould be ready if 

.._.. 10 go. 

\, &.C. I must re 

here this abort lime. These three dava. 
I musi do cures here, and then 1 sh.ill 
dOTsrt, though noi for fear of Herod, .'l 
<rill be because my lime will havs 
, and 1 ahall go up to Jerusalem 

J. ^FoTitcaHnotbtthalapTOfhtl 

ikovid )vruA mil af JerataltM. ' 1 have 
no fear that Htrod will put me to deatb 
in Galilee. 1 shall not depart oi 
account. JtmiiaUm is the placr - 
[he prophetE '' . . - i 

, _ Lt Jerusalem. Go 

i tell him therefore ihat I fear him 
1. I shall work here as long as i< is 
iper, and shall then go up to Jeruss- 
n 10 die.' The reasons why he said 
It a prophet could not perish else- 
lera than in Jerusalem, mieht be, 
. That ha knew he would Kb tried 
a charge of blasphemy, and no othef 
— • — ^J ' — a cograianeo of iImI 

threats of Herod. Ed. It h 




dari and tiMnoTTOw, aftd the day 

following, for it cannot be that a 
prophet perish out of Jerusalem. 

34 ■ JeWsalem, Jeniaalem, 
which killest the prophets, and 
etonest them that are Bent nnto 
thee ( how often would I have ga- 
thered thy children together, as a 
hen duih gather her brood under her 
vingv. and ye would not ! 

'»cL that Iho prophets had been chiefly 
■Jain fhere. * ll coiuiol eaeily ba done 
•IsewhecB; il ia not usually done. Fro- 
phela have generally perished there; 
and there 1 am to die. 1 am safe, ihere- 
fore, from ihe fcarof Herod ; and ahull 
take the advice given, and leave hii 

.. See Mat! 

. xxiii. 37—39. 
e which Jes 

From the message m 

o Herod, we mavlcom, lot. That o.. 
lives are safe in the hands of God, and 
(hat wicked men can do no more lo in- 
jure us than he shall permit. 2d. Thai 
we should go on fearlessly in doing our 
duty, and especially If we are doing 
good. We should nol regard [he ihreaLB 
of men. God is lo be obeyed; and 
even if obedience ihvuld involve us in 
diificuliy and irials, still we should noi 

are ofiun also our enemies, and ai 

cretly plotting our ruin, or endeavoring 
to prevent our doing good. 4th. Wi" 
tee here the nature of religion. I. 
shrinks at nothing which is duty. It 
goes forwarvl irusung in God. It comes 
out boldly and faces the world. And, 
9th. How beaulihil, and conaislenl it 
Ihe example of Christ. How utii wai 
he 10 detect the arts of his foes ; and 
htyvi fearlaM, in going forward in spite 

God had appointed for him to do. 


I. It eamt ta prui. It so happened, 

or occurred. V Ai Ae i£aU, &c. Il ii 

xobabl* (hit he wis invited to go ba. 

35 BeVM. ' 70VT hc^MS is left 

ito you desolaU : auA yerily I aaj 

ito yoii, Yb iha'.l rot fsee me, 

until fAe lime come vrhen ye Bhall 

say. Blessed ' it he that cometh in 

the name of ths Lord. 


AND it came lo pass, as he went 
into thft house of oiw! of the 
chief Pharisees, to eat bread on the 
h Le.9fi.3l,3S, P>.fln.!3. Ii.t.T. SJ,a, Da 
(1,37. Mi.llS. ec.13J0.JnQ.lS.l3. 

ing in the neighborhood. Ver. 18 
And il is also probable that the Phari- 
see invited him for the piuimes of got 
ling liim to say something ihal would 
involve him in difiicully. 1 Om of 
" "~ KO. OneoflhePhon 
TuUrt, or members ol 
icil, or aanhedrini. It 
thai he was I ho head ot 

the a 

the X 

; of ll 

I Phoii 

« of 

happened it 

of the sanhedrim. Ho was, therefore, 
amanof influence and reputation. 1 Tt 
tat bread. To dine. To partaks ofthe 
bospil alilies of his house. On 1^ Sak- 
lath-day. It may seem strange that our 
Saviour should have gone 10 dine with 
a man of influence, and wickedneas, 

we ar'e lo?emembe"r 1 Tst Vh^at he WM 
travellinfi, having no home of bis own, 
and that it was no more improper to go 
there than to any other place. %i. 
That be did not go there for the pur- 
pose of feasting and amusement, but t? 
do good, 3d. That as several of iheci 
were together, it gave him an opportU' 
nity lo address ihem on ihe subjecl ot 
religion^ and lo reprove ihelr vices, if 
therefore, the example of Jesus should 
he plead to authniiie accepting ai 

to dine . 

1 lbs sabbath, it should 
t>e plead just is jt was. If we can 
go jutt ai he did, it is right. If when 
away from home ; if we go lo do good , 
if we make il an occasion to discourse 
on the subjecl of reliraon, and 10 per 

proper. Farther than ihis we cannot 
plead ihe example of Christ. And 
Hiuely this sbiuld be ihe last inslancs 
in Ibe world lo be adduced to juslily 
dinner pariias, and scenes of riol and 

Jlultooy on the sabbath, f Tievmaldui 
im. Tbey malignantly fixrd their evw 

■abbiUi'^y, that diey watched ' 

3 And, behold, thsra was a cei-^ 
tuin man be&se him which had the 

3 And JesQB, aoswering, spake 
onto the la wyen and Phaiisoes, eay- 
ing, b * it lawful to heal on the sab- 
bath-day 1 

4 Aitd Aot held theii peE«e. 
And he took &'i», and healed liim, 
ind let him go ; 

5 And answered them, saying, * 
Which of you shall have an ass ot 
an ox &11en inttt a pit, and will not 

9. Aeerlainmanbtfortliim. In what 
way he came there wa know not. He 
might have been one of ihe Fhatisee'a 
' ' II mi^ht have been placed there 

vetse I, that the; watched him. 1 The 
drvpty. A disease produced by iha ac- 
cumulation of water in various parts of 
the body ; very dialresaing, and com- 
monly incurable. 

3. Jaui amti>eTing. To amtntr, in 
the Bcriptures, does not always imply, 
as among ub, that any thing had been 
stud before. It meane oftea merely to 
legin, 01 to lake up a subject, oi, as 
here, to remark on tbe case that was 
present. ^ hit taafal, &,<:. He knew 
that they were watching him. If he 
healed the man at once, Uiey would ac< 
cnse him. He, therefore, propiraed the 
question to them, and when it was 
asked they could net say it waa not 

*. IHey *eH (*eir pence. They were 
■lent. They could not say it waa not 
lawful, for the law did not forbid it. If 

' id. they would have said it. Here 

CE. [A.D.M 

straightway poll hiiu out m the 
eabbath-day } 

6 And they could not answef 
bim sgajo to these things. 

T And he pat tbrth a parable lo 
those which were bidden, when he 
marked how they chose cat the 
chief rooma; ea;ing unto them, 

8 When ' thou art bidden of any 
man to a wedding, sit not down in 
the higheat room ; lest a more h(^ 
tiotirable man than thou be bidden 
of him; 

9 And he that bade thee and 
him eome and aay to thee, GiTe 

r tl3.1S. i Pt.3S.8,7. * 

him apart into another room. By tak 
ing bold of him, or touchitig bun, he 
slrowed that the power of healing went 
forth from hiinself. 

5, 6. See Matt. lii. II. V Wlia of 
y«, &c In this way Jesus refuted the 

of the Pharisees. Ifitwaslaw 
I save an ox on the sabbath, it was 
to save the life of a man. To this 
flws had nothing to answer. 
A poroile. The word parable, 
, means rather a pr«ept, anin^Hm^ 
; or be gave a mie or precept about 
iroper manner of attending a feast ; 
' the humility which ougbt tc ' ~ 

manifested on snch occasions. 1 Thai 
uere biUdea. That were invited by the 
Pharisee. It seems thai he had invited 
his friende to dine with him on that day. 
1 Wien he maTked. When he observed, 
or saw. T Chief roomt. The word 
roonu here does not at all express the 
meaning of the original. It does not 
mGBn apartmaUs, but the higher ■gbutt 
at the table, those which were nearesi 
the head of the table, and to him who 
had mvited them. See Note, Mati 
uiii. 6. That this was the common 
character of the Pharisees, appears fron 


Art invited. 1 7 

le for then 

IS if they had any, and not after the 
nan was healed. And as they madu 
no objections ttm, they could not with 
tonaiatency afterwards. They were, 
therefore, efTectually silenced and con- 

altendcdwith ifeast orbanqnet. 1 TV 
higlKtl room. The seat at the table 
nearest the heaJ. T A nwre hoTurr^It 
man. A man of higher rank in hfo. A 
more aged man; or a man in office. — it 
is to be remarked, tbat our Saviour did 
not conuder the courtesies of life to be 
beneath hie notice. Hie chief design 

A 0.33.] 


Liuis man place ; and flmt begin with 
•baa)e to take the lowest Toom. 

10 Bat when thou art bidden, go 
and Bit down in the lowest room ; 
tiiat when he that bade thee Com- 
eth, he may Bay unto thee, Friend, 
go up higher; then ehslt Uion have 
woTBhip in the presence of them 
that Bit at meat with thee. 

11 For ' whoHoerer exalteth 
himself shall be abased ; and he 
that hvmbleth himself shall be 

■ 1 Ba.1S.IT, Job KM. P>,ia37. ri.KSi. 
xaa. Mtasa.]S. e-ie.14. 1«.4.S. \ee~~ 

here was, no doubt, to reprove thepnde 
and ambidon of the Fharisees. Bnl in 
doing it, he tescheaue tbat relwon does 
not violate the courtesieB of Ufe. It 
does not teach ua to be rude, forward, 
pert, assuming, and despising all the 
proprieiieB of refined intercourse. It 
leschea humihty. and kindness, and a 
desire to make all happy, and a willing- 
ness to occupy our appropriaio eituarion 
and rank in life — and this ia true pi^itc- 
ttea. It. is a desire to make all otheis 
happy, and a raadinese to do whatever 
ia neceeeary to make Ibem so. They 
have utterly mialaken the nature of re- 
ligion, who suppose that because tbsy 
are professed Ghristiena, Ihey must be 
nide. and uncivil, and violate all the 
distinctions in society. The oismple 
and prpcepts of Jesua Christ were ul- 
lerly unhke Bucb conduct. He teaches 
us to be kind, and to treat men accord- 
ing to their rtmk and ctiaracter. Camp. 
Matt. xra. 21. Rom. liiL 7. -1 Pet, 
ii. 17. 

10. The loaal ram. The lowest 
seat at the table : showing that you ars 
not demrouB.of diatinciiona, or greedy 
of that honor which may properly be- 
long to you. 1 Shalt iace umrthip. 
The word aorihip here moans hanar. 
They who are sitting with you shall 
treat you with respect. Tbsy will leani 
yoar rank by your being invited nearer 
to the bead of the table, and it will be 
learn it thus than by nutting 

13 Then raid he alao to him that 
bade him. When thou makett t 

dinneT or a supper, call imt thy 
liiends, nor thy brethren, neithei 
thy kinsmen, nor thy > rich neish- 
boura.; lest they also bid thA 
i^ain, and a recimipense be mad 

1 3 But when thou makest a feast 
call the ' poor, the maimed, tbt 
lame, the blind : 

14 And thon shall be bleBsad; 
for they cannot reeompenae th«ei 

1 Pr.S9.10. ( Ne.&IO,ia. 

down those who endeavor to eiak 
themselves 1 and it is apart of Crod's 
regular plan lo abase the proud, to 
bring dewn the lofty thotight, and (o 
raise up those that be bowed down, and 
abow Ail &vora to ihoea who are poor 
and needy. 

12. CaU na< tiy friendt, &o Thlt 
not ID be oDilentood as commanding 

for then 

bt Iter 10 learn it thus than by nu: 

Eouraeif forward, and tbey wiu do 
onor because you have shown a h 


1!. Wioioei> Thiais 
aniversal smong men and with Grod. 
Han will pelpetnally endeavor to bring 

wealthy, and particularly rich relativss, 

and those who claimed to be Intimata 

itb the great and honorable, and who, 

oCittking their society, and making 
iipenuve enlertiunments. Ha 
to command charity shown 
to the poor. The pasaags means, 
tberelbie, call not iMUy your fhendi, 
' ' ■" ' the poor, fitc. Compare 
Sam. 11.23. Jer. vii. 33, 
33. Halt. ii. 13. 1 T^yAianiKR. Thy 
elations. 1 A rtcanpetut. L«i( tbev 
sel IhamselTea bound lo treat you wilk 
he same kindness, and in so drang, 
leiUior you nor they will show any 
kind spirit, or any disposition lo do 
good beyond what is repaid. 

13. TlapMr. Those who are desli 
te of condortable food. T He maiwtid 
hose who are deprived of any mem- 
^ of their body, as an turn or a leg, 
who have not the use of them so 
at tbey can labor for their own sup- 

U. ShaUbeblattd. Blessed in the 

lua Lu 

for ttui I Hhalt ua iBcompensid at 
the resurrection of die just. 

15 And when oae of them that 
sat at meat with him heard these 
things, he said unto liim, Blessed ■ 
u he that shall eat bread ih the 
kingdom of God. 

16 Then said he onto hinT, A * 
dertain mao made a great supper, ' 
and btCde inan j : 

IT And sent his servant at sap- 
a Ba.lS.9. ) BUU.SS.SAc i IbJUAT. 

bleased, or rewarded by God in the day 
of judgrncnt. 1 Tkty cannot raompeme 
Iktt. Thej'cam]olinvite}'ouBgBin,iind. 
thnsparyou; sndbyinviliag Uen you 
ahow ihB'. vou bave a dajaiituin to do 
good, t The rentrr/ctiBH of tht jiat. 
When the just or holy shall be raised 
from tha dead. Then Ood shall reward 
thoHG who have doDe good to the poor 
and needy from love lo the Lord Jeaua 
Chriet. Malt. I. 42 ; uv. 34— 36. 

15. Blattd U hi that ihall eat bread, 
&.C. The kingdom of God here meojis 
the kingdom which the MeastAh was to 
Nt np. See Nole, Malt. liL 2. The 
Jews supposed that he would be a tem- 
poral pnnee, and that his reign would 
be one of great plenty and splendor. 
They supposed thai the Jnoi then 
wontd be dehvered from all their op- 
pressions, and Ibat, from being a degrad- 
ed people, they would become the moBI 
dislbguisbed and happy nation of the 
earth. To that period iney looked for- 
ward as one of great happineaa. There 
ia Boms reason to think that ihey snp- 
posed, the ancient just men would ' 

Baviour having menuoned the noir- 
rtrtion ef Iht jmi, this man understood 
il m the common way of the Jews, 
and spoke of the peculiar happineaa 
which they eipectod at that urao- The 
Jews oiUu, he eipecled. wOuld partake 
of those biesainga. Those notiotia our 
SaviouT corrects in the parable which 

16. A grtal tupper. Or great feast. 
It ia said to be grtal. on account of the 
□mnber who were invited, f Bade raa- 
Ky. Invited many beforehand. There 
fa hille difiicullj m understanding this 
parable. The man who made the sup- 
SW ia without doubt dentfned to repre- 

Eer-time lo sa; unto Ihem that wen 
idden, Cotue, for ' all things die 

IB And they all with one co«Mnl 
began to make exctise. The ' lirst 
said nato him, I have bought a 
piece of gronnd, and I must needs 
go sjid see it : I pray thee have me 

19 And another said, I hare 
bought five yoke of oxen, and I go 

ilPr.9.3,5. Caa.i. IitM.lA •e.8.14. 

aent God; the supper, toe provisions 
which he has made fiir the salvation of 
men; and the invitadon, the ofTcrs 
which he made to men, particidaTl]; to 
the Jews, of aalvadon. See a similai 
parable explained m Matt. xxii. 1—14. 

17. Sent hit tenant. An invitation 
had been aeot before, but this servant 
was sent U the time that the supper 
was ready- From this it would seem 
that it was the custom lo announce to 
those invited just the time when the 
feasl was prepared. 

18. I harm bought a piece of groi 
Perhaps he had purchaaed it or — 
tion thai he found il as good as a naa 
been represenledio him. ir/niui(B«4i 

to go and see it — possibly pleading a 
contract or an agreement that be would 

may learn from this that ainnera some- 
limes plead thai they are under a neeet 
litg to neglect the affairs of rehgion- 
The affairs of the world they p-elend 
are so preanng that they caonot find 
lime to attend to their aoula. They 
have no dme to pray, or read the sct^. 
lures, or attend the worship of God. 
In this way many lose ibeirsouls. God 
cannot recard such an excuse for ne- 
glecting religion with approbation. He 
commands us to seekjtril the kingdom 
of God and hia righteousness, nor can 

make for nt „ . 

19. Igo (optwe Itiem. To try them, 
lo see if hs had made a good bargain 
It is worthy of remark that this eicuBt 
was very trifling. He could as easily 
have tried them at any other time as 

he was more disposed lo gratify hiimelf 
than 10 accept the invilation of his 
ijiend. He waa fielGab just as all Ma. 

I, Google 

*. D. ») 

lO jiTove theo) : I pray thee hare 

SI So that Bervant came, and 
^ewed Ills loid these thiogB. Then 
the a^Mter of the house, being ait- 

uwaM. ICo.lSe. tF».3.n. cKeM. 



oere are, who, (a gratiff their own 
worldlineBB Bod sins, refoBS to nccept 
the oflen of the gospel. 

20. Ihaot inarried a aife, Slc. Our 
Sariour here doubtlesB intenda to tench 
us that the love of oarthly relatisea end 
friends often takes off the afTectiooB 
tram God, and prevonU our accepting 
the blessings wBch he would bestow on 
This — 

of aU. Aed w 
that niA eiRui 
fere with 

:e suffered to i 
i that 

e satisfied for ludh 
clade tbemselTes from the kingdom of 

21. Shoaiedha lard. Told his mss- 
lei of the ezcusee of those who had 
been invited. Their conduct was re- 
iparkable, and it was his duty to ac- 
quainl him with their conduct. ^ Being 

t the 


JO insulted fdm, by neglecting his feast, 
and preferring /or nick reoMont their 
own gratiiication to his friendship and 
boepitahty. So it is no wonder that 
God is atifry wilh the wicked every 
day. So fiolish M well as wicked is 
the conduct of the ednner; so trifling lb 
his eicnse for not repenting and turning 
lo God, that it is no wonder if God can- 
not look upon their conduct but wilh 
ibhorence. 1 Go out quiddy. Tlie 
feast is ready. There is no time lo lose. 
Tliose who partake ofit must doit soon. 
So the Eospel is ready : time " 

gry , * Baid io hla serraiit. Go out 
quickly into die atrceta ' and lanei 
of the city, and bnn^ in hidier the 
poor, ' and the maimed, and the ' 
halt, ' and the blind. 

22 And the servant said, Lord, it 
Is done as thou hast commanded, 
and yet ' there is loom. 

41S1.&3. Pi.I13.T,8. •PI.38.T. UBM 

livered this parable to show the Jewa 
that the Gentiles would be called into 
the kingdom of God. They despiaed 
the Gentiles, and cousldered them cast 
out and worthless, as they did those 
whowerein the lanesof the city. 1 The 
wtaaaed, &.C. See on ver. 13. 

23, ret there U man. Be went out 
and invited all he found in the lanes, 
and yet the table was not full. Tftis he 
also reported to his master. There u 
room ,' What a gloriouB declaration is 
this in re^^rd to the gospel! There yel 
is room. Millions have been saved, but 
there yet ia room. Milhons have been 
invited, and have come, and have gone 
to heaven — but heaven ia not yet tulL * 
There is a banquet there which no num- 
ber can eihaust ; there are fountaioa 
which no number can dtink dry ; there 
are harps there which other hands miv 
strike ; and there are seata there which 
others may occupy. Heaven is noi 
full, end there yet is room. The Sab 
Jiatb- school teacher may say lo his class, 
there yet is room ; the parent may 
10 his chikiren, there yet is roam ; 
minieler of the gospel may go and 
lo the wide world, there yet ia room 
ircy of God is not eihauBied 


pnrtake of the gosi 

give diligence to procli 
fellow men. 1 The tireett and lanei oj 
Ihe dly. The places where the pool, 
'fee, would bo found. Those Srst in- 
cited were the rich, who dwelt at case 
K> iReir own houses. By these the Jews 
■rere inleuded; by those who were in 
Ihe fltrceU the GendUa. Our Lord de. 

the blood of the sionement has 
ita efficacy ; heaven is nol Hill. What 
a Bad message it vxntld be if we were 
compelled lo go and say, 'there ia no 
more room. Heaven ia flill. No other 
one can be aave'S. No matter what 
Iheir prayers, or tears, or sighs, they 
cannot be saved. Every place is filled ; 
every seat is occupied [' But. thanks 
to God, this ie not the message which 
we are to bear; and if there yet is room, 
come sinners, young and old, and enter 
into heaven. Fill up thai room, that 
heaven may be fidi of the happy and 
the bleesed. Jf any part of the mu- 
veraa is to be vacant, O lei it bo tM 
dark world of wo! 


33 And the lord 
Mirant, Go out into the hirfiways 
and hedges, and compel ' titan to 
come in, that my house may be 

24 For I say unto you, that * 
none of thoae men which weie bid' 
dea shall taste of iny supper. 

35 And there went great muhi- 

(Fl-IIDA tPc.l.M. HiU^I.43. He. 
11.31. •DeJS.B. Mui.lO^. 

S3. 00 out nCo (he ki^roayi. Since 
•nougfa had not been fonnd in ibe luies 
and slreels, he commandt him tu go 
bio the lOBds, the. public highways atU 
of Ihe cily, as well as to the Btreels tn 
h, and invite them also. 1 Htdgti. 
A hejge is the incloaure around a neld 
OT yineyard. It was commonly made 
of thoms which were planted thick, and 
which kept the cattle out of the vine- 

iard. . Those in the hedges were poor 
iborers employed in planting them or 
trimming them : men ofthe lowest class, 
(and of great poverty. By his directing 
them to go first into the streets of the 
city, and then into the highways, we 
ate not to understand our Saviour as 
refertiriB to different classes of men, 
but on^ as denoting the laTnalnetg 
with which God otferti salvation io men, 
and hia willingness that the moat de- 
spised should come and live. Soma 
pane of parables are thrown in for th? 
sake of ieepmg, and they should not be 
pressed or forced, to obtain any obscure 
or fancifiil sigtiification. The great point 
Id this E^rable was, that God would call 
iu the Gentiles after ihe Jews had re- 
jsctod the gospel. . This ^ould be kept 
always in view in interpreting all the 

-— -''■'- "-•- ir ' ■■ - 

(fail. Do: 

iT their e: 

It of their 

low rank of Ufc, but urge them so as to 
overcome their objecttone and lead them 
to the feast. This eipressea the aini- 
tMtneti of the man : hia anxiety that his 
table should be filled, and his purpose 
not to reject any on account of their 
poverty, or ignorance, or want of appa- 
rel. So God is earnest in regard to the 
moM polluted and vile. He commands 


in them tho salvation 

KB. IA.P.U. 

tildes with him : and li6 toineil and 
said onto them, 

36 If any man come to nie, and 
hate not his lather, and mother, and 
wfe, and chitdTen, and brethren, 
and sisters, yea, and bis own life ' 
also, he caimot be my diseiple. 

37 And ■ whosoever aoth dM 
bear hia cross, and come after me, 
cannot be my disciple. 

iAeStSt. Be. 19.11. > MatL 10.91. Mir. 

of the gospel, and to tise ml the means 
in their power to bring into heaven poor 

34. For I (oji KniD jra». These may 
be considered as the words of Jesus 
making an application of tho parable to 
the Phariseea before him. 1 None of 
tkoti mm. This cannot be unduretodd 
as meaning that no .f ads should be ^aved, 
bnt none of those who bad treattd kin 
in that iBannn — none who bad so decid- 
edly rejected the offer of the gospel — 
should be saved. We may here see hon 
dangerous it is once to reject the gospel ' 
how dangernas to grieve nwsy the noil 
Spirit. Ilov; ofleo God furaakea for eva 
ihc :iinner wFiu has been once awakened 
and inviied, and who Brieves the spiiil 
and ejeuis him. The invitation is fiiS 
and hee; but when it is rejected, and 
men turn wilfully away irom it, God 
leaves them to (heir chosen wey, and 
they are drowned io destruction and per- 
dition. How important, then, is it to 
embrace the gospel a( mae ; to accept 
the gracious invitation, and enter with- 
out delay the path that conducts to the 

25, 26, 27. See Matt. I. 37. 38. 

26. And lait luX. The word het», 
here, means mmply to Z^tie leta. See the 
meaningofthe verseuiMatt. I. 37. 1 
may be thus e:tpreaBed : ' he that comes 
after me, and does not love bis father 
lat than he loves me, &.c. cannot be my 
disciple.' We are not at liberty literally 
to hate our parents. Tlus would be ei- 
pressly contrary to the fiAh command- 

- "bb also Eph. vi. 1 — 3. CoL 
3ut we are to love them lett 

love Christ; we are to obey 

Christ rather than them ; we are to ba 
willing to forsake ihem if he calls as to 
go and preach his gospel ; and we ar« 
lo subimt "viihmii a inonniiT. to Iuib 


flnt and coanteth Che cost, whetiier 
je have lufficient to finish i'( ? 

29 Lest haply, after he hath laid 
die fouodation, and is not abte 
finish it, all that behold it begin 
[Dock him, 

30 Sajing;, This man be^pn to 
huild, aoA was sot able to finish. ' 

31 Or what kin^, ^tng to make 
wai against another king, sltteth 
not down first, and consulteth ' 
whether he be able with ten thou- 

Compare Mai. 
Deut. Hi. 15—17. 

38. Intatdiag to build a tower. Set 
Mfill. xiL 33. A lower was a place of 
defence or observation, erected on higl 
places, or in vine^irds. to defeod froir 
enemies. It was made high, so as to ea. 
able 10 see an enemy when he approach- 
ed ) and (troiu, bo ibat it could not be 
easily taken. fCounteththeaat. Makes 
a calculation how much it wUl cost lo 
build it. 

29. Haply. Perh^s. ^Tametkhim. 
To ridicule nim. To laugh at him. 

31. With ten thoutand to mtel. &.C. 
Whether be wilt be able wiib the forces 
which he Aoi to meet hia enemy. 
Christ here perhaps intends lo denote 
thai tbe enemies which we have to en- 
counter in fallowing him are many and 
strong, and that pur strength Is com- 
paramrsly feeble. V To mat him. To 
coptend with him. To gain a victory 

33. Or elte. If he ia not able. Ifhe 
IS aatisfiod that he would be defeated. 
1 Ananiiuiage. Persona to treat with 
•n enemy and propose terms ofpeace. 
These expressions are not to be impro- 
lierly pressed in order 10 obtain Irom 
1 Item a spiritual eignificaiion. Tbegene- 
-al aceike of tbe narable is to be learned 

Hbenlely look at alt ilsconseqaencee and 
Mprepuedlomeet tbem. Zd. Men in 
ilhor things act with prudenco and liire- 

Oi else, while the other is yel 
a great way off, he sendeth an am- 
bassage, and desireth condilion> of 

33 So likewise, whosoevei be 
be of jou tiiat foraakedi not all * 
that he hath, he cannot be mj dis- 

34 Salt ' it good, but if tile salt 
iwTe lost his saroui, wbeiewlth 
ehall it be seasoned 1 

35 It is neither fit for the land, 

ilFti.3T,B. •MillJ.13. Hir.9JK 

thought. They da not begin to bnild 
without a reasonable prospect of being 
able to finish. They do not go to war 
when there ia every prospect that ihef 
would bedefeated. 3d. Religion is also 
a work of soberness, of thought, of 
calm and fiied purpose, and no man 
roperlyeoteronit who does not re- 
by the grace of God to fulfil all ill 
-_ rcmenta, and make it the business 
of his hfe. ilh. We are lo eipecl dif- 
ficidiies in religion. It will cost us ihs 
mortification S our sins, and a life of 
self-denial, and aconfUctwith our lusts, 
and the enmity and ridicule of the world. 
Perhaps it may cost us our reputation, 
and liberties, and 

I that 

But K 

cheerfully undertake all this, and be 
prepared for ell that is before ob. 5th. 
If we do not dehberately resolve to leave 
all things, to suffer all things that may 
be laid on us, and to persevere to the 
ind of our daye in the service of Chrisl 
ve cannot be his disciples. No man 
an be a Christian who, when he makes 
. profession, ia resolved after a 

orld. Nor c 

Christian; if be n „ 

. ._.-e, by the grace of God, through 
all hazards, and tnals. anil lemptetiona. 
t wilfing to bear his cross, and 

S:. and poverty, and pain, 
out turning back, heisn- 
irscipla of the Cird Jeeus. 

See Matt. V. 13. Markii.49, 

50. Salt it good. Iiieusefiil. It is good 
to preservs life and health, and to kcop 
from putrobclinn, T Hit smwr. IM 


Dor ;e( fo: the dungfaiU ; but mca ' 
oaBt it out. He that hath eais u 
hear, let him hear. 


THEN » drew near Onto him all 
the publicans and einners, for 
to hear him. 

2 And the Pharisees aud scribea 
mnnnnred, sajing. This 
eeireth sinners, and eateth ' with 

3 And he spake this parable m 
them, eayii^i 

4 What 'man of yon, having 
hundred sheep, if he lose one of 

■ Jno,lI.«. »M«U.9- - - - 

iCo.s.j-n. _ 

■altness, ll becomes UatelsaBOr insipid. 
1 Beieaioned. Be sailed Bgain, H Fil 
/or (4s land. Rather, it is noi fit /or 
hnd, i. 0. n will not bear fruil of ilself. 
Voucannoi-aoworpUniooit. TJVw 
for the dai^hia. It 19 nol good S61 ma- 
□ure. Il will not enrich other land. 
T Cast it ml. They throw it away as 
useteBS. f He that halh tan, Slc. See 
M»li. xi. 15. You are to understand 
that he that has not grace in hia heart, 
who merely makes a profeeeion of reli- 
gion, and who suslaina the same relation 
to true piety that this msipid and uaelesa 
masa doe> 10 ^;i>od salt, ia uaelesa in the 
church, and wil! be rejected, flail piety, 
rel^ion, is of vast value in the 
I. It keeps it pure, it saves it from 
- Ts salt does " " " 

them, doth not leave the ninoty 

and nine in the wilderness, and go 
after that which is lost, iindl he find 

6 And when he lath found i(, he 
layeth it on his shouldftis, rejoic- 

6 And when he oomelh home, 
ha calleth together hit &iends and 
neighbours, saying unto them. Re- 
joice with me ; for I have found ray 
sheep * which was lost. 

7 1 say onto you, that likewise 
joy sl^l be in heaven ovei one bId- 
ner that lepentetb, more than ove] 

iMatt.iaia. iPi.tlftlW. IFe.KS. 

admit tliem to his society for the put - 
poee of <ioing them gtiod ; nor did the^ 
remember that the very object of bu 
coming was to coll the wicked from 
their ways and to save tbem from death. 
^SeceivelhiiBneri. Receives them in a 
tender manner, treats them with kiiid- 
~ lea not drive them from liia pre- 
1 And eateth loilA than. Con- 
trary 10 the received maiims of tha 
scribes. By eating with them he show- 
ed that he did not despise or overlook 

3. Thii parable. See Note, Matf, 

ijii. 3. 
4-6. I 


profeiiiBn of religion ia fit for ni 
It does no good. It is a me: 

All such rmat be r^ected by the Sou of 
God, and cast into a world of wretched- 
Qess and despiur. Compare Matt. vii. 
83. 23 ; viii. 12 ; cdii. 30 i uv. 30. 
Rev. ilL 16. Job viii. 13 ; luivi 13. 

7. LihevtUe joy, &c 

of being lost, 
~: joy than the 
that are safe. 

n Matt 

[. 10. 

2. Marmared. They affected to sup- 
pose that if he treated them kindly he 
must be ibnd of iheii society, and be a 
toan of similar character. They con- 
sidared it disgraceful to be with them, 
or to eat with them, and they therefore 
brought a charge against him for it, 
Thev noxM not aupppaa thxi he ciuild , 

quiet poiieitlonoi .. .. 

This our Saviour illustrated b; 

of the lost sheep, and of the piece of 
diver. It might also be illustrated by 
ither Ihinea. Thus wo rejoice 
I our AeaiiJ when we recover 
from a dangerous disease; we rejoice 
3Ued from danger 01 

be in liealth or salely. We rejoice that 
property is saved fiim tMmSagration m 
1, more than over much 
has not been in danger. 

.-..„ _ heaven. Likeviixe. in htc 
tanner, or on the ^ame principle, tliero 
joy. 1 In heaaen. Among the an 
eels of God. Compare vet, 10. The 
heavenly beings are thus represented 
as rejoidiig ovsr those who ropoat ud 

This feehng 

I1.D 33.J 


le jnst ftsiaoaa which 

n having U 

' need do iflpenlance. 

8 Either what worn 
' pieces of ailTer, if 
piece, doth Dot light a candle, and 
sweep the hooee, and Beek diligent- 
tj till she find ■( 7 

9 And when she hath bund it, 
•he calteth her fiienda and her neigh- 
bours together, sajiog. Rejoice with 

■ O.aa lOniiNu. here IruiiLittd > 

; they know w&l G,>d haa doB 
far them, and ihi!; rejoim at the re- 
cover]' of any from the gLult sod luina 
uf ein. ' One (itiiwr. One rebel 
against God. however great roaf be his 
Bins, or however smsll. If a sinner, he 
tnoei perish unless he repents, and ihey 
rejoice al his repentance because it re- 
Covera him back lolhe love of God, and 
because it will aave him from deatb. 
T Tint repenttlb. See Mall. ix. 13. 
T JiMf ptrioHi. The word ptrttnt ia 
not in the ori^in^. Tt means sim^Ij 
jutt oHei, or those who have not sio- 
Bed. It mar refer to sngela aa well aa 

earth who need no repentance. There 
have been none, and there will be none. 
Ecd. rii. 20. Pa. xiv. 2 3. Rom. iii. 
10 — 18. Our Saviour did not mean to 
imply (hat there were any such. He 
was speaking of what took pit 

of the angelt, and 
of their emorions when they contem- 
plated the creatures of God. And he 
says thai they rejoiced in the repentance 
of one jinxer more than in the hoUneaa 
of many who had not &llen. — We ere 
not to suppose that our Saviour meant 
lo teach Uiat there were juat ninety-nine 
holy angels to one sinner. He means 
merely that they rejoice more over the 
repenlance of one sinner than they do 
over many who have not faUen, By 
this - —-'- — ' "■■- — 


ttey lej triced in 

improper for ii._ ._ 

■nd espetdslly to seek thei: 

1 proper. If 

me; for I have feimd the. piece 
which 1 had lost. 

10 Ltkewiae 1 say unto jrou, ' 
there is jo] ' ' 
sngels of G 

11 And fae~aaid, . 
had two SODS : 

13 . ^ . 

to his father, rather, ^ve i 
and la equal lo the Ronaa 
Matt.iajS. » 3 
le, Pbit.lS.I«. 

er. Tbey know of how mucb 

an immorta] soul. They see 
meant by eternal death; and 
they do not feel too mucA, oi have loo 
much aniiely about the soul that can 
never die. O that men saw it as liey 
see it ; and O thai they would make an 
eObrl, such as angela see to be proper. 
10 save their aoaU from elental deatli '. 

8—10. Tat pieca ef iUbit. In the 
origin^, ten ifroefaiu. They amounted 
to about $1,40. The a ■ " ~' — 


_ ^., . - Ihe pretena, &c. 
this parable eipresaea llie 

which he did in ihe 

int Joy, at finding a lost 
IHOca. than she would in the possession 
of those which had nol been loel. " 

11. Andheiaid. Jesua, lo illostlate 
stdl farther the sentiment which he hid 
uttered, and la show that it was propw 
10 rejoice over repenting ainners. pro- 
ceeds to show it by a most beautifnl 
and inelnictive parable. We shall see 

beauty and propriety by remembering 

that the design c 
justify his conduct 


imply to 

,__. ._ . over iWr 

return was proper. This he allows by 
the feelings of^a /ot*«- rejoicing over 
Ihe TetMTu of an ungratefiu and diaa- 

12. And Vit yaunger ^ Oiem (aid. 
By this younger aon wo are to nndar- 

By the elder, the Phari- 
Bees sua acrioes. f r?tve me tAape rt hn. 
The part, T Of gaods. Of propert*. 
1 That faUeth lo va. That is properi; 
my stiare. There ii no improomty is 

13 And not many days after, the 
younger bod gaAered all together 
and took his journey into a far 
eonntry, and there wasted his eab- 

•tauce with riotons living. 

14 And when he had spent all, 

• Mar. 11.44. 

■upponne that he was of age, and ns he 
cbotie 10 IcHiB his fklher'a house, it was 
proper that his father should, if he 
choae, give him the part of the estate 
which would be hia. 1 Hi divided un- 


le proper 

much aa the younger. 
— ta the yoanmr r- 

r choee to letna 
hie father end dwell on the paternal es- 
tate. The tands and fixed property re- 
muned in tlieir possession. Among the 
indent RomauB and Syrophenicians. it 
was cuatomary when a aon came to 
Lbe jeare of maturity, if he demanded 
his pan of the inheritance, for the fa- 
ther to give it to him. This the son 
miffhl clum by law. It ia posatbte ths 



the 70ting man. 

13, OoAered all ixellker. Collected 
hia pnqierty. If he had received flacks 
or gram, ho sold them and converted 
them into money. As soon as this ar- 
rangement had been made, he left hia 
father^B house. T Ti»k hU Wkntry. 
Went, or [ravelled. ^ IiUo a far anm- 
trf. A coontry &r off from his father^s 
houBS. He went probably to trade, or 
seek hia fortune; and in his wander- 


is property was soon 

pended, 1 Wailed hu lutilance. Spent 
his property. T Jn rioljnii living. 
laterally "living without aaving any 
"""'""" He lived extravagantly, andin 

(be most disaolutf 
90. By his wandering away 
onderstand that sinners wi 
away from Gad ; that they fal 
■ointe and wicked company ; 
'-'■ &r off i« there 

15 And he went and joined him- 
self to a citizen of that country; 
and he sent him iota hia fields to 
feed swine. 

16 And he would fun have filled 
his helly with the hualts * that the 

soon and ao eadly destroyed. 

common in Eastern nations. They 
were caused by the bilure of the crops 
— by a want of timely raina, a gemal 
sun, or sometimes by the prevSence 
of the plague, or of the pestilence which 
swept off numbers of the inhabitants. 
In this case it is very naturally connect- 
ed with Ihe liLtury, and indolence, and " 
disBipalion of the people io that land. 

IS. Joined himtdf, Entered the ser- 
vice of that citiien. Hired himself out 
to him. It would eeein thai he engaged 
lodoany kuidof work, even the lowest. 
1 A n'f ben. One of the inhabitants of 
one of the i^ties or towns of that region 
' '' man of property. Ilntoikt 

Sddm. Out of the ci. 
Eyed. 1 To /ea( ». 
very low employmeii 
BO JO a «. 

where the a\ 
«. This was a 
and particularly 
forbidden to tlie 

unlawful to keep them. To be com- 

pelled, therefore, to engage in 
employment was the deepest conceive 
able ciegradatioti. The ahjeet of thii 
image, as used by the Saviour in the 
parAile, is, to show the loathsome em- 
ployments, and the deep degradation to 
which sin leads men ; and no circum- 
stance conld posrably iUuetiate it in a 
more striking manner than he has done 
here. Sin and its results every where 
have the same relation to that which is 
noble and great which the fecdine of 
Bwins had m the estimauon of a Jew 
to an honorable and dignified employ 

16. Hevmldfain. He would gladly 
He desred to do it. T The hiuki. The 
word *!i»*i with us denotes the outward 
covering of corn. In this there is little 
nourishment, and it is evident that thia 
is not mtended here. But the won 
liBsd here denotes noi only Awis Im 




o mmn gave 

17 And when he came to hi 
m\ff he Btud, Hot manj hired s 

___,CBllBd Iht __. 

iT.yn in Ionia, STria, and RhodcB. Its 
£nii: a -Cied to btteo swine, and aleo it 
ia food for the poorer ;)eaple. It is 
meal;, and has «. sweetish taale : it 
growt in hedges, and is of little ac- 
oount II is sometimea there called 
Jvkit'a brtad, from a tiBdidon that John 
(he Baptist lived on il. T JVb man gavr^ 
"'(o JbiL Some have understood this 

BB mesning _. __. „ 
thing t any bread, or prt. 
'■he connexioD requires n< 
I of the "huskg,'' He d 


u bound 1c 


vide for __. ^ 

vbich he nuuie for liim was so poor 
that he would have preferred the food 
of the swine. He desired a portion of 
tiair food. Bui that was not given 
htm. A certaiti quantity was loeBsuied 
out ibr ihtm, ana te was not at hberty 
to eal it himself. Nothing could more 
strikingly show the evil of bis ooudi- 
cioD, and nothiug more clearly the deep 
degradation, and poUuiion, andwretch- 

17. He tame U> hanidf. This is a 
very eipreasive phrase. It U commonly 
applied to' one who has been derruigtd, 
and when ha recovers, we say he has 
eoae to ttimidf. In this place it denotes 
thai the folly of the young man was a 
kind of derangement — that he was in- 
sane. So il IS irue of every siimer. 
Madness ia in their hearts (Eccl. ii. 3) ; 
they are estranged from God^ and led, 
by the intluetice of evil puaons, con- 
tnuy to their better judgment, and the 
decMona of a aound mind. THiVai 
lermmtt. Those in a low condition of 
hfo — those who were not barn to wealth, 
and who hod no &iende to provide for 
them. ^Iperah. I, who had property, 
and B hind father, and who might have 
been provided for, and h^py. 

18. I toOI ariie. This iB a common 
•ipression among ihe Hebrews, to de- 
note aUering on a piece of biuifHu. Il 
aoea not imply that he was litting, but 
tlut lie meant immediately to ratum. 

Vo[_lI. — 10 

TBntB of my iatfaei's ii&re bread 
enou^ and to Bpure, sud 1 perish 
with nuDger ! 
18 I * will arise, and go -to my 

This should be the feeUiw of every sin 
ner who is conacioua of^hia guilt and 
danger. T To aiyfaihiT. To his father, 
ejihough he had ofiended him — and 
treated him unkindly-^uid had pro- 

jwhere else to 

So the 

voked him, and ci 

to God. He has o: 

may trust in his kindness. If Gad does 

There is no other being thai hss an arm 
strong enou^ to deliver from sin ; and 
though itispainfiiltoaiaantoeotoane 
whom he has ofiended— though hs can- 
not go but with shauM and etmfuaioa of 
bee, yet unleas the sumer is vnlling la 
go to God and confess his faults, he lan 
never be saved. '/ iatie tiimed. I 
have been wicked, have been disdpated, 
imgrateful, and rebeUious. 1.^^iiul 
keaven. The word ieaven h 

jlsewbere, is 

led tgtuqst I.-- --- 

-_ . It Is also to be observed, that 

one evidence of the genuinenesa of re- 

Cntance is the feeling that our sins 
ve been committed chieQy against 
God. Commonly, we think most of 
our ofiences as committed against wait. 
But when the sinner sees their true 
character ; when his heart is properly 
affected by them ; he sees that they 
have been aimed chiefly against God, and 
(hat the sins against nan are of little con 
sequence competed with those sgainst 
God. So David, even after adultery 
and murder — after having inHicted the 
deepest injury on tnon — yet felt that the 
sin as committed sj^ainst God, shut 
every other consideration onl of view — 
inti tkee, iiee only htnt I evuned, 
Ps. H. 4. "(B^ore tkee. This 



_j1s, and plunging hiraself^ 

He felt tmit he had ditgraced such a 
lather. A sinl'er will be sensible of hia 
sins against his relatives end friends, a« 
well as against God. A true penitent 
will be as ready (o m-JbuniiMc hi* 


110 LI 

Wier, and will aay unto him, Fa- 
dker, I have sinned against lieaven, 
iud bufore tliee, 

19 And ant no more wortliy to 
tailed tliy son : make me as one 
flij biTed eerntntB. 

SO And he arose, and came 
Ub tatliei : But wlien lie Was yet 
« great way ■ off, his faflier 
• Ep,ai3,n. 

!8 agiiinst hia fellnw men aa those 

I am nilling ti 

n if you will give 

This evinced, 
milily — such iia a ginnor should have, 
2. Love for hia father's houe* — such u 
all pBDitenla abould have towards God's 
dwelling place in hekcen 1 and 3d. Con- 
adencem hia felher, thai he would treat 
him kindlv, even if he treated him as a 
servant. Such confidence bb all retum- 
Jlg peniienta feel in God. They are 
assured that God will treat them kind- 
ly — that uAofeoer he gives them will 
be more than they deserve ; and they 
arc, therefore, wilhng to be in hia hands. 
Yet 4ih, He had no adequate senae of 
his fsther'a kindneas. He did not fiill; 
apprectate his character. He waa fir 
more kind than he had dared to hope 
Duldbe— ii ■ " ■ 

Bupposed. No sinner comes to Gi 
with a just and adequate view of h 
character, but altoayt Pnda him more 
merciful than he had dared to hope. 

20. Htaroieandcanui. Was<»ming. 
But here is no indication of hatle. He 
did not ran, but can's driven by his 
wants ; and. as we jiaj; suppose, filled 

whether his hther would leceivehim. 
tA great way off. This is a beautiiiil 
deacription — ilie ima^je of hifl father's 
iltippeninif to see him clad in rags, 
poor, and emaciated, and yei he recog- 
oisad Jtu anil, luid all the foelinga of^» 


him, and had compaaaiou, and lai, 
and fell oa his neck, and kiaaei 

31 And the am said imlo hin. 
Father, I have ainned against hea 
ven, ' and in thy sight, and am n' 
more worthy to be <»illed Ihj son. 

2a But the lather said U> his scu 

vania. Bring ' forth the beat robt 

b ?tAH. t Z«.3.3-& 

to^ and embrao 

father eicited him __ p. 

him. li Had iwiBpaHUK. Pided hiio 
Saw his condition — his poverty, ano 

with compaa^n and love. V Aiid ran 

This ie opposed to the manner in wbick 

the son came. The beauty of the pic 

lure is greatly heightened by these cit- - 

cumstances. The eon came alowly- 

the father ms. The love and jav o> 

the old man were so great thai he hast 

ened to meet hini and welcome him to ' 

his home, li Fell m Kit nedi. Threw 

anns around bis neck and embraced 

1. 1 And kilted kim. This waa a 

a at ones of allection and leconcUia 

1. This must al once have diaaipaled' 

every donbt of the son. about the will 

of his father to lorgive and re- 

m. A kiss ie a aignof afiection. 

I Sam. I. 1. Gen. xiii. 13. Thia is 
mtly designed to denote the readi- 
of God to pity and pardon rcturtiing 
:rB. In Ibis vsree of ininiitabla 

tis conluned the point of the 
. which was uttered by the 8a 
to vindicate hit own tmdud in 
ing Bnners kindly. Who conid 
Home this father for thns receiving thia 

anting son I Not even a Phariaee 

d blame him. And our Savioar 
I showed tbem. ao ibal ikeg could 
reuat it, that Ood received return, 
sintiers, and that it waa right fca 
nlan to receive them and treat tbem 

22. ' 
lably in raga. The joy ot the father it 
^ipreased by clothing him in the best 
raiment, that he mjght appear weU. 
Ti.™ .J.. ]jerg mentioned is probabiy 

garment; and the father told 

ihem to put on hitn the beet one that 

" e house — one reaerved tor fea 

__ ...jsiona. See Gen. iivii. 15. 

f A ring on hii ^ 

the nand v 





It liim ; and put a rin 

D hia hand, and shoes on kit feet: 

S3 And bring hither the latted 

naif, and kill it ; and let us eat and 

be merry : 

24 For ■ this m^ son was dead, ' 
and is alive ' again ; he was ' lost, 
And is found. And &ey began to 

I. Be.3.1 I RoX. 

I commonly wore 

_ ...Mii.3. fogivc: 

of favor, OT of imeclion, or of confer 
nng office. Compsre Geit.iU. 42. Ea 
tber viii. 2. Here it was expreaaive o 
the favor tmd affection of the folhsi 
' Skaa on hin/eel. Servants probably 
did not usually wear shoes. The son 
returned doubllees vrithout shoes — a 

was when he left home. When, iheti 
lore, the father commanded them 
put shoes on him, it expressed his wit 


ord ihoei 
here, bowever, meatm no tnore than 
miulals, such as were comroonlj' worn. 
And the meaning of all these images is 
the same, that (nd mill Ireet Ihote lelia 
■etum to him. tctlA kindnett and affe 
lion. Those images should not be a 
templed to be ipiritualatd. They ai 
beaudtully chrowu in to fill up the na 
raiive, and to express with more fore 
die getumt truth ihsi God will ire: 
letuming penilenla with mercy ar 
with love. To dress up the son m th 
manner wss a proof of the ^^iier^s a 
lecdon. So God will beetaw on sinnei 
the mukaof his co 
23. Bi 


Literally, ' 

:e and regard. 
" '■eaiing, 

GreaL „.. 

playhil, jovial mirth. Tbe Greek di 
notes simply joj — let us be happy, 

MM- » 

24. Waidead. ThisUcapableof t... 
iignificBlions i let. / t»^o$td that he 

t%ppolrd th 


Ed. He waa dtad „ .._ 

sunk in pleasures and vice. The word 
is not unfrequently thus used. See 1 
Tim. V, 6. Mall. viii. 22. Rom. vi. 13. 
Qence to be rsatored to virta- is said 

35 Now his elde son was in the 

field : and as be came and drew 
nigh to the house, he heard music 
and dancing: ' 

S6 And he called one of the sei 
vanta, and asked what these things 

10 be restored agaio to 
13. Rev. iii. 1. Eph. i 
bable that this laller i 

25. In the lie 

I. 32. T Wat hat. Had 
from home, and' w« 

work. This 
represent the 
Pharisees who had found fkull with out 
Saviour. Their conduct is likened to 
that of this envious and unnatural bro- 
ther. IT Music and dancing. Dancinp 
waa not uncommon among the He 

eions. ' Thus Miriam celebrated ihe df 

liverance of Ihe children of Israel from 

Egypt, in dance: 

XV. 20. David danced b 

2 Sam. vi. H. Ii waa common at Jew- 

ish feaals {Judges ixL 19—21), and in 

public triumphs (Judges xi. 34J, and al 

all seasons of mirth and rejoicings. Ps. 

before the n: 

s (Ex. 1 

rvices by ibe idola- 
I, and also by ihe 

expression of rejoicing. Our Lord 
—presses no opinion about itsproprie/y 
He simply states thefact. nor waa then 

tioniiig it cannot be pleaded for ita lavv. 
fulness or propriety, any more than hif 

or the wickedness of the Phariaeas, can 
laded to justify iheir conduct, li 
expressive image u— -^ ■ 

dance with the known customs of the 
country to exprsas joy. It is farther to 

■- larked, that if Ihe example o: 

pcraona in scripture be pleaded for dane. 

'"^, it can be only for jiut such dances 

liey practised — for sacred or trium 

phaloi """ — 

118 :-u 

hath killed Ihe fatl«il calf, because 
he hath received him safe and 

38 And he was angry, ' and 
t'OMld not go in : therefora came 
Sit &lJier out, ami entreated him. 

as And he, answering, said to 
kil father, Lo, these many years do 
] * serve thee, neither transgreased ' 
• I011.4.1-3. » ia.6S.a. 



i than Ihe calf; and t 

wMe ) 

filth er had 

lie HB a kid, he bad row given hie other 
•on tie/attcd ealf. ^ Maki merry with. 
Knlortain them — give them a feaat. 
Thb comntaint was unreasonable, for 
his falher hat! divided his property, and 
he might have had his portion, and hia 
father had uniformly -■ ■■■ ■■" 


o iiluBlra 

Gl of the acribes and Phariaeea, 

and ibe folly of iheir complaint. 

30. Tkis thy urn. This Bon of Ui«e. 
This is aneipreeaian of great contempt. 
He did tiot caU him kuhratlar. huf At. 
fti'htr't tan, to ahow at once hie con- 
letnpt for bia younger brother, aiid for 
lis tslhet for having received him as he 
Ud. Never was there a more striking 
e of petty malice, -- — 

J'ustiiiable disregard of a father' 
ucl and will * Thy lit 
perly. This is still desi^ 


t hmi agunal hia 
vounger son. 11 was true that the 
younger son had been guilty, and fool- 
sh. and ungrateful: but he was peni- 

, he forgot bis ingramude, and folly. 

00 should the elder son ba\e done. 

31. All I have ii thine. The pro- 
perty was divided. What remained 
was in reality the elder aon's. He was 
beir to it all, and had a right, if he 
chose, (0 use it. He had, Iherelbre, na 
right to complain. 

This instructive and beautifiil parable 
■*as doaigned to vindicate the conduct 

01 J csus — to ahow that it was right to 
receive sinjicrs, and that the conduct of 
[be Phariaeea was anreaaonable. The 
elder soti represents the Pbariseea ; the 
younger, the relnming sinuei — whether 
lew or Usntile 1 and the &iber. God, 

KE. rA.D.3S 

1 at any time thy comniandment ' 
and yet thou never gavest me a kid, 
that I might make merry with my 

30 But as Boon as this thy soi 
was come, which hath devoured thj 
living with harlots, thou hast killei 
f™ u.™ the failed calf. 

> him, Smi 

. andvi 

duct of Jesus, There is not perhiipi 

uching narrative than this. Every 
tender and happily cho- 

itnage is beautiful; and the narrative 
closes just where it is fitted to make the 
deepest impression. In addition to what 
has been anggested, wc may learn from 
this parable, the following lessona : — 
Isl. That th- '--■-■- '--■ 



, and is impatietit of dSay. Ver. J8. 

2d. Sinners waste theirblesaiiigs, and 
reduce themselves to a state of want 
and wretchedness. Ver. ]3. A life 
of ffln brings on spiritual wanl and 
misery. It destroya' the fecultjes ; be- 
niimbs the mind; hardens the heart; 
abusea the beneficence of God. and 
makes us careleas of him who gave it 
and of the conaequences. 

3d. Sinners disregard the fiitore woes 
that will come upon them. The young 
man cared not for any calamities that 
might be the result of his conduct. Ho 
went on beedleaslv — like every sinner 
—to enjoy himself, end W> squander 
what the toils of his father had procured 
,for him. 

4th. AfBicdons are often the means 
of bringing sinners to reflection. Ver. - 
H. While his property lasted, he cared 
bttle about bis lather. When that was 
gone, and he was in the midst of a fit- 
mioe. be thought of hia ways. When 
sinners are in prosperity, ihey tl^nk 
Uttl^ about Gkid. When he takes away 
their merdca, and they are called to 
pass through affiictions, then they think 
of their wsya, and remember that Got 

5th. We havii W^ ad inairamh"" »■ 
lubition of the wwir and ifoe* rf a lia 


tboa art eret ■ with me, and all fliat 
r haTe is thine. 

33 It was meet * that we should 
make meny and be glad : ' 

far frotn <5oct , away from his feiher, 
and in a land of Btrangera. Tlie Burner 
has wandered, and has no friend. His 
miieriea came npon him become he ie 
BO far away fi-om God. 3d. Hia c 
ditioD is wretched. Ht is needy, 

_jii of the food of Uie swine. 

anner haa taken the world for his por- 
tion, and it neither suppliea the wania 
of lua immorlai soul, nor gives him 
comfort when he is &r away from his 
Father's home, and from God. 

Eth. The sinner in this ailualion often 
applies 10 the wrong aource for comfort, 
rer. 15. The prodbal shauldal once 
have returned lo Ena father, but he 
ralher chose lo become a servant of a 
■iuien of that re^on. Thi 

uea Btill to 

laible of hi 
God. ■ 

9, should re 

neeka new pleasures, an 
new Iriends, and fiada them equally ur 
wtisfectory. He euiseca in new pui 
Wits, but ^1 in Tain, lie is still comfor 
'ess, and in a alranga — a famiahed lane 

71h. The repentance required in th 
ffospel is a return to a right mind, ve . 
IT. Before, the ^ner waa alienated 
from God. He was spiritually deranged. 
He saw not things as they are. Now 
he looks on the world as vain and un- 
nlisfactory, and comes to himself. He 
Ihinka aright o! God, of heaven, of 
alemity, and resolves to seek his hap- 
pinen there. No man regards thines 
as (hey are but he who sees the world 
lO be vain, and eternity to he near and 
aifful i and none acts with taut nind, 
out he who acts on the belief that he 
must soon die : that there is a God 
snd a Saviour — a heaven and a hell. 

8th. When the sinner returns, he be- 
comes sensible of the following things: 
lat. That he is in danger of perishing. 
lod must soon die, bui for relief. " I 
ivilrii with hunger." 2d. ThatOodis 

this thy brother wa« dead, and i» 
alive again; and was lc«t, sud u 

itiiie. IiJS.10. 4ter.Si. 

wilting and able to aave him. " How 
many hired servants have bread enough 
and (B mre." There is abundance ot 
mercf for all ; and alt may come. 34 
He begins to cherish a hope that thi 
may be liis. God is willing, and he 
fee^ that all that is needfiil lb for him 
to eo, 4th. He resolves to go to G«d, 
'^ Iwill arieeandgo.'^ 5th. Hecomes 
to hira willing to confess all his sins, 
and desirous of concealing none. " 1 
will say, father, I have sioned." 

9th. True repentance is a Voluntary 
act. Il is not forced. It is (he resolu 
tion of the sinner lo go, and he cheer- 
ftilly and cordially arises and goes, 
ver, 18. 

10th. A real penitent feeU that hit 
sins have been committed againal God. 

Ilth. A true penitent also is wilUn^ 
to acknowledge his offences againsl hu 
parenla, brothers, friends, andall men. 
ver. 18. 

13th. A real penitent is humble, ver 

thing, or to be thought more U^ly of 
than be oaght to be. 

I3th. God ia willing to receive the 
lie jienilent, and haa made the richest 
ovision for hia return and for his com- 
rt. None need to hesitate lo go. AH 
bo go, feehng that they are poor, and 
miserable, anablind, aqjl naked, abati 
find God willing to receive them, and 
iball not be sent empty away. 

14. The joy at the return of sinners 
is great. Angels rejoice over it, and 
all holy beings are glad. 

15lh. We shoufd not be enviona al 
any favors that God may be pleased to 
bestow on others, ver. 33. He haa 

ren HI more than we deeerve, and if, 
the sovereignty of his grace, he is 
ed to endow others with mora 
, or to give them greater talents,' 
make them more useful, «e Irave 
use to complain. We should ra- 
rejoice thai He is pleased to give 
mercies to any mortals, and Bhtnld 
praise btm for the manifeelation of >■■■ 
goodness, whether made tc oa, o* "4 


.xi . LUKE. IA.I).33 

CHAPTER XVl. man which had a steward i and the 

AND he said also unto Iub diBci- same was accused unlo him that hi 
p. », There waa a certain lich had wasted his goorts. 

I6lb. The sensible joy when ihe sin- 
ner lelams to God, ie often nestei 
than tbnl whic^h m&r b« feit after the 
return; and yelthereal omieor rejoic- 
ing be no greater. In times of reviTol, 
tite sensible joy of Chrislians niBT be 
greater than in ordinary seasons. Their 
■TRces are quichencd, their zeal I ' 
died, and ibeii hopes strengthened. 

JTlh. If God !B willing to receive i 

ners; if all holy beings rejoice; i 

ADW should Christians strive for their 
oonvereion, and seek for their return ! 

leih. If God is willine to recnve sin- 
nerBmns, then all should at once return. 
There toiM be a time when he will not 
be willing to receive them. The day 
of mercy will be ended. And from the 
misery and want of this wretched world 
they will go down to ibe deeper mise- 
ries and wants of a world of det^aii, 
where hope never comes, from whence 
the sinner can oeyer return, and where 

e land of eternal famine and 

1. Hit diicipUt. The word dinr^ilu. 
here, is not lo be resiiicled lo the 
twelve aposllea, or tn the seventy. This 
parable is connected with that in the 
mrsceding chapter. He bad there been 
discouTBing with the scribes and Phari- 
sees, and vindicating hie conduct in re- 
ceiving kindly publicans and sinners. 
These paUicatu and nnwri are those 
who ate here denoTcd by the word dii- 
trpla. It was with reference to Ihem 
that the whole discourse had ariaon. 
-After JeauB had shown the Phariseesi 
in the preceding chapter, the propriety 
of his conduct, it was natural that be 
should turn and address his disciples. 
Among them there might have been 
Mine who were wealthy. The puiii- 
*"" ■""-- engaged in ■- 

r dishonesty. Jesus a 

their pacWior duties and dangers. Ha 
relsted this parable, therefore, (o show 
them the danger tf the Unit of mmtyt 
the euill it would^ lead to (ver. 1) ; llie 
perplexities and shifts to which it woulo 
drive a man when once he had been 
dishonest IvB 3— r, ; the necesaty of 
usino; monei aright, since it waa their 
chief businerfi (ver. 91 ; and the feet, 
that if they would serve God anght, 

to money —they could not serve God 
and mammon (ver. 131 ; and that the 
first duty of religion demanded thai 
they should resolve to serve God, and 
be tioneet iti the use of the wealth in- 
trusted to them. This parable has 
given great perplexit; , and a great 
many ways have been devised lo e:t- 
plain it. The above solution is the 
most Bunple of any ; and if these plain 
principles are kept in view, it will not 
b^ dimcult to give a oonsiBlent explana- 
tion of its particulsr parts. It should be 
borne in mind, however, that in this, 
as well as in other parables, we are not 
to endeavor to spiritualize every cir- 
cumslancB or allusion. We are to keep 

serve God and mammon, and that all 

gclher will involve us in difficulty and 
in. t ^ Mrword. One who has 
charge of the affairsora family or bousf- 
hold. whose duty it was to provide for 
the family, to purchase provisions, &,c. 
This was, of course, an office of much 
' md Confidence. It sfTorded great 
:uniiy for dishonesty, and waale, 
for embeiiling property. Tho 

r's eye could not always be on 

him, and he roigbi therefore squander 
■openy. orhoard it up for bia own 
It was an office commonly con- 
I on a slave, as a reward for fidel 
. , md of course was given to hiir 
that, in long service, had shown him 
ilf most IruBt-worthy. By the riea 
an, here, is doubtless represented 
" ' !7vJ. those who ai 


K. D. 33.] 



3 And h( ualled him, and said 
UDto him. How is it tiiat I hear thia 
of diee ? Give an aecouot of iky 
Blewardahip ; * for thou mayeat be 
t\o longeT steward. 
3 Then the aiaward said within 
• c.I&«. lCor.i.i. ITJ.4.11. ire.4.10. 

II) d whose chief danger arose from the 
lemplationa lo the improper useofjhe 
money inlrusted to ihem. 1 Wai at- 
owsd. CamplainI was made, f Had 
natled. Had squandered oi scRltered 

duel while you have 
Tbie ia not to be leferri 
iudgmerK. It is a circu 

i lo the day of 

ire ihe way for 
thai all will be 

pwanEe* as this; nor aie 

prel uia as teaching that on 

or the law, or any beuijca, will aceutt 

■u in the day of judgment. All that 

will be true, but it is not the truth thai 

ia [Hucht in this paneage. 

my employer. T / oniiuf dig. This 
may mean either that his- employment 
had been auch that he could not engage 
in dgriculture, not havuig been ac- 
qounled with the buamesa, or thai he 
was miBilling to sloop to ao low an 
MDj^oyment lu to work daily for hta 
npport. To dig, here, is the same ss 
to till the earth , to work at daily labor. 
T To btg. These were the only two 
wnya tlSt presented themselves for a 
living-reitfaer to work for it, or to be^. 
1 1 am advaud. He was too proud for 
that. Besides, he was in good health 
and strength, and there was no good 
reaaoa uhy he should beg i nothing 
which he could ave aa a cause for it. 
It is proper for uie dck, and lame and 
feeble, to beg; but it is net well Ibr the 
•ble-bodied to do it ; nor is it well to 


a living. He doei 

who aeu him lo worL „_ .. 

ral rule we ihoald not aid an able-bodied 
man or woman in any other way. 
4iem 1« work and pay them a fiui 

id aa a gene- 

himself. What shall I do, for m) 
lord taketh away from me tlie slew 
aid ship 1 Icannotdig; lobeglaiii 

4 1 am resolved what to do, that 
when I ara put out of the steward 

, — J you do them good Id 

itto ways — and the habit of labor may 
be of more value lo them than the pric» 
you pay then 

4. /oi 

resolved. He (hough! of hit 

which occurred to him. He had been 
dishonest, and knew he must lose hia 
place. It would have been belter to 
have comidered before Ihii; and resolved 
on a proper course of life, and to be 
^thfulto hie tnul. And bis perpleiity 
here teaches us that dishonesty will 
sooner or later lead ua into difficulty ; 
and that the path of honesty is not only 
the right path, but is the path that is 
Slled with tnoet comfort and peace. 
T Wien I am put out, &c. When I 
lose my place, and have no home, and 
no means of support. T They may re- 
eeive me, Slc. Those who are now 
under me, and whom I am resolved 
now to favor. He had been dishonesi 
lohismaster; and, having coBUHnced a 
course of di honesty, he did not shriok 
from pursuhig it. Heving injured his 

was wilhng stilt farther to injure him, 
to take revenge on him for removing 
him from his place, and lo secure hn 
own inlereat still at his expense. He 
was resolved to lay these persons under 
such obligaiionB, and to show them so 
much kindness, that they could not 
well refuse to return the kindness to 
him, and give him a support. We may 
learn here, let. That one s n leads on 
another, and that one act of dishonesty 
will be followed by many more if there 
is opportunity. 2d. Men who commit 
one ain cannot ^el along crnuiffflilljr 
without commiltiDg many more. Ons 
lie will demand meuv more to make il 
appear Uke the truth; end one act of 
chealing will demand many more M 
avoid detection. The beginning of ain 
is hke the letting out of waters ; and 
no man knows, lT he indulgea in out 
ain.whereitwill end. 3d. Sinners are 
selfiab. They care more about Htm 
utvtt than they do either id>oat God (» 

Dg.l.z«lt,,CoOgle . 

ship, they may teceiTe me into their 

So be called erery one of his 
'a debtors unto Aim, ani said 
the first. How much owei 
into my lord 1 
G And he said. An hnndred 
taanres of oil. And he said unl 
Tin H«d ilonu in lbs origin] coniaii 

i« giUoui 

trudi. If ihey seek aolvation, it is on 
(or selfi^ ends ; and because they d 
site a corafortabls abode, rather ihi 
because ihey have any regard lo God i 
his cause. 

9. CalUd eeery one. As he was i(n. 
ard, he had the managemeat of oil the 
atTaira, and ef course debts were lo be 
piud to him, 1 DAtor: Tbose who 
iHDei hia master, or perhaps lei 
those who rented land of his ma 

e. A Imndred meaiuTet. The 
aure here meElioned is the Bath, which 
contained, according to Dr. Arbuthnol' 
Tables, seven gallona and an half-c 
according to the marginal Note, about 
nine gallons and three quarts. 1 OU.. 
Oil of obTes, or sweet oil. It was much 
used loF lamps, as an article of food 
(Ei. iiix. 2), and also for anolitlng, 
andof coiu-se asan article of commerce. 
I Kings V, 11. These were petsouH, 
doubtless, who had rented land of the 
rich man, and who were to give him a 
certain prqportiDn of the produce. ' 
Thy bOl. The contract, or obligation, 
or leoie. It was probably written as a 
promite by the debtor, and Bimed by 
the steward, and thus becatoe binding. 
Thus ha had power to alter it without 
supposing that lus master would delect 
U. The bill or contract was in the 
hands of Ifas steward, and he gave it 
bach to him to write a new one. 1 
Quklily. He supposed (hat hia master 
would'aoon remove him, and ha was 
therefore in haste to have al! things se- 
cure beforehand. It is worthy of re- 
mark, also, thai oU this was wrong. 
His master tad called for the account; 
but instead of rendering il, he engaged 
in other business, disobeyed his Srd 
sCil!, and in contempt of his commands 
sODght his own interest, Alt sinners 
would be slow to give m their account 
to God if they could do it ; and it is 
onlv heiioiue, when God calls them by 

KB. [A.D 3S 

him, Take thy -rA\, and sit dowi 
quickly, and wi te Aftj. 

7 'llien 8B;d he to another, And 
how much owest thou ? And he 
said. An hundred * measures of 
wheat. And he said unto him. 
Take thy hill, and write fonrscore. 

8 And the lord commended Iha 

(ha original coatalneth ainut 14 liufliek 

death, they mniwl hot go, that they do 
not engage still in their ovm buBinesa, 
and disobey him- 

7, Maaureivf u^eat. Theroeasuie 

i ^.__j .,._ j^^ uf homer, 

■ lies of D] 

eight bushels; or, according to the 
marginal Note, about fourteen bushebi 
ayttU. A pottle is four pinta. 

The Hebrew kor, "|5— or h 


; and the actual amount of th* 

re according to this was not fai 

tight gallons. Robinson, (Lei.; 

... - er, supposes that the bath wai 

eleven and a half gallons, and the koi 

or homer 14.4^ bushels. The amount 

LOt material to the proper under- 

iding of the parable. 1 Fmimwa 

Tie lord commeitded. Praised, oi 
eipressed admiration at hia wisdom, ' 
Theae are not the words of Jeaus, aa 
commendiog him , but a pan of the nar- 


njnil, but because ha 
This is the only thing in hia 
conduct of which there is any approba- 
tion eipreSBBd. and this approbation 
was expressed by hv mailer. 1'bia 
— ssage cannot be brought, therefore, 
prove that Jesus meant to commend 

m. II. 

expressed of his ^ ,. _,„,_ 

Ihaught; and the master could no mora 
amrove this conduct than he could iha 
first act of cheating him. 1 The diOd 
Ten of thit lairld. Those who are de- 
toted lo thia world, who live for ttdt 
irld only, and wh] are carofol only W 

I provide 


d only W 

A. D. .19.1 


■ijiiM itewud betButehe hsddooe |k> jaunelm frioBd* of lb 

wiaelj: for Ui« children of this mon of uori^leoi "'~' 

wortd sre in tbeii gcneialion wiet """ """ 

than the ' children of light. 
9 And I «a; unto ;oa. Make 

■ jDO.tU6. Ep.3A »Ecll.L lTi&ie.S. 

that tbef are peculistly wicked and 
profligalo, but only thai they are icorld- 
I«, and aniioua about earthly thmea. 
See Mall. liii. 23 ; 2 Tim. iv. 10. lArt 
igite. More prudenl, cunning, and 
anxious about their particular biudnees. 
They show more akill, aludy more 
plans, contiive more ways, lo provide 
Kir IhemMlvee, than the children of 
light do lo promote the interests of ra- 
ligiOD. T In tkeir generation. Some 
have thought this meant in lAetr maniKr 

The word jri 

g «ri, 

.„ ' of^. gTd. vi.% ; m 

Others Buppoae that it means tainarda, 
OT amcmg iJie sun of Iheir ovjn age. 
Thej are more prudent and wise then 
Chnsiiana in regard to the people of 
their own time ; they turn iheir connei- 
ion with them 10 good account 
make it subserve their worldly iiite 
~ le Christians fail miich mote to use 


■orvo their Bpiriluol iniereele. 1 CAtU- 
lemof light. Those who have been en- 
lighlened from above — who are Chtia- 
tians. This may be considered aa the 
■ppiication of the parable. It does nol 
mean that it is more wiee to be a world- 
ly man than to be a child of light, but 
that thoae who are worldly show much 
prudence in providing for themBelvea ; 
seize occaKona for making good bar- 
gaina; are active and industrious; try 
lo turn every thing to the best account, 
and thus eietl ihemsclvea to the utmost 
loadvancelheirintareBta; while Chiisl- 
ians ofloti Bulier opportunitiee of doing 
good to pass unimproved; are less 
■teady, firm, and aniinus, about eternal 
things ; and thus show lesa wisdom. 
Alas! this is loo true; and we cannot 
but reflect here how different the world 
. WiiuJd be if all Christians were as ani- 
ioua, and diligent, and prudent, in re- 
others are in worldly 


Jon my disciples. 1 Maia to jwvni 

fritmit. Some have und^lood 

•Md friendt, here. &. releriinji lo the 

ye fail, they nuj receive jou iiili 
ererlaatiiig habitationi. 

o GJd. 

holy angels ; una 

olhen, ._ 

the word should n 
referring lo any parlieular pertoMt, but 
Ls used m acconlauce vplth the preceding 
parable ; for in the applicatiou our Sa- 
viour uses the language appropriated lo 
ihe conduct of the steward to eipreaa 
the general truth that we are to maae i 
proper use of riches. The deward had 
so managed his pecuniary aSairs, aa to 
Bocure Fkiiure comfort for himself ; or so 
as to find friends that would take ears 
of him beyond the lime when bo waa 
put out of the office. That is, he wo'iH 
not be deilitute, or cast off, or without 
comfort, when he was removed from 
hia ofHce. So, says our Saviour lo the 
publicans, and those who had properly, 
so use it as la Mtcure h^piness and 
comfort beyond the time when yon 
shall be removed from the present life. 
Save a reference, in the use of {Out 
monej, to the future. Do not use it so 
that It shall nol avail you any thing 
hereafter; but so employ it that, aa the 
Bteward found fiienos. comforl, and* 
home, by hii wisdom in the use of il. 
so ttrti may, after you ore removed 
find friends, comfort, and a home— tha, 
is, may be happy in heaven. Jesoa, 
here, does not aay that we should do'il 
TK the lame <cay that the steward did— 
for that was unjust; but only that we 
should lecitre the remit. This may be 
done by using our riches as we ihouU 
do; that la, by not Buffering them to 
entangle ua in cares and per^ilexitiei 
dangerous to the soul, engrossing tha 
' ne, and stealing away the affections; 
; employing them in works of mercy 
id benevolence, aiding the poor, con 
jributing lo the advance of the gospel, 
bestowma them whore they will do 
' and in such a manner thai (rod 
oprmie the deed, and will bles(> ns 
Commonly, riches 
To man;, 
id of positively brn^t- 
r, they are an injnry, 
... they engross the ti— ■•—'^- 

Dg.l.z«lt,,CoOgle ~^ 

118 L 

10 He ■ tliat ia feitbAil in ths 

which is least, ia faitiifitl al^ ii 
Diach : and he that is nnjuat in Ih 
.east, is unjust also in much. - 
It If therefore ;e have not beei 

qat welfsre of the soul. Everf ibing 
may, by a proper use, be made to con- 
jJbulB tOoorwelfnreinheBvon, Ilealih, 
weatlh, tale MB. and influence, maybeso 
ijioployed ; and ihia ia whai our Savioar 
JoubllcBsmBanshere. 1 Of themaimiuin. 

A*S^"^word m^e^Tug 'richea^T^ 
uaed also as an idol, the god of richee. 
t Of UTirighieoainesi. Theae words 
ara a Hebrew espreadoii for unrighi- 

on adjeclive, as is common in the New 
Tostament. The word unrighteous, 
here, slanda opposed lo " the true rid,- 
e>," in \. 11, and meaua deceitful, 
falte, not lo be trailed. It has this 
meaning often. See 1 Tim. vi. 17; 
Luke lu. 33 ; Matt. vi. 19, lii. 31. Ii 
doeb not aigiufy, therefore, that they 
had acquired the properly unjuttly, but 
that property was dtceitful, and not to 
be trusted. The wealth of the steward 
was deceitful ; he could tiot rely on its 
IS Uable to be laki 

away at any n 


e world is deceitful. 
calculate on ita continuance. It ma^ 
give us support or coniibrt now, but it 
may be soon removed, or we taken 
from it ; and we aliould, therefore, so 
uae it ae to derive benefit from it here- 
after. 1 Wten ye /oil. When ye ate 
'Uft, or when ye da. The eipreseion 
is aceomniodated to the discAnrge of 
the Bteward ; hu: it refers to death, as 
if God then diaefiarged lus people, or 
look them from ihcir stewardship, and 
called them to account, t They viay 
raeeice you. This is a form of eipres- 
non denoting merely, lAat ym may be 
TteeiBed. The plural form is uaedbe- 
cauae it waa used in the corresponding 
place in the parable. {Ver. 4.) The 
direction is, so lo use our worldly goods 
tiiat ue maw be receiaed into heaven 
Then we die. God will receive us 
there, and we are to employ our pro- 
perty so that he will not cast us off for 
abu^g it, 1 Everlasting habitations. 
Heaven, (he eternal home of the righi- 
•ouB where all these wants will be 

£B. [A.D.S. 

faithrul in the unrigliteooa ' man)' 
mon, who will commit to your tma* 
the true ridua? 

12 And if ye hare not been failb' 
fill in that which ie another man's> 

10. He . 

a Cor 

lovol irom ei 

that ii faithful. Sec. This ii 

bold true. A man that showB fidelity 
in small matters will also in large ; arid 
he that will cheat and defraud in small 
things will also in those of more trust 
and responsibihty. FideUlyis required 
' '^ - ---"as in those of 


imil. &c. If yon are 
>1 ^ihfttl in (he small matters per- 
ining to this worki ; if you do not use 
ight your properly and influence ; 
lU cannot expect that God will commit 
you (he true riches of his grace 

mammon as they ought, carmot expect 
to grow in grace. God does not confer 

EracE upon them, and their being un- 
jihful in earthly matters is evidence 
that they toanld be m much greater af 
fairs, and would hkewise mitimpiwr 
the true riches. 1 True richta. The 

Saces of the gospel ; the influences of 
e Spirit; eternal life, or religioru 
The nches of this world a ' ' 

siiful, : 

12. Another man' t. The word nwn'f 
is not m (he original. It ia, ' If ye ttave 
been unfaithful managerB for another.' 
It refers, doubtless, to God. The 
wealth or the world is hie. It is com- 
mitted to uB as his stewards. It ia lui 
and deceitful, and at any mo- 

lake 11 


It is still hL , ; - — 

with ihit, we are uniatihful, 
expect that he will confer on us the re 
wards of heaven, ^ That trtie* u wiii 
,/toR. The riches of heaven, which, if 
once given to us, may be considered ae 
oarj — i. e., it will be permanent and 
fiied, and will not bo taken away at tj 
at (he pleasure of another. Ws may 
calculate on i(, and look forward with 
that i[ will «ii(HMi.:»l« 




who sball give jon that Trhich 

13 No ■ Berrant can serve l\ 
masters ; for ellhei he will hate the 
one, and love the other; or elf 
will hold lo the one, and despis 
Jlher. Ye cannot serve God and 

14 And the Phoriaeea also, who 
were covetous, heard all these 
things : and thej derided him. 

15 And he said Dnto them, Ye 
are they which juBtifj jouraeii 
before men; but God ^ knoweth 
yoni hearts : for that which is high- 

( J0S.3MS. Matt.BJM. »Msii.«3.14. cc 

ly esteemed ' amon^ men, fs abcml 
nation in the Bight of God. 

16 The / law and the prophet* 
were until John : since that tinje 
the kingdom of God is preached, 
and every man presseth intu it. 

17 And • it ib easier for heaveu 
and earth to pass, than one tittle ot 
the law to &i]. 

18 Whosoever* puttethawayhia 
wife, and marrieth another, com 
mitteth adultery : and whoBoevei 
manieth her that is put away from 
ha- husband, committeth adultery. 

19 There was a certain rich man, 


t.ia r ?>.ios.!6. ig.4a^ si.t. 

auri for ever, and not bs taken awny 
like the riches of ibis world, ai if they 
w«re not ours. The meaning of the 
wbole parable is, iberefore, thus ex- 
pressed : If we do not use the tliingB 
□r thw world SB we ought— with ho- 
nesty, truth, wisdom, and integrity — 
wc cannot have evidence of piety, and 
Bball not be received into hsaven. If 
we are true to that which ia least, il is 
in evidence that we are the children of 

God, a 

will CI 

13. SeeMatt. vi.24. 

14, 15. Tkey derided him. They ri- 
diculed, or laughed at him. They were 
avaricious, and tbev ridiculed the doc- 
trine thai they ougbt to be benevolent 
wilh their properly. ' Jiiatify your- 
- ' ' ' ""> appear just ; or, you 


not regard the heart. 1 T/iiil sAicA 
higUy etteentd. That is, mere ex- 
r actions performed 
(o be righteou- " '- 


(ill. The word 

tllatin the Old Testament is commonly 
given to idoh, and denotes God's ai- 
iarma ofeuch conduct. These words 
Hre (0 bo implied di^y to what Jeaus 
was discouralng about. There are 
miuiy ibings esloemed among men 
which are net abomination in the sight 
ff God; as, «. g.j truth, parental ijid 
Sfad sflrctMn, mdustry, &,c. But 

wealth and abow ; ambition and pride ; 
gay and splendid vicca, and all Ihi 
wickedness that men contrive to gUd 
and to make appear lik^ virtue — .exter- 
nal acts, that appear well while the 
heart is evil — are abominable in the 
sight of God, and thould be in the sight 
of men. Compare Luke iviii. 11— 14; 
I «am. ivi. 7. 

16. See Matt. Jti. IS— 14. ^ Every 
nan. Many men, or multitudes. It is 
in eipresaion that ia vary common, as 
vben we say every body is engaged in 
1 piece of buflinesB, meaning that it oc 

' 17. See Matt. v. ZS. ' 

IS. See Matt. v. 32. These versa* 
iccur in Matthew in a different order, 
md it is not improbable that tbey were 

'--nea. The design, here, Beema to be 

reprove the Pharisees lor not obser' 

ving Ite law of Moses, notwithatsnding 


Many have supposed that OUT Lord hero 
— '— ■- T rati history, and gives an 
some man who had lived in 
:r. But of this there is no 
Tbe probabiUty is, that this 
I to be considered as s para 
ble, referring not to any particular casa 
which had actually happened, but teach 
ing that such caaeB migii happen. ''''" 
detignoilh: -^--^---v,„i 

Is to be collected 

VDioh was clothed in purple snd 
fine tiiteii, and &red dompnonslf 

ovtiry day : 

2<J Aiid there was a certain beg- 

from the praviona conieiMtion. Hb 
bad taught the danger of love ol money 
(Tft. 1 , 2)j the deceitful and treacherous 
OHlnre of riches (th. 9 — 11) ; Iha! what 
was in high ealeem on eaith was hate- 
ful to God (ver, J5) ; that men who did 
not UBB their propert; aright could not 
be received into heaven (vs. II, IS): 
ihal they oughr to lielen to Mosea and 
the pTophcla (la. \6, IT); and that it 
was the duty of men to show kindness 
to the poor. The design of the parable 
was, to imprcsa all these truths more 
vividly on the mind, and to show the 
Phsrisees that with ali their boosted 

ol character, they might be lost amidst 
'""'""" "ipealth. Accordingly he speaks 

__ _. It fault ii. .__ 
enemat, desrading vi 
breach of thelaw ; and... 
fer that the mere pnaaiion of mealth is 
dangerous to the soul ; and that a man, 
Bonounded with every temporal bless- 
ing, may perish for ever. It is remark- 
able thai he gave no nanu to this rich 
man. If this was a parable, it shows 
US how unwilling he was to Ri suspi- 
cion on any one. If it was not s pars- 
ble, it shows olso that Jesus wouU not 
drag out wicked men before the public, 
but would conceal aa much as possible 
all that had any connexion with them. 
The good he would speak weU of b; 
name ; the evil he would not injure by 
eiposmelhamtopublicview. ^Clothed 
in purple. A purple robe or garment. 
This color was expenmve as well aa 
Hplendid, and wos chiefly worn by 
princes, nobles, and those who were 
Teiy wealthy. Compare Matt, iivii, 
38. See Notes on &. i. 18. 1 Ff« 
JifWH. This Gneo was chiefly produced 
of the flax (hat arew on the banlu of 
the Nile, in &ypl. Frov. vii. 16. 
Ezek. xxvii. 7. It ^aa peculiarly sod 
and while, and wn^ therefoTe much 
•ought OB an article of luxury, and was 
■0 expensive that it could be worn only 
by jinnoes, by priests, or by those who 
ware very rich. Gan. xli. 43. 1 Chron. 
IT. 27. Ei. iivui. 5. t Fared tump. 
twm$ly. Feasted or Uvei' in a splendid 
Btaniur. ^ Evtrs da,. Not merely 

garnamed Lazanu, wbich was laid 
at his gale, AiU of sores, 

31 And desiring to be fed with 
the crumbs which fell fhun the lictl 

nesB. ft is worthy ot rema^ that Jesoi 
did not charge on him aoy crimes. H« 
did not say that be had acqoired ihir 
property by disboneely, or even tW ha 
was unkind or unchanlable ; but simply 
that be inu a rich man, and that hlB 
riches did not seciue him &om death 
and perditior 

: ■■ .»z. 

buf simply tb 

have been so translated to keep up the 
contrast with the ricA sun. t Niaud 
ZoKinu. The word Lazarus is He- 
brew, and means a man destitute of 
help, a needy, poor man. It is a name 
given, therefore, lo denote bis needy 
condition. 1 Laid at hit £al«. At the 
door of the rich man, in order that he 
might obtain aid. ^ F»U of toret. 
Covered with ulcers; afflicted not only 
with poverty, but with loathsome and 
offensive ulcers, such as oflen are the 
accompaniments of poverty and want. 
These circumstances are designed to 
ahow how different was his condhian 
from that of the rich man. He was 
clothed in purple ; the poor man was 
covered with eorea! he &rad sumptu- 
was dependent 

. .-. - Poor man. The 

original word does not mean he^ar, 
imply that he was WKir. ItaEould 
been so translated to keep up the , 


for the crumbs that fell froi 
" table. TJ*B ioigt e 

Such was his miserBbla condition thai 
even the dogs, ss if moved bj" pity, 
came and licked bis sores in kmdness 
to him. These circnmstances of his 
misery are very touching, and bis con- 
dition, contrasted with that of the rich 
man, very striking. It is not offlrm^d 
that the nch man was unkind to him 
or drove him away, oi reftised to aid 
him. The narrative is designed Hmply 
10 show that the possession of wenhlL 
and all the blessings of tlus life, coold 
not exempt torn death and misery, and 
that thb luweat condition amoiw mor- 
tals may be connected with ISe and 
happiness beyond the grave. There 
was no provision made for the helptese 
pool in those days, and conse(asntlr 
they were often laid U the sates of th* 





mwi's table: mow 

eune and lickiiJ his 

33 And it cima 

bi^gar died, &i.d wai 

>Ter, tto Hoga 

d pass that the 
carried by the 

the' rich 

S3 And 

aiu> also died, ud «H 
ID hell he lifted up hit 




rich and Id ^acaa of public resort for 
diarii;. See Acts iii. 2. The goapel 
hu been the iscuia of all the public 
cbsrity now marie for the needy, as it 
has of pTOviding hospitalB for thiHe who 
are sck and affioled. Nopaeaunaboa 
•vet had a hospital or an amiB-hauae 
for the needy, (he aged, or the afflicted. 
Many heathea natiaus, aa the Hindoos 
and (he Ssndwicb iBlaaderB. deatroyeil 
their aged people ; and oU left iheir poor 
to the iDiBerida of public begging, and 
their sich to the care of Iheh Irienda or 
lo private chariTy. 

22. Wai carried bg Ikt angiii. The 
Jews held the opinion that the spirits of 
the righteous were conveyed fay an^ela 
lo heaven at their death. Our Saviour 
■peaka in accordance with this opinion ; 
and as he eipreaaly affirms the fact, it 
■ectne as proper that it diould be taken 
htetally, aa when it is said the rich man 
died and was buried. Angels are mi- 

IhoBe who are heira of ealvation (Heb. 
i- 14), and there is oo more iioprababi. 
. hty in the supjKMiiion that they attend 
depanitig amnts to heaven, than that 
they allend them while on earth, 
1 Airaham'i tum. This is a phrase 
iaken fttna the practice of rechning at 
meals, where the head of one lay on the 
bosom of another, and it denoted, there- 
fore, intimacy and friendship. See 
Note, Matt, xiiii. 6. Also John liii. 
23; iii, 20. The Jews had no doubt 
that Abraham was in paradise. To say 
that Lazarus was in bis bosom was, 
therefore, the same as to say that he 
was admitted to heaven and made happy 
Ihere. The Jews tnoreover boasted 
»ety ^lUl^h of being the friends of Abra- 
ham and his dcsoandante. Malt. in. 9. 
To be bis friend, wae in their view the 
highest hanoi and happiness. Our Sa- 
riour, therefore, showed them that this 
poor and aiilicted man might be raised 
lo the hiKheei happiness, while the rich, 
who pnded their.selves on their being 
descended frotn Abraham, might be 
cast Bwey and lost forever, l Wat 
buTui. This ii not said of the poor 
>nsn. Burial was ^Duehl to b« an ho- 
VoL.n._ii ■ 

nor, and funerals were, as ihey are now, 
ollen eipenidve, splendid, and ostenta- 
tious. I'his is satd of the rich man to 
show that he had ntrg earthly hanor, 
and all tbat the world calls happy voA 

23. In leH. The word here trans 
laied hell iHadtM) mean* literally a dark, 
obscure place ; the place where departed 
spirits go, but especially the place 
where incjbd spirits go. The ioUtiwiiy 
> are related of it in tbil 

parable: 1st II is far ef froi 
abodes of the righleons. La:ian 

tfar (^. §d. It is 

3d. '^rbere is a great gulf iied 

jring IS great. It ii 

represented by ismeRl in a Same. Ver. 
24. Stb. There will be no escape from 
it. Ver. ae. The woid Acil here means, 
therefore, thai dark, obscure, and mise- 
rable place, &r from heaven, where the 
wicked shall be punished for ever. ^ He 
lifted ap Of tyti. A phrase in common 
use among the Hebrews, mcamna he 
talked. Gen. Jiiii.10; xviii. 2j ua. 10. 
Dati. viii. 3. Luke vi. 20. * flnnf to 

pain, ang^iih (MatL iv. 2i\ panlci^arty 
the pain inflicted by the ancients in or- 

.1 they could 

of tiieir crimes. These tot 
tures were the keenest thi 

inflict, such ss the rocA, c. „— o- 

or burning ; and ths nss of the wokI 
bere denotes that the sufTeringa of ths 
wicked can he represented only by the 
eilremeal forma of human suffering 

' And teetk Abn^am, &.C. "" ' 

an aggravation of ' ' 
-■-IfirsC-^ ■- 

Tlus « 

things thatoc 

iletel; I 

_.. he was 

rolling in wealth, and the poor man was 
at his gale : he had no expectation of 
these sufferings : uow they have come 
upon him, aiid Laiarua is happy, and 
for ever Gied in (he paradise of Gcid. 
It is more, perhaps, than we are autho 
riied to infer, that (be vriuked will Ms 
those who are ia paradise. Tbat tlwT 


e^M, being in toTments, and seeth 
AbrahEim afar off, and Lazarns in 
his bosnm : 

34 And he cried and SMd, Father 
Abraham, have mttcj on me, and 

LUKE. i< t A 

Mitd'LazBnis, thai he rosy i^ib tbu 
tip of his finger in wat^f, ana eool 
my tongue ; ■ foi 1 am icimeuted in 

wiir Jsh™ that theyara thoj^ ie cerlein ; 
but we Bra not lo suppose thai: they will 
be BO neai together an la be seen, or as 
to niiks convenatian poadble. These 
drcum stances mean thai there will be 
a aeparatioitt and that the wicked in hell 
will be consdoits that ths righieous, 
thoueh on earth ihey were poor or de- 
spiseOj will be in heaven. Heaven and 
bell will be far from each other, andit 
will be no small part of the misery of 
ths ons that it is far and for ever re- 
moved from lbs other. 

34. Fainter Abralaai. The Jews con- 
ndered il a signal honor that Abraham 
was their /nfAec ; that is, that they were 
ictcendaiUi &om him. Tbouga this 
man was now in miserj', yet he seeias 
not lo bars abandoned the idea of bis 
relation to the father of the faithful. 
The Jews supposed that departed spirits 
might know and converse with each 
other. See Ligblfoot on this place. 
Our Saviour speaks in conformity with 
that prevailing opinion : and as it was 
uot easy lo convey idsas about the 
spiritual world without aoue such re- 
'le therefore speaksinthe 

Wo ai 

is was literacy true, but omy that it 
was designed lo repreBenl more clearly 
the BuffeiiogB of the rich man in hell, 
t Rave mercy m me. Piiy me. The 
rich man is not represented as calling 
on God. The mercy of God vrill be a; 
an end when [be soul is lost. Nor did 
he aik to be released from that pla 

■B that t1 


Lost spirits ki 

will have no end, and that it would 
in vain to ask to escape (he place ot 
lorment. Nor does he ash to be ad- 
mitted where Lazarus was. He had 
no deiire to be in a holy place, and he 
well knew thai there was no restora- 
tion to those who once sink down to 
hel). ^ Send Lamm. This shows 
how low he was reduced, and how the 
drcnmstancei of men change when 
ibcj die. Just betbre, Laaents was 
taid at his ^1e, fuU of sores. Now he 
ii htppj. m heaven. Just before, be 

could expect to derive no bene^l frjia 
bimj now he aiks, as llie highest Ikvttr. 
that he might come and render bim rS' 
lief. Soon the poorest men on earth, 
if they are the friends of God, will bava 
mercies which the rich, if unprepared 
to die, can never obtain. The rich will 
no longer deapise them; they would 
then be glad of their fiiendship, and 
would b^ for Ibe slightest bvor at 
their hanifii. ^ Dip the tip, &.c. This 
was a small favor to ask, and it shows' 
the greatness of his distress, when bo 
SmBll a thing would be considered a 
great rebcf. 1 Cool my tongvt. The 
effect of great heat on the body is lo 
produce almost insupportable thirst. 
Those who travel in burning deserts 
thus suffer ineipreaidbly when they 
are deprived of water. So pain of any 
kind produces thirst, and panicolarly 
if connected with fever. The sufferings 
of the rich man are, therefore, repre- 
sented as produdng burning tAirst, so 
much that even a i&op of water would 
be refreshing to hia tongue. We can 
.scarce form en idea of more distress and 
misery, than where this is continued 
from one day lo another without reUef. 
We are not lo suppose that be had ' 

ilty of any particular wickedness with 
ms tongve as the cause of this. It is 
aimpiy an idea lo represent the natural ^ 

effect of great suffering, and especially 
suffering in the midst of great heat. 
^ lam tormented. I am in anguish, in 
insupportable dislresa. ^ In thu Jliau. I 

The lost 

e often represented as 

ottbe severest pain that we know. It 
is not certain, howeVGr, that the wicked 
will be doomed to suffer in material lire. 
See Note, Mark a. i4. 

25. Son. This a a representation 
designed to correspond with the word 
father. He was a descendant froir. 
Abraham — a Jew — and Abraham is 
represented as calling this thing to bis 

sorrows to remember thai he waa a 
itfi of Abraham, and that he ought to 

member that thou in thy lifetime 
receivedst thy good things, and 
ike^ise Lazarus evil things ; but 
now he is comfoited, and Uiou 

3G And heaide all this, between 

Da and you there is a. great gulf fis- 

ed : so that they which would pass 

aJobS1.13. FLl3.1S-ia. t£M. 


have lived worthy of that relatiaii to 
nim. 1 Remember. This it a cutdng 
word in Ibis place. One of the chief 
lomientBof hell will be ihe rememirance 
of what was SDjoyed, and of what was 
done in this world. Nor will il be any 
mitigation of the aufTering, to apend an 
ilentity in which there will be nothing 
else to do day or nighl but to reiRfniier 
what wo* done, and what might have 
been, if tha lifo had been right, IT Thy 
gaed thingi. That is, property, splen- 
dor, honor. ^ Eva limgi. Poverly, 
contempt, and affliction. 1 Bui nan. 
&c. How chanced the gccne ! How 
differenl the con<£tion ! And how mnch 
heller was the portion of lAuams after 
•11 than Ihnl of the rich man I It la 

Cbsble that Lazarus had the most real 
.ipineBa ui the land of the hving, Ibi 
rieiet without the love of God can 
never confer happiness Uke the fevor 
of God, even in poverly. But the 
comforta of the rich man arc now eone 
for ever, and the joya of Lazania have 
hut commenced. One is to be com- 
forted, and the otitr to be tormented, 
to all eternity. How much better, 
therefore, is poverty, vrith the friend- 
ship of God, than nches, vrith all that 
the world can bestow ! And how fool- 
ish to seek our chief pleasures only in 
this lifer 

26. A p-eat gulf. The word trans- 
lated gtilf means daum, or the broad, 
yawnrng space between two elevated 
objects, or two precipices. In this 
place it means that there is no way of 
paasing from one to the other. ^ Fixed. 
Strengthened, made §rm, or immov- 
tble. It ia BO eatabliahed that it will 
nener be movable or passable. It will 
/•reierdivideheavenandhell, 1 H^irt 
~ " "' "to pnae this 

b the world of wo. The aropio m 
tan of the statement is, thai there 

can they pass to ua that leauld come 
from thence. 

37 Then ha said, I pray thee 
therefore, father, that thou wonldeit 
send him to my father's house : 

S8 For I have five brethren | that 
he may tesUl^ onto them, lest they 

between the one 

and the other — there can be no paasillg 
from one to the other. It ia imposmble 
to conceive that tbe righteous would 
desire to leave their abodes in glory to 
go and dwell in the world of wo — noi 
cim we suppose that they would wish 
to go for any reason tmlesa it were pos- 
siblB to furnish relief That will ba 
out of the queaticn. Not even a drop 
of water will be fiirmshed as a relief to 
the Bufierer. T Ifeilher can tity nu> tt 
U9, &c. There can be no doubt that 
the wicked will detirt to pass the eulf 
that divides them from heaven. They 
would be glad to be in a state of bappi- 
nesa. But all such vrishes will be vetu. 
How can men believe that there will bo 
a reaiDTolion of all the wicked to bea 
Ten ) The Saviour solemnly assures ua 
that there can be no passage from thai 
world of wo to the nbodes ofthe blessed. 
Yet in the face of this, many Universal- 
ietB hold that hell will yet be vacated of - 
guilty millions, and all its miserable 

wiU b 


Who shall conduct them a 
gulf, when Jeans Christ says it mnnoc be 
passed 1 Who shall bnild a bridge over 
that yawning chasm which he aaya ia 
"jExedl" No. If there is any ming 
certain fiom tbe Scripture, it is, that 

T hell ri 

they who sink there sink for ever. 

27, 28. Five brethren. The number 
jivt is mentioned merely to preserve 
the appeanmce of veriiimilitude in the 
story. It i« iwt to be s^tuaUied, nor 
suppose that it has aiiy hid- 
sciutabte meaning. 1 Mag 
!o them. May bear teitnett 
•r may ihform them of what 
is my situation, and the dreadful con. 
- guencea of the hfe that I have led. 
is remarkable that he did not ask to 
himself He knew that he eniU «« 
_. released, even far so abort a tims- 
Hta condidon was fixed. Yet h* iM 

39 Abraham saith unlo him. They 
' have Moses and ike prophets ; let 
them bear them. 

DO wish ihat his friends should sufier 
also, tuid he euppoBed that if one went 
ftom Ihe dead tfioT would hear him. 

S9. Mmu. The writineB of Moaes. 
TbefiiBlfivebookBoflheBible. ^ The 


The r. 

■.I of t] 


_jnt. What the prophets had 
I. ^ Heat them. Hear them speak 
in the scriptureS' Kead them, or near 
them read in the synagogues, 
tend 10 what ihey have deliTen 

30. JSay. No. They will not htar 
Moaes Biid the prophets. They have 
heard the'hi so long la vain, and the] 

BO prospect now that they will atl 

to (he meesage. But if one ahould go 
to them directly from eternity, (hey wlU 
hear him. The novelty of the measage 
would Bilract (heir attention, and they 
would [iaten to what he would vay. 

31. Bt pemaded. Be convinced of 
die truth, and of the danger and ibll^ 
of theil way, and the certainly of tbeu- 
niflering hereafier, and be induced lo 
turn from sin (o holineaa, and from Satmi 
onto God. 

From this impreamve and inalnicdTC 
parable we may learn : 

let. That lbs sonla of men do nol 
die with ibeir bodies. 

2d. That the aouls of men are am- 
Kiottt after death ; that thev do noi 
ilecp, as some have supposed, till tht 

a place of happiness immediately i 
death, and the wicked coiuriginod t 

4th. Thai wealth does not secur 
Irom death. 

Their bauf bt y owneri f^nm Ibe ftmvt ]' 

All iheir pomp and apparel; all their 
bonon, tbeir palaces, and their gold 
eanoot savB ihem. Death can as eaaily 
End his way into ike splendid manBiona 
of the rich as into the colleges of the 
poor ; and the rich shall turn to the 
1 aoon, like the 

KB. IA.D.». 

30 And he said, Nay, fethet 
Abr^am : but if one went unto 
them from the dead, they will re- 

31 And he said unto him. If ' 
t a cot.43. 

poor, be undiatinguished from common 
du3t, and be unknown. 

Sth. We should not envy the eon- 
ditioD of the rich. 

m ilippery m 
Aad ieiy l>J 

Their fancied jo 

Hyhl^.inyponion, and my Gnd." 

7th. The soffetingB of the wicked in 
hell will be indescribably great. Think 
what is represented by tartnent, by 
burning Same, by inanpportBble thirst 
by (bat slate where a single drop of 
water would afford relief. Hemember 
that oK (*« ia but a represenlation of 
the paina of (he damned, and thai Ihif 
will have no inlermisaion, day or night, 
but will continue from year lo year, 
and age lo a^e, without any end, and 
you have a bint view of the suferings 
of those who are in hell. 

8th. There is a place of anfFerinp 
beyond the grave — a hell. If there la 

— then tliiB parable has no meaning. 
_ . _ imposaible to make ohj thing of it 
luilesa it be designed lo leach thai. 

Sth. There will never be any escape 
from those gloomy regions. There is a 
gulf fUed— yfial, nol movable. Nor 
—a any of the damned beat a pathway 

rOBs Ihia gulf to the world of holiness. 

loth. We see Ihe amazinff folly of 
Ihoae who suppose there ma^ be an end 

— the euffermes of tt- —"t-'' —■ » 

> go down 

.at suppo 

ncked, and 


sufier a lonK th 

A.b n.} 


dwj hear not Hoses and the pro- 
phets, neither will * they be par- 
•naded though one rose from the 


THEN said he nnto the disci- 
ples, It * ia impossible but 
Oiat (fences will come : but woe 
uato Aim througb whom the; come ! 
S It were better for him tlfat a 
tnUl-Btone were hanged about hie 
neck, and he east into the aea, than 
that be should offend one of these 
little ones. 
■ »Hi(i.i&e,i. Mu^.a. 

t Le.19.1T. 

3 Take heed to yourselves: If 

Uiy 'brother trespass against thee, 
rebuke ° him ; and if he repent, for- 
give him. 

4 And if he trespass against thee 
seven ~ times in a day, aod seveD 
times in a day torn again to thee, 
■ayii^, I repent; thou ' shall for 
give him. 

5 And the apostles said nnio th* 
Lord, Increase ' our faith. 

6 And the Lord said. If f ye had 
faith as a grain of mnstard-seed, je 
might sa; unto the sycamiDe-tree, 

i Mill.e.13,14. Col.S.13. * HLlt.3. 

/Mttl.lTa), 3L31. Mar.S. ai. 11.S3. 

rather than go at o 

heaven. If 

be 10 fooli^ aa 

rather thui go al oi , - - - 

be happy at once when he dieit 

lllh. God giveB us warning BuHideiit 
lo prepsis for death. He has sent his 
word, his wrvanu, his Son ; ha warns 
US b; his Spirit and hia Providence ; b; 
(he entrealiea of our friendB. and by the 
death of sinners ; he offers ua heaven, 
. and he threatena hell. If all ihiB will 


e that would. 

<I do i1 

IZth. God wQl give us nothing fur- 
ther to warn ua. No dead man will 
come la hte to tell us of what he baa 
seen. If he did, we would not believe 
him. Relieioi) appeals lo man, not by 
ghosts and Trtghlhtl apparitions. It ap- 
peals to their tt 

and death soberly before men, and if 
ihey KtU net choose the former, they 
most die. If vou will Do( hear the Son 
of God, and the truth of tbe scriptures, 
litere is nothing which you mil or can 
bear ; you will nmer be persuaded, and 
vill tuoer eHc^>c the place of tonuent- 


dlat il vill bt. See iheae 
plained in Matt, iviii. 6. 7. 

9,4. SeeMBil.ivlii.l5,2],32. T'ti- 
pau agaimt thee. Sin against ihee. 
« does any tbinft that ^vesyou "~ ' 


]1 him his fault. 

and seek an explaoation. Acquaint 
him with what has been the effect ot 
his conduct, and the state of your feel- 
ings, that he may acknowledge hie er- 
rors and repenL 

5. Incriaie our faith. This duty r 
forgiving offencee seemed so di 

.!,„ j: 1— ,1... (hgy j-gi, ^^^ ^^^^^ 

urease of feiih; they 
: prone themselves To 
a, and that it required 

nply with the reouire- 
We may learn from 

the disciples, 
strongly of an mi 
feh that ihey wert 

an additional incre 
enable them to coi 
of Jesua. 

his duly ol 
I difficult 10 

Strength comes from him, ind especi. 
ally strength to believe the gospel 
Hence he is called the .AalAur and Fut- 

religion. It is so eontTary lo our native 
teerniga, and to proud, corrupt nature, it 
implies such true nobleness of sou], and 
elevation above the petty feelings of 
malice and revenge, and is so contrary 
to the received maxims of tbe world 
which teach Ua to dieriik rather than 
forgive the memtny of oiTencee, that it 
is no wonder our Saviour dwells mnch 
on this duty, and so strenuously inmata 
on it in order to our having evidence 
that our hearts have been changed. 

fie lAon plooked «p by the root, and 
be thou planted in the iea, and it 
■hould obey you. 

pven amona ufl lo the large Iree com- 
monly called the bullonwood. Bui Ihe 
tree here mentioned is different. The 
Latin Vulgate end the Syriac versionB 
translate it muOierry-irn. It ia said to 
hiTe boon a tree tfiat common)]' grew 
n Egjpt, of the axe and appeaiance 

7 Bnt whkh of you, bimi^ ■ 
rrant ploughing, or feeding cattle, 
r anVi him by and by, when 


beuing a s[ie- 

of a mulberry-tree, 
ciee of liga. This tr 
Palestine also. It is probable that our 
Lord was standing by one as be ad- 
dressed these words to hi^ disciples. 
The following itui will furnish a new 
of the Sycamore-tree and its fruit. 

7. Having a tettaiU, &.e. This pa- 
rable seema to bava been spoken with 
reference to the rewards which the dis- 
ciples were eipecting in the kingdom 
oflheMeswah. Tbe occasionon which 
It was spoken cannot bo ascertained. 
It does not seem to have any particular 
connexion with what goes before. It 
may be supposed thai the disciples were 
■amewhat impatient to have tbe king- 
dom restored to Israel (Acta i, G), tbat 
B, that he would assume his kingly 
power, and that ihey were impatient of 
the detay, and anxious to enter on the 
mnnjiwhich they expected, and which 
Ihoy not improLiably were expecting in 
•onaaquar— -' '"■"- ^ ' 

a ol their deTolsdnesa t 

him. In answer to these expectations, 
Jesus spoke this parable, ahowing them: 
lat. That they should be rewareled, as 
a servant would be provided for, but, 
2d. That ibis was not the Jtnt thing; 
that there was a proper order of ihinea, 
and ihua it might be delayed, as a ser 
vant would bo provided for, bnt at the 
proper lime, and at the pleasure of the 
master; and, 3d. That this reward was 
not to be expected as a matter of meril, 
but would be given al the good pleaanre 
of God, for Ihcy were but unprofitable 
servants. 1 By and hf. This should 
have been translated inmudiaifly. Ho 
would not at liejtrtl thing, or at mm 
■t he returned frcnn the Sea, diieot Urn 

&.D U.] 

be k «(niM 6tim the field, 60, and 
rit down to meati 

B And will not ratiier eay 
Kim, Make ready wherewiUi 1 may 

rap, and gird thyself, and Berre me 

till I have eaten and drunken ;. and 

afterward thou ahalt eat and drink ' 

9 Doth he tliank that servant be 

B he did the things that 


10 80 likewise ye, when ye shall 
uave done all tfaoae things vrbiQh 
are commanded you, say. We 
unprofitable aervanls; we hare 
that wliich was our duty to do- 
ll And it came to pass a 

■ Jabf&S. 3&T. P>.1C1,3. 11.64.6. ] 
IS. 1Cd,D.16,17. ie.BJl^a. lao.H 

to eat and drink. H1UIS17 aod wear; 
he might ba, yet it would Oq propel for 
him first to attend apon his muBl 
the apOBtl™ wen -- *- ■^ ■ 

because they did 

reward to which ihsy were lookkig. 
1 To meat. To eat. Or relher, place 
ibyself al ihe (able. 

9. Itromiut. I think m 


LO. Are unprofitable eervanU. We 
have conferred no favor. We have but- 
Ami nothing, and have not bnufiltd God, 
or laid him under Migation. If he re- 
wards ufl, il will be mailer of unmerited 
favor. This is true in relation loChriM- 
iansinlhe btlowingrespeclB : Ist. Our 
services are not pri^UmU to God (Job 
nii. 2) ; be netdi not our aid, and hie 
essenlnl happiness will not be increased 
by our eSbrts. Sd. The nace to do his 
will comes liam him only, and all the 
praise of that will be due I0 him. 3d. 
All that we do, is what is our duty; we 
cannot lav claim to having; rendereti any 
lervice that will bind him to show us 
bvor ; and, 4ib, our best services are 
(ningled with imperfoctions. We come 
, ihariof his^lory, rRum. iii. 33); we do 
not serve him as humbly, and cheerftil- 
ly. and tailhfully oa we ought; we are 
kr, very Im from the eiampie set us by 
■he Saviour, and if we are aaved and 
'awarded, it will be because Gud will 
10 OUT imri|(hieonaness, and 


went to Jeraaalein, that b» paswd 
throoKh th« midst of Samaiia * ana 


13 And as he entered into a cer- 
tain village, there met htm ten men 
that were lepers, which Blood afar ' 

14 And when ha Baw iOcm, he 
said unto ihenii Go shew ' your- 
selves unto the priests. And it 
came to pass, that, as * they went, 
they were cleansed. 

eLe.13.46. rfLe.13.3. 14.a HBtt«.4. o. 

will remember o 

Hob. V 

;. 13, 

miqiuUes Di 

.1. ThevaditofScanaTtaati^GtHiia. 
He went from Galilee and probably 
travelled through the chief villages and 
towns in il, and then leii ii ) and as Sa- 
maria was ailuaied 6e<iMen Galilee and 
Jerusalem, it was nsceaaary to pass 
thningh il. Or it may mean, that be 
pasBBd along on the borders of each to- 
wards the nver Jordan, and so passed 
the midst, L e. heltotai Galilee and 
moria. This IB rendered more proba- 
ble from the circumstance that as he 
bam Galilee, there would have 
10 occasion for saying that he pass- 
ed through it, unless 11 be meant through 
: eanfaa or holders of il. or at least 
wouw have been menuoned beibre 

.3. Tiere met him. T bey were in his 

y, or ihey were in hispalh, as he was 

eiing the village. They were not 

iwed to enter the village while rhey 

were afflicted with the leprosy. Lev. 

■iii. 46. Num. v. 2, 3. 1 Lepert. See 

Note on Mall, viii. a. ^SiBOdafarof, 

. dislaUDe, as ihoy were required By 

They were unclean, and it was 

lawhil for them to come near lo 

those who were in health. As Jesus 

was travelling, they were also walking 

in the contrary way, and seeing him, 

— ^ Itnowing thai tboy were unclean, 

.-.-^ atopped. or liirnnd Bjiide. no that 

they might n 


u G» a 

[>l expose others to the c( 


15 And one of them, when he 
■Bw that he was healed, (anted 
back, and with a loud roloe glo 

16 And fell down on hii bee 
hie feet, DiTin^ him diankB : and he 

■ VmX.\S. * JiMi.4.3M!t. 

H>tl,>uL4. B7 this command be give 
Ibem an implied anumice ihat they 
would be healed. For the dettgn ibr 
which Ihej were lo go wae to eibibit 
the ividtnea tbu ihey were restored, 
and to obtain permisrion from tbe prieai 
10 mingle asain in aociely. It may also 
b* obaerved that this required no amall 
neuore of /ailk on their pan, tor he 
did not jtnl heal them, and then lelL 
them to go ; he told them to go without 
Bpratlg aaeuring them thai ibey would 
be healed, and without <u <itt any evi- 
dence to show to the priesc— So dnnera, 
defiled with the leprosy of on. ahould 
palfailh in tbeLord Jeaue, and obey hia 
eommande, with the fiiilest confidnnce 
that he ia sljletaheal them, and thrt he 
kSI do it, if they follow hia directiona ; 
i and that in due nme iheyahall have the 
IblleBt evidence that their peace ia made 
_ with Ood, and that theit eoula ihal! by 
~ him be declared free from the deSIement 
of nn, 1 H^ere eltiuutd. Were cured, 
or made whole. 

l&. 16. One qf them, &.C. Thieman, 
■enaibic of the power of God, and grate- 
fnl for hia merciea, relumed to eipreaa 
his gratitude to God, for hia goodneae. 
Instead of obeying at mee tbe letier of 


.or. Thereienoevidence, uuTiPTipi, > 
he did not,a/l«rbe had given thankt „ 
Ood, and had poured out his joy at the 
feet of Jesus, go lo the priest u be was 
directed. Indeed be could not have 
been reatored to society withont dtnng iM 
But he fnl poured out his thanka to 
God, and gave bira praiae for hia woo- 
ierful recovery. The drat dutj of sin- 
ners, after they have been forgiven, and 
have the hope of eternal life, is to pros- 
Irate themaelveeat the feet of their Great 
Benefactor, and to conaecrate them- 
■elvea to his service. Then let them go 
imd bIiow to otheri the evidence iluit 
they are cleanaed. Let them go and min- 
ele. Uke a restored leper, withibeir lam- 
ibea and friends, and ahow by the purity 
and liolinea* of their hves how f[rea( la 

17 And Isans anawving ni 
Were there not ten clearuKd ! b 
where an the nine 1 

IS There are not ' found ll 
letomed to pve g\ctrf to God m 
this stranger. 

the mercy that has cleansed them. Tib 
aai a Samarilan. See Note, Matt. x.ii, 
Tbia rendered his conduct more remark- 
able and atrikine in the sight of the Jewa. 
They considered the Samaiitana aa pe- 
culiarly wiclied, and themttlvet aa pe- 
cubBrly holy. This example showed 
them, like ihe parable of the good Sa- 
maritan, that in thta ihe^ were mistaken. 
And one de^gn of tbia seems lo have 
been to break down the appnUum be- 
tween the Jews and SamoritanB, and to 
bring tbe fbrmer to more charitable 
judgment reapecting the latter. 

IT, iS. Where art Uhi nmet Jesui 
bad commanded tbem Ti,'ro lo tbe priest , 
and Ibey were probBbl> iitrridlg obey- 
ing the commandment. 'Ibey were 
impatient to be hpaled, and t«jf(A in 
wishi-ig it, and hod no gratitude to God, 

„ it.— One of tbe firat 
feeUnga of tbe ainner cleansed from sin, 
is s desire to praise his gre^it benefactor. 

And a real willingness lo obey his 00 

wish to render thanks to him for hia 
mercy. With what singular propriety 
may this quesiion now he aaked— ioierj 
are the nine t And what a Btrilung il- 
lustration ia this of human nature, and 
of the ingratitude of men! One had 
come back to give thenka for tbe favra 
bestowed on bim ; the others were 
heard of no more. So now. When 
men are restored from dangerous ^ck- 
nesa, here and there one comes to give 
thanks to God— but 'where are the 
ninet' When men are defended fron 
danger ; when they are recovered from 
the perils of the sea; when a steamboat 
ia destroyed and a large part of crew 
and paasengeia perish, here and there ' 
one of ihoee who are saved arknowledg- 
ea the goodness of God. and rendioa 
him praise. But where ar" "'" ' 


19 As4lw raid unto 1 


m. Arise, 

« whole. 

SO And vhen hs was demanded 

of the Phariaees when the kingdcon 

of God should come, be answered 

■ MllLS.Xt. 

of pleasuie and otaui, aa if nolhiite h&d 
oecnrred. Few, few of ell who have 
been rescied ftom ' Ihreatening graves' 
feel iheir obligalion to God, or ever ei- 
preBB iL Thejr forget their Great Bene- 
ncMi; perhaps the menlioiiafhiBnamo 
11 ui^lesauil, and they acorn the idea 
that (bev are uoder any abligaliona to 
God. Such, alaa, b man, ungrateful 
mui ? 1 Thi» itranger. This foreign- 
er ; (IT rather tbia ahen, or tbia man ol 
another tribe. In the Sgriae vereion 
" thia one who ia of a foreign people," 
Tina man who might have been least 
aprtled to have eipreesed ibis gratitude 
to God. The most unhkely cEan 
■re often found to be tnoel connit 
■nd grateful. Men from 'whom 
would expect leart in reUgion, are 
to entirely changed aa to dissppoini all 
onr expectations, and to put to ahame 
those who have been most highly fa- 
vored. The poor often thus put to ahame 
the rich ; the ignorant the learned ; and 

n the young the aged, 
9. CoItyiKov. Toll: 
without *t« certificate he could not again 

TothePWui — for 

or the public worship of tiod. Having 
now appropriately cipremed your giati- 
tude, go lotbe priest, and obey (he 
law or God. Renewed ainnera, while 
their hearts overflow with gralhitds to 
Jesae, should txprnt that gratitude by 
obeying God, and engaging in the ap- 
propriate duties of their cdling, and of 

SO. Wiu iemanJti. Was asked. 
^ Of the JPhtruttt. This was s mat- 
ter of much importance lo them, and 
thev had taugbl thai it would come 

enUempt, and for the purpose of draw- 
'ng out some thing that should eipose 
him to ridicule, 1 TAe kingdmn of 
e«d. TbereiraofGodjortbediapen- 
ntion under the Messiah, See Note. 
Halt. in. S. 1 WM eitiirvaiioB. With 
•erapuhms and aiundve looking ibr it 
Or with Mdi an appatnnce aa to «- . 

them, and said, Hm Ungdom ol God 
oometh ' not with obaenatimi. 

ai Neither shall the; aav, I.o 
here 1 or, Lo there ! tor, behold, the 
* kingdom of God is * vithiu joa. 

tKo.RlT. >M,«wv*». Jno.lX. 

trad observation — that is, wiib great 
pomp, majesty, splendor. He did not 
deny that, according lo their views, the 
time was drawing near; but be denied 
that ii would come in the wamer in 
which they expected. The Messiah 
would net come vrilh pomp, like an 
earthly prince ; perhaps not in aucb ■ 
manner aa to be daemud by the eyes 
of sagacioua and artful men, who were 
expecting him in a way agreeable lo 
their own ieeUngs. The kingdom of God 
iateilhiit men— ^ndittnakesitsway not 
by pomp and noise, but by silence, de- 
cency, and order. 1 Cor. liv. 40. 

21. Lo here, or lo there.' When an 
earthly prince visits different parts of 
his temtoriea, he does it wilo muc^ 
pomp. His movsments attract much 

topic of conversation. The inquiry ia, 
where ia he t Which way will he go I 
And it ia a matter of important isnM 
to be able to say where he is. Jesus 
would not ci 

It would n 

, ....,, ... I. It would 

bo ^enl — obscure — and attracting com 
paratively httle notice. Or the paasags 
may have reference to the cuatom of 
the jtreteadeci Mcsaisba, wbo appeared 
in tbia manner. They said thai m thit 
place, or in that; m this mountain, or 
that desert, they would show signs thai 
should convmce the people that tbey 
were the Messiah. Compare Notes on 
Acts V. 36, 37. 1 It mlhin yoa. Thin 
is capable of two interprelatians. laf. 
The reign of God is in the htart imhI 
SHfid, ft does not come wilb pomp 
and splendor, like the reign of tempo 
ral kiuES, merely to conlro! the eiter 
nal aettont and strike Ibo senses of mei> . 
with awe — but it reigns in the heart by 
tbelawofGod; it sets np its dominion 
over the passions, and brings every 
thought into captivity lo the obedience 
of Chrial, 2d. It may mean the new 

The Meuiah has come. John hM 
ashsrad in the kingdom ».' G«d : tad 

L)^i.z.iit>,Coogle — 

S^ And be uald auto Oe di»ci- 
pleB, The • days will oome when ye 
Hhall desire to see one of the d^s 
of the Son of man, and ye shall not 

33 And * thej shall say to yon. 
See here j or, See there : go not af- 
ter them, nor fallow Hem. 

94 For M the lightning, that 
ligfateneth out of the one part nnder 
heaven, shineth unto the other jmt' 
Hodei heaven ; so shall also the Sou 
of man ba in hia day. 

35 But • first must he suffer many 

s MatI.1B.15. i Mill.34,33,&c. Uir.LI. 
tl. e.31.8. ( MBr.a^l. C9.32. 

LUKE. [A. D. St 

thing!, and be rqectettoirfhia fof 

you are not lo expect ihe uppearance of 

ciilics Bt prenHt incline to Ihii lutei 
BilerprolaUon. TliB ancient Terriona 
chiefly Ibllaw the former. 

22. Tie dagt nU tow. He here 
takes occasion to direct Ihe minds of 
hie disdpIeB to the dsye ofvengsmce 
' which were abont to fall on tho Jewieh 
nation. Heavy and calajnitoue daya 
'shall befall the Jewish people, and yon 
will desire a deliverer. 1 Yt lAoU de- 
You who are now my professed 

follow en 

Who 1 

the dayt of Sa 
ei man here meaos the Meitiah, with- 
>ul afiirming that j^ wBa the Mesoah. 
Such shall be the calamitiea of those 
times; so great shall be the aQictioos, 
and peraacutioaB, that you will greatly 

A d^iverer — one » 

kau expected the Meeaiah . ... 

and who should dehver you from ibe 
power of your enemies. And at that 

n sbaU ri 

lobe the 

In view of this, be lakes occasion to 
oaution them asainst being led astray 
by them, f ¥e ihall not tee ii. Ye 
■hall not see such a day of deliverance 
— «uch a Messiah as the nation has ex- 
pected, and Bucb an interpoMtion as 
you would desire. 

^ 23,24. And lAeg tiail lay, ii.c. Many 
mlse Chnsts, accordizig to Josepbua, 
spfMired about that time atlemftinx ts 

36 And as it was ' in ihe day* 
of Noe, BO shall it be also in »e 
days of th« Sod of man. 

27 They did eat, ibey diwik, 
they mairied wives, they were g;iven 
in marriage, undl ttie day that Noe 
entered into the ark, and the flood 
came and destroyed them all. 

98 Likewise also as it was m the 
days of Lot; they did eat, they 
drank, they hon^ht, they sold, Ihey 
planted, they builded : 

lead away the people. See Notes on 


Mark vl 

26, 2T. See Note, Matt. iiiv. 37~3a. 

28—30. Tlav did tat, &c. They 
were busy in lbs affairs of this life, as 
if nothing nere about to happen. 1 Tin 
tame day, &.C. See Gen. iiz. 23 — 25- 
1 1t rallied. The word mtgU have 
been rendered he rained. In Genesis 
it is said that the Jjird did it. f i^trt 
and briBulone, God destroyed Sodom 
great wickednees. Hs 



it for Li 

the example of Sodom 
men to deter them from commilliag 
great IransgresaianB, and «a a/uU prtcj 
mat God will punish the guilty. See 
Jnde 7; also W L 10; Jer.iiiii. H. 
Yel in ovorthtowitig il, God used na- 
tural meaiui. He is not to be supposed 
tohavecreated fire and brimstone ko-tbe 
occasion, but tohBveilirKCed the natural 
means at his disposal for their ovenhrowi 
— as be did not create the waters lo drowo 
the world, but merely broke up the 
founlaina of the great deep, and opened 
the windows of^beaven. Sodom and 
Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim (Deut. 

plain where is now the Dead Sea, at 
the southeast of Palestine, and ioto 
which the river Jordan Hows, Ther 
were built on a plain which abounded, 
doubtless, as all that region now does — 
._ L.-..._. ... — tuoAtha, which is easily 

■■■'■—'■ bums with ■ 

ise ' ' fire and 
V form of K 

Co i^t^le 

4. D. 33.] 


39 But the suoe da^ that Lot 
went out " of Sodomi it rained fire 
and brimatone from heaven, and de- 
stroyed ihem all. 

30 Eren thus shall U be in the 
daj when the Son of man is le- 

31 Id that dey, he vhich shall be 
upon the house-top, and his stuff in 
the house, let him not come down 
lo take it away : an t he that is in 
the field, let him likewise not return 

33 Remember Lot's ' irife. 

33 Whosoerer * shall seek to 
save his life, shall lose it; and who- 
soever shall lose his life, shall pre- 

having the bidsU of sulphur ; sod may 
denote s volcanic eruption, or luif 
biimiDg like Ihul of nsphlha. Tbere 
is no unprab&bility in suppoeing that 
this deBiruclioQ waa acoompliohed by 
ligbming, which ignited the naphtha; 
or ibatilwss a volcanic eruplion, wbtcii 
b^ direction of God, overthrew ihe 
wicked cilica. T Fram heavea. By 
■ommand of God; or from the sky. 
To the people of Sodom, il bad tht ap- 
pearanct of coming from heaven, as all 
lolcjuiic Brupiicna would have. Hun- 
Jreds of towns have been overthrown 
qi tbie way ; and all by the agency of 
God. He rules'baelemenia, andmatea 
them his instruments, at his pleasure, 
in accomplishing the deBlruction of the 

30. EiHnieAiu, JLC. Dealruc lion came 
Upon the old world, and upon Sodom 
nddtnly ; wher ■■- --..!. 

31. See Matt. uiv. 17, 18. 

32. Remanber Loft wife. See Gen. 
lii. S6. She looked back— she delayed 
—perhaps she duiral to take Bometluna 
Willi her ; and God made her a monu-. 
ninnt of liis diepleaaurB. Jesus direcied 
km dirdplcs when they eaw llie calam- 

* shall be two men in one bed ) dM 
one ehall be taken, and the other 
shall be left. 

35 Two vtomen shall be grinding 
together ; the one shall be taken. 
and the other left. 

36 Two ' men shall be In tht 
field ; the one shall be taken, ^ni 
the other left. 

37 And they answered and said 
unto him. Where, Lord I And he 
said unto them, Wheresoever the 
body i$, I thither will the eagles btt 
gathered ti^ther. 


AND he spake a parable unto 
them, io Ihia end, &at men 
ought ■ always to pray, and not to 

• 30.30. gpi.tiis. i(^ 

i 31.36. BD.ia.13. Ep.e.ja Ph.4«. 


iliea comini^ upon the Jews to fles 
the mountains. Malt. iiiv. 16. L 
bere charges ihem (O be in haste — not i 
look back— .not lo delay-~but to escapi 
quickly, and 10 remember that by de 
laying, the wife of Lot lost her life 

33. See Man. i. 39. 

34~3G, See Mati, 

'. See Matt 

, 28. 

1 Wher, 

Lord t Where, or in what direction 
sball these calainitiea cornel The an- 
swer implies where is the most guiii 
and aickedneti. Eagles flock where 
tbere is prey. So the armies flock lo 
the place where there is the most wick- 
' by tbia their thougbls t 

place of eminent wi^ednesp 
place, ihersforB, whsre these i 
might be expected to bsgin. 


ikutnd. Toal 

all times. That is, i 

gleet regular staled se 

t Almtyt. Al 

IS of prayer ; 

able Providences — as alHiciions of sig. 
nal blessiDgB, to seek God in prayer, 
and we must oIiHiyt maintain a spirit 
of pra/er, or be in a proper frame lo 
lift up om- hearta lo God lor hie bless- 
ing. 1 Noi to faint. Not to grow 
wesrt or give over. To persevere i* 


S Saying, There -waa * in a eihr 
a judge, which feared not God, 
neither reeiu^ed ni»i : 

3 And Uierewas a widow in that 
eity ; and she eame nnto him, say- 
ing Avenge me of mine advenuir. 

4 And he would not for awhile : 
ImtaAerward he said within hin- 

Ihc iiiplication. The parable is 6e«ga- 
ed n teach ns, that though our prayen 
ahovld Ions sppenr to be uiuuuiweied, 
we ahould pcraerere, and not grow 
weaiy in mpplicadoD (o God. 

2. A judge. One sppoinled by law 
to deieiminecsuieBbrougbtbelbrehim. 
Thia judge had no raverenCB for God, 
and consequBatly no regard for the 
lighta of man. These two things go 
blether. He that haa no regard tor 
God, can be eipeetsd to hare none for 
man. And oar Lord has here indirectly 
taught u» what ought to b« the charao- 
ter of a judge— that hewhould fear God, 
and regard the rights of man. Compare 
Deut. i. 16, IT. t Begardtd man. 
Cared nni for man. Had no respect for 

be opinions, or the righta of man. 

3. A vidino. TblB 18 a circumatance 
that gives increeeing interest to the par. 
able, iudges were hound to show pe. 
cnliar attention to the widows. Jer. 
iiii. 3. The reason of this was thai 
the; were defenceless ; were common. 
If poor ; and were liable to be oppreaa. 
ed, by those in power. T Avenri 
Thia would have been better tratislal 

' Do me justice against my adversary, 
or vindicate me from him.' It does not 
denote vengeance, or revenge; but 
■imply that she wiabed to have jutiiee 
done her—a tbinf which this judge woa 
>«ti<l to do, but which it seems he had 
no diapoaition to do, T Adveti^. One 
opposed in law. In this case, it seems, 
that he was unwilling to do justice — 
and ^probably cook advantage of her 
condition to oppress her. 

*, 5. For aahiU. Probably this 
means for a eoiuidtrable lime. 11 was 
his duly to attend to the claims of jus- 
dee, but this was long delayed. 1 
IVitiM iimtdf. He thougbt, or came 
to a conclusion. 1 Thongs 1 ftar not, 
du:. This comsins the reason why he 
attended ti- the caas at all. It was not 
from any regard to justice , or to the 

• of his ol 

CE. [A.D.33. 

self; Though I fear not God, wm 
regard man ; 

5 Yet, because this widow trou- 
bleth me, I will aTenge h^, test by 
her continual coming she weary me. 

6 And the Lord said, Hear wliat 
: God avenge* 

avoid tta^^. And yel his conduct in 
this thing ini^t have appeared very u|^ 
right ; and posubly very strictly ac- 
cording 10 taw, and to justice. How 
many aclions are performed that oypaar 
BeJI, when the doers of ihoae acnons 
know that they are mere hypocrisy 1 
And bow many are performed from tns 
basest and lowest motives of feZjffAnai, 
that have the appearance of eatemal 
propriety, and even of goodness! T5t( 
•Nary mc. The word used here in tbe 
original, is thai which was uaed to de 
note the wounds aod bruises caused by 
htaert who beat each other, and black- 
en their eyea, and disable them. See 
Notes on 1 Cor. ii. ZT. Hence it 
means any veiatious and (roubleaome 
importunity that takes the time, and 
disables from other employment. 

6. Htar, &.c. Give altention to this 
and derive from it practical instruction. 

7. Shall «( God awnge, tec. We 
are not to suppose ihat the character of 
God is at alt represented by that judpe, 
or that hit principles of conduct arc at 
all like those of the judge. This para 
ble shows us, conclumvety, that many 
ciminutanceM of a parable are tiot to be 
inlerpreled closely. They are mere ap. 
pendoges to the nanative. The great 
truth which our Saviour dtilgned to 
teach is what we ought to endeavor to 
lind. In this caae there can be no 
doubt what this truth is. He has him 
self told us thai it is ihal men imgAI at- 
vajfftopray and Ttol to faint. Thia ha 
leaches by ihe eiample in the parable. 
And the areument which it imphes Is 
thia. Ist. A poor widow, by her per 
severance only, obtained &om an nn- 
JOBI man what olbenvise she would 
not have obtained. 2d. God is not on 
jusl. He is good, and disposed to d 
Justice, and to bestow mercy. If^ 
iherefore. this icickei nufi by perse- 
vering prayer was induced to do justice, 
how much more shall Cad, who it 
good, and who is not acttiaied bv anv 

his own elect, which ery Aaj and 

Bight UDto him, though he hear long 

with them 1 

8 I tell you that he will arengn 

■ Pl«A Be.lOST. SFe.3.S^. 

tnch aelfish and base pnnrJpleB, do jns- 
lica to them who apply to taim! T 
.Ikhj-c. Do justice to, or vindicate 
ihom. This mav hiive a two-fold refe- 
'«nce. lal. To the diBciples in the lime 
•f J«il>, who weie about to be op- 
tneitiedBnd peraeculed, uid over whom 
calamities were about to come, oi if 
Qod did Dol regard their cries, and had 
Ibrasken them. To ibom Jesus gives 
^hs assurance Out God leoiUd heir their 
peliltODB, and came forth to vindicate 
Ihem; uid thai, notwithstanding all 
these eaWnities, He would yet appear 
far their dehvennce. 3d. It may have 
a more gentrai meaning. The people 
of God are often oppressed, calumniat- 
ed, persecuted. They are few in num- 
ber and feeble. They seem to be al- 
most forsaken and cast down, and their 
enemies triumph. Yet in due time, 
God will hear their pravers, and will 
come forth for their rindication. And 
even if it should not be w Ihu lift, vet 
he will do it speedily in the day of judg- 
ment, when he will pronouDce them 
blessed, and receive ihem for ever to 
himself. 1 Hii oan eitet. People of 
God, Saints, Christiana ; so called, be- 
cause God has duutn them to be his. 
The term is usually given to the true 
fbilowers of God in (he scriptures, and 
is a term of tdfecdon, denoting his great 
and peculiar love in chooang them out 
of a world ofsimiets, and conferring on 
them grace, and mercy, and eternal 
Ufe, See 1 Thee. i. 4 ; Col, iii. 19; 1 
Pet. L 2 ; Eph. i. 4, It signifies here 
that they are peculiarly dear to him — 
Jhal he feels a deep interest in their 
welbre, and that he will, therefa e, be 
ready to come Ibrth to their aid. The 
Judge felt no special interest in that 
widow, yet he heard her; God feels a 
particular regard, a tender love for hia 
elect, and theretore he will hear and 
nre. 1 Which ay day laid night. 
This eipresses one striking characteris- 
lic of lli elect of God ; ihey pray, and 

Srsy constantly. None can have evi- 
iince that he is chosen of God who is 
Dot a man of prayer. One of the best 
* marks by which the elec^ lovb of 
Vol. n. — la 


them speedily. * NeverthelesB, wb 
^le Son of man cometh, shall * 
find faith on the earth I 

God is known, is that it dispose* us to 
prayer. This passage Bnpposes that 
when the elect of God ate In trouble, 
and pressed down with calamities, ihcy 
wSl cry unto him ; and it aflirms that, 
if they do, he will hear their cries, and 
answer their requests. 1 Though h* 
bear long mith thai. This passage has 
been variously interpreted ; and there 
is some variety of reading in the msnu- 
scripts. Some read, ' WiU not God 
avenge his elect T Will he linger in 
their cause t' But the most natural 
meaning is, ' Although he defers long 
to avenge them, and greatly tries ih'ir 

tries their faith, he Bujfcrs their perno 
cutions and trials to continue a long 
time; and it almost m>far> aa if he 
Yet he will do it. 

and will s 


_. Ay vindicate them ; and that 
perhaps when they were nearly 
ready lo give over, and sink into dea- 
pain This may refer to the deliverance 
of the disciples from their approaching 
trials and persecutions among (he Jews; 
or in general to the efiect that God will 
Interpoae and ud hia people. liVenr- 
Mcieo. But. Nolwithetaruhng Ihia. 
Though this is Irae that God ahaU 
avenge his elect, yet will he find hi* 
tiect faith/al, expecting himt The 
danger is not that God will be un&itb- 
fill. He will surely be true to his pro 
mises. But the danger is that his elect 
his afflicted people, will be discouraeed 

It persevere 

t Him 

^_ „, under heavy trials, i 

into despondency- The sole meaning 
of this phrase, therefore, is, that then 
u mare danger that hiM pecjple lamid gram 
uearg thatt that God anuld ht/onndtut- 
Uithfal, and fail to avenst hit elttt. 
For this cause Christ spoke the para- 
ble 1 and by the deiigit of the parable 
this passage ia to be interpreted. 1 Sim 
of man eometh. This probably refers Uj 
the approechiiig destructioii of Jerusa 
lem— ue conuug of the Messiah, b) 
his mighty power, to abolish th« v* 

8 Andlie spake thia parable unto 
eeriain which ' tnisteil in them- 
selves ' that they were righteous, 
aud despised others : 

MmelimeB taten lo denote tie _ 
•r reJigion ; and il has been understood 
in this sense here. But Ihera is a close 
eonnesion in' what Christ aays, and it 
>houtd be understood as referring lo 
what he said before. The truth ihal, 
he hod been leacUng was that God 
would deUver hia people from their ca- 
lamities, and eave them, though he 
suffered them to be long iriedT He 
aslia them here, whether, when he 
' came, be should lind thl> faith, or a 
belief of lAit'lrufA among his followers ? 
\Vould they be found persevering in 
prayer, and helieeaig that God would 
yel a»enee ihem ; or would they lease 
to prayoJiooyj, and To' " ""-' 


10 Two » 

. , .-... ThisiSDOt 

be understood, therefore, as aflirm- 
ing that when Christ comes to judg- 
ment, there will be few Christians, and 
(he world be overrun with wickedness. 
That may he true ; but il ' 

of Judea. The discussion had particu- 
lar reference to their trials and persecu- 
tions in that land. This queeizon im- 
plies thai in those (rials, many professed 
disciples might faint and Cum back, and 
many of his real followers almost lose 
sight of this great (ruth, and begin to 
■uquire whether God would interpose 

may be asked respectina any other re- 
markable visiladon of the Son of God 
m afgiciion. When tried and perso- 
t believe that Gi 

enge uaT Do aw pray always 
I faint T Have ue faith to h< 

■n -of his 

;hat though clouds 

-ound about him, yet right 
and judgment are the habitati 
throne ! And when storms of persecu- 
tion asBiul us, can me gu to !iod, and 
oonfidenll}' commit our cause to him, 
and believe that he will bring forth our 
risbteousness as the hgh(, andourjudg- 

9. (7B(o«nii'i. Untosome. 'iWhIA 
I'mslal m llieM$elva. Who conceited 
if themaelveB ; or who supposed that 

pray ; the one a Pharise*, . 
tbe other a publican. 
1 The Phansee stood and pra]r> 

^ or, mi b4ing righutmt- 


They vainly supposed they had then 
selves comphed with the demarwls of 
the law ol^ God. 1 Dapiird athen. 
Others who were not as citernolly 
righteous as themselves. This was 
the character of the Pharisees. They 
(rusted in their outward conformity to 
(he ceremonies of the law. They con- 
sidered all who did not do that as sin- 
ners. Thia, moreover, is the true cha- 
racter of eelf-iightcDusnees. Men of 
that stamp always despise all otben 
They think they ore far above ihem in 
hohnesa, and arc disposed to say (a 
theni, Stand by thyself, for I am hohei 
than thou. Jsa. liv. 5. True rehgioa, 
on the contrary, is humble. Those 
who trust in Christ for righteousness, 
feel that they are, in themselves, poor, 
and miserable, and guilty ; and they 
are willing to admit that others may bs 
much better than themselves. Certain 
it b, they deapite no one. They love 
alt men; they regard them, however 
vile, as the creatures of God, and at 
going to eternity, and are disposed to 
treat them well, and lo aid them in 
their journey toward another world. 

10. Tketemple. Intooneofthe eourta 
of (he temple — the court where prayer 
was commonly offered. ■ See Hole, 
Matt. III. 13. "SA Fharltee. See 
Note, Matt. iii. 7. ^ FabUcan. Set 
Note, Matt, v, 46. 

11, Stood and prayed thu> milh ftilK- 
self. Some have proposed to rende: 
(his, 'stood by himself and prayed. 
In this way it would be characlcrislii 
of the sect of the Pharisees, who dread- 

e contact of others 

, as poUuling, 
<o say (o all 

and who « 

Sland by yoi ._^_._. .. 

rendered i(. Bu( it la doubtful whethei 
the Greek will allow ihis construction 
If rot, it means he said over to hirasell 
what he had done, and what was the 
ground on which he expected the favoi 
of God, T God, I thank thee. There 
was still in the prayer of the Pharisee 
an appear! '^ — ' —'--:— "= ■'- 

■ ofreal relifpon. Ha ii 


4.D 33] 


tdtlnuiwithliiiiiAelf; God, I thank 
Ihee that I am not ■ as odier nu 
are, extortionara, unjust, adi^terei 
oi even as this publican : 
■ U.WU. B.t.3.17. 

not pioreea to cliim that hi had made 
Umteff better than otbeia. He was 
■Filling [o acknowledge that God IieuI 
done II for him, and that Ho had a right 
lo big gralilude for il. — Hypocrites are 
often the moat orthodox in opinion of 
any men. I'hey know the truth, and 
adntii it. The; use il freqneDllym theii 
prayera and coaveraaiion, Tliey will 
even persecute thoae who happen to dif- 
fer from ihem in opinion, and who may 
be really wrong. We are not to judge 
of thepielirof men by the tact thai they 
■dmit the tmlU, or even that they use 
u ofteo in their prayers. Il is, bow- 
ever, not wrong to thank God lliat he 
ha« kept us from the jgroaa aina which 
other men commit. But it should not 
be done publicly like the Pharisee ; nor 
shoald il be done forgetting still that 

These were the faults of the Fhariaeea! 
^ Extoriumert. Rapacious; avaricious; 
who (ttke awBV the gooda of oUiora by 
force and violence- It means, also, 
those who take advantage of the neces- 
-^■-— li others, the poor aod the " 

_.-e diBtingoished from t __ 

cause they who are unjust may havi 
» of honesty ; in the olbc 

first, thai he did no injury to others; 
and secondly, that he attended failh- 
fijlly to the external dutica of piety. 

_e did. The first thing was thol .... 
fested twice a week. This was proba- 
bly the Jewish custom. The Fhariseec 
are said to have faaled regularly on the 
second and fifth days of every week in 
private. This was in addilum to the 

tubhc days of faotino required in ihe 
iw of Mosea; and they, therefore, 
nsde more a matter of nuri! of it be- 
eaaae it waa voluntary. 1 1 give tithei. 
k thks raesiu the (enib part nf « thintc. 

12 I &Bt twite in tbe week, I 
glive tithes of all that 1 possess. 

13 And the publican, standina 
afar off, wotild not lift np so much 

The (enlh pari he devoted to the sar- 
vice of religion, or to the use of the 
poor. A tenth part of the poeseaaioiu 
of the Jews was required for the sup- 
port of the Levites. Num. iviii. 21, 
In additiOD to the tithes required atricliy 
by law, the Phariaeca had tithed every 
thing which they possessed — even the 


. 42. It was Uii 

he so particularly 

probably ot. ._ 
prided himself. 

Coved to be strictly nquirtd in tba 
w, it had more the appearance of 
great piety i and, therefore, he panicu 
larly dwell onit. ^Ifotim. TUsmay 
mean uther all which I tace, or all 
which I ^ain or acquire. It is not ma- 
terial which meaning be considered tbe 

The rehgibn of the Pharisee, there- 

others, in pretending to live 
and 2d. In a regular observance of all 

barm lees, in 

of religion. 
fault consisled in relying on this kind 
of righteousness; in not feeUnp and 
acknowledging that he was a sinner: 
in not seeking a religion that should 
dwell in the liaiTl and regulate the feel 
inf[$; and in making public and OFlen 
tatious profaesions c^ his own goodness 
Most of all was this abominable m the 
sight of God, who looki into tht heart, 
and who sees wickedness there when 
the external actions may be blameless; 
and we may learn from the case nf the 
Pharisee, 1st. Thai it is not the man 
who has the most orthodox belief, thsl 
has. of course, tbe moat inely ; Id. 
That men mar be extemallj/ moral, 
and not be righteous in Ihe sight ol 
God; 3d. That they may be ««-ji ex 
act in the eitemal duliea of rehgion. 
and even go beyond the strict letter ot 
the law ; that they may assume a grcB 
ippearance of sanctity and stdl be 
ilrangers to true piety; and 4th. That 
jsientntion in rehgion, or a boaatimg 
before God of what we are, and of what 
we have done, ia abommable in his 
sight This sp<h1s every thins. '■'"' >f 

Dg.i.z«it,,Coogle — 

we LV 

u AtieyM nntohearen, liat ainote* 
qpon his breaat, tajing, God be 

merciful to me a sinner. 

14 I lell you, this man went 
' down to bis house justified rather 

than the other : for ' every one that 
exalteth himself shall be abased ; 
and he that hnmbleth himself shall 
be exalted. 

15 And ' they brought unto him 
alto injants, that he would touch 
diem : but when hit disciples saw 
it, they rebuked there. 

16 But Jeeua called them unln 
htm, and said, Suffer little children 
to come unto me, and forbid them 
not : for of euch is the kingdom of 

17 Verily 1 say unto you, Who- 

Che life ihoald be tolerably blameleaa, 
md if there ahould be real piety. 

13. Slandii^ afar off. A&r off from 
the temple. The place where prayers 
were offered in ihe lemple was Ihe court 
of women. The Pharisee advanced lo 
The side of the court nearCHt to the 
temple, or near aa he could; the pub- 
lican atood on the other side of Ihe same 
court if ha waa a Jew, or in the court 
of the Gentilea if he wtis a pagan, as 
far as possible from the temple, being 
conBcious of hia unworChinesfl to ap- 

( roach the aacred place where God had 
is holf babilBtion. ^ So much a* hit 
eyei, &.C. Conscious of hisgui 
telt that he was 

Mpq who are conscion) 
Gi ibeir eyes on (he g 
Ufmhitlnvast. Anexpt 

and shame 
IS looking up. 
if guilt always 
tllU. f SmBlt 

dial of the Pharisee. He made no boaal 
•f hia own righteouaneaa towards God 
Br man. He felt that he waa a sinner, 
■nd, faeling it, waa willing to acknow. 
'-'-- ■ This is the kind of prayer 
bo Bceeptahle to God. When 
willing to confess and forsake 
, we shaU find mercy. The 
waa wjlhog to do this in any 


ICE. [A.I>.3> 

soever shall not receive tbO'kiiv- 
dom of God aa a httle child, ' ehdl 
in nowiee enter theniin. 

18 And ■ a cerU^n ruler asked 
him, saying, Good Master, what 
shall I do to inherit f.tema! life ! 

19 And JesuB said unt« bini. 
Why callest thou me good 1 Non* 
M good save one, that is God. 

20 Thou knoweat the f com» 
mandmenls, Do not commit adul 
lery, Do not kill, Do not steal, D» 
not bear false witness. Honour Ibj 
father and thy mother. 

31 And he said. All these have I ' 
kept from my youth up. 

33 Now when Jesus heard these 

things, he said unto him, Yet lack- 

est thou one thing: sell all that thou 

iPB.131,2. ■' -■ 

V!,ix. / De. 

place ; in the presence of any persons , 
amidst the multitudes of the temple, or 
alone. He felt moat that Gad van a 
witneas of his actions ; and he was wil- 
ling, therefore, to confess hia sine before 
him. And while we should not teek to 
do this puiUdy. yet we should be will- 
ingatall limes " to confess and bewail 
our manifold BUis and transgressions, to 
the end that we may obtain forgiveness 
of the same by God's infinite goodness 
and mercy." It is not dishonorable to 
make acknowledgment, when we have 
done wrong. No man is ho much 4s- 
honored as he who is » sinner, and 
is not wiQing to confess it ; ho who has 
done wrong, and yet attempts to am- 
ceal the fauU — ihua adding hvpocrisy to 
his other crimes. 

14, lietlmu. The PharifK»s would 
have said Ihst the first man here waa 
approved. Jesua assures thern that they 
judged erroneously. God judges of 
this differently from men. 1 Jtal^teO. 
Accepted, or approved of God. Th« 
word justify means to declare, or treat 
as, rkbleous. In this caee it means 
manifesily that in their prawTs to God, 
the one was approved, and the other 
nol ; the one went down irilh the fevor 
of God irt answer to lus pi ilinns, ibfi 
other not. H For everg im S-c. 3W 
Luke liv. 11. 

IS-M. See Matt. m. 13 ■»>. 


<.D 39.1 

nait, Mid distribata unto the poor, 
■Bd thou Bhalt have tieasare * in 
heaTCD ; and come, follow me. 

S3 And when he heard this, he 
«n» Teiy soirowfiili foe he was 
▼eij rich. • 

34 And when Jeaue saw that he 
wna very Borrowfiil, he said, How * 
Hardly shall they that have riches 
tnter into the kingdom of God ! 

35 For it is easier for a camel to 
fo through a needle's eye, than for 
■ tiah man to enter into the king- 
dom of God. 

36 And they that heard if said, 
Who then can be saved 1 

27 And he said, The * things 
which are impossible vrith men, are 
possible with God. 

38 Then Peter said, Lo, we have 
left all, and ^ce. 

29 And he said unto them. Verily 
I say unto you, there is no man that 
bath ' left house, or parents, or bre- 
tbri'n, or wife, or children, for the 
Itln^om of God's sake, 

30 Who shall not receive raani- 
fotd raoie in this present lime, and in 
the world to come life • everlasting. 

31 Then he took tudo him the 
twelve, and said unto them. Behold, 
we go up to Jerusalem, and f all 
things that are written by the pro- 
phets concenunr the Son of man 
shall be accomplished. 

• MlltAlfl.SO. ITiAIB. 1 PT.n.98. ITl, 
t.9. cle.7a.l-7. Z«.S.e. c.1.3;. dDe.33. 



lung of the Mesaiah. and whose-prS' 
mcliong are lecarded in ihe Old Tesla- 
mem. 'T5oii of man. The Messiah. 
*— Thejr pradicled that certain things 
■hould lake place respecdng the Mes- 
siah that was to come. See Dan. li. 
U— OT. Isa. Uu. Tha* thm^; Jeaus 
says, afaatl be accoDipliabed in hm — 
he being the San of man, or the Mes- 

34. ITndemtod mmu ^ thae thmg: 
TboDgh thef-werepZain^ revealed, yel 
Mich were their prejudt^, and their 

39 For he shall be delivered • 
nnto the Gentiles, and shall bt 
ntocked, and apitefiilly entreated, 
and spitted on : 

33 And they shall eeon^ Aim, 
and pat him to death : and &o third 
day he shall rise again. ' 

34 And * they nnderstood none 
of these things : and this sayii^ 
was hid from Ihem, neither knew 
they the ^ines which were spoken. 

35 And it < came to pass, that aa 
he was come ni^ unto Jericho, a 
certain blind man aat by tiie way* 
side, begging : 

36 And hearing the multitude 
pass by, he asked what it meant. 

37 And they told him, that Jesua 
of Nazareth passeth by. 

3S And he cried, saying', Jesus, 
thou son of David, have meroy ' on 

39 And they which went before 
rebuked him, that he should hold 
his peace : but he cried * so much 
the more, 7%)u son of David, have 
mercy on me. 

40 And Jesna stood, and com- 
manded him to be brought untc 
him ; and when he was come near, 
he asked him, 

41 Saying, What wilt then that 
I shall do nnto thee 1 And he said. 
Lord, that 1 may receive my eight. 

42 And Jesus said onto him, 
gysaiisirts. C.S3.1. ioi>.\ 

i jno.iB.ia. I 

HDr.IO.«Ac > Pl.BI.I3. 

tuaDmingiuta to believe them, that they 
did not ander^taod them. They ex- 
pected that he would be a temporal 
prince, and a conqueror ; and they weie 
not loaiifij to believe that he would be 
de^vered into the hands of his enemies. 
They did not see how that could bt 
cooBislent with the prophecies. To im 
now, ihene things appear plain, and we 
may hence leani that """" 

may yel a^, — c , > — 

we should leam lo trust m God, ai 
htlt^et jual what he has spoken. B< 

.Google — 

Recore thy aigl.t: liy * fahh bath 
•aved thee. 

43 And immediately he received 

* his sight, and followed him, glori- 

^ii^ ' God : and all the people, 

ivhea they saw it, gave pnuae imto 

* God. 


AND Jetui entered and passed 
through Jericho. '' 
2 And, behold, there wia a man 
• e.17.19. iFi.30^ ccS-H. AcAM. 
n.lR Qa.I.a4. 

35—13. Sae ihispamageeipUinedin 
Matt. u. 29—34. 


1. And Jam entered, iiM. See MalL 
XX. S9. This means perhaps, he ihu 
patting through Jericho when Zac- 
cbeua saw him. His bouse was in Je- 

3. AmmnamedZacdietii. Thename 
Zsccheus in Hebrew, tind ebows ihol this 
man was a Jfin. The publicans, there- 
fore, were not all foreigners. H Chief 
among the pidilicam. Who presided 
over other tax-galherers, or who i-e- 
teiced their coltecliODB and tiBBsmitled 
Ihem to the Roman governmenl. T Me 
KH> rich. Though this class of men 
waa despiaeii, and otlen infamous, yet 
't seems that ibey were sometimes 
wealthy. They sustained, however, the 
eeneTal character of liniteri, because 
thef were particularly odious in the 
eyes of the Jews. See ver, 7. Tho 
Svangolist has thought it worthy of re- 
cord that he was rich, perhaps, becauso 
it was so unlikely that a rtci nun should 
follow so poor and despised a person- 
age H3 Jesus of Nazareth, and because 
g during his 

KB. [A.D.3>. 

named Zacchens, Which was the 

chief among the publicans, and he 
was rich. 

3 And he sought to see JesoA, 
who he was ; and could not for tha 
press, because he was #ttle of Stsi- 

4 And he ran before, and climbeA 
up into a sycamore-tree to see hini { 
for he was to pass that tuoy. 

6 And when Jesus came to the 

imdedJeaus. Earthly princes 

are often bonie in splendid equipages, 
or even canied, as in Esalem nauona, 
in palanquins on the shoulders of men. 
Jesus mingled with the multitude, not 

eeking distinctions of that 

semblance to it. See Note o 




3. Whoh^vxu. Rather 1 

He had that cunosUy whie 

to man to see one of whom they have 
hoard much. It would seem also thst 
in this case mere earwaHy led to hia* 
conversion and iliflE of his family. Com- 
pare 1 Cor. liv, 33 — 35. God makes ueb 
ofevery principle, of curiosity, or sy to pa- 
Ay, or aJDeclion, or hope, or ear, to lead 
uat in tha way of salvation and to im- 

'hich ZoccbeuB did i 
The utmost it seema which t>e aimed 
at was 10 lee Jesus. But instead of 
that, Jesus proposed to remain wkh 
him, and give him thebenetit of his per- 
sonal instruction. It is but one among 
a thousand instances where the Sa- 

beyond the desert, the desire, or the 
eipcctation of men ; and it is not ira- 
proper to learn from this example, that 
solicitude to behold the Saviour will 
id by b 

lied, with his blessing. Jesus 

does not disdain the mansions of tho 
rich, more than he does ihe dwelling 
places of the poor, provided there he a 
liumble heart; and he did not suppciea 



fitKo, he looked ap, and uw ■ him, 

and said unto him, ZaccheuSi make 
haete, and come down ; for to-daj 
[ must abide ' at thy bouse. 

6 And he made haste, and came 
dovn, and received him joyfully. 
■ FLI3B.1-3. »Jno.l4Ja. Ke^sa 

Iheie was left need of lalvoiion in ibc 
bouBB of the rich man Ibiiii Bmoog tht 
poor. He bgI an example lo all hiE 
minisleis, and was not afisid or SBhimed 
to proclaim tiLs ooepel smidBt weallh, 
■nd was nol awed by oiternal splendor 

f. Mummrtd. Found fault, cam- 
pluned. 1 To 6c a gnat. To wmiiui 
with, or to be enlertaiDed by. 1A 
wa that if a (Mner. All publicans 
they regarded as great mnners; and 
the ehi^ of the publicans, therefore, 
hey regaided aa peculiarly wicked. It 
would appnar also from Zaccbeus' con. 
fesson ibat hie characler had been thai 
of an oppresEnve man. But the peopk 

penitent, and thai the MeasiBh came K 
save ihsl which was lost, 
■ 8. Tht half ofny good* I give lo Mi 
b»r. It is not necesHary lo underelani- 
this^as aSirming that thu had been hia 
praciice ; or that he raid this in the way 
of proclaiming his own lighteousness. 
It may be imdereWod rather aa ajmr- 
foie which he then formed under the 
leaching of Chrial. He seems to have 
oeen sensible that he was a sinner. He 
was coniiDoed, as we may auppose, by 
the presence and discourse of Jesus. 
Al first attracted only by curionity, or 
it may be by partial conviclian ibat this 
was the Messiah, he had sought to see 
the Saviour ' ■ ' ' --].-. 

7 And when they aav it, tbej ill 
muTTQured, saying. That ' he wm 
gene to be guest with a man that ia 


been so made that the person i 
was obliged lo pay muct greate 
or BO that hia properly came 1 
handaof the informer. There ar 
ways in which this might bi 

t knov 


ionvmced him of his guilt, 
ie stood snd openly conlesged his 
and expressed his purpose 

hatf hie ill-gotten property to the poor. 
This was not a proclamation of his mm 
righteousneas, nor the gnmnd o( his 
rigfatsouBness, but it was the etidence 
of the sincerity of his repentance, and 
die confession which, with the mouth, 
is made unto salvation, Rom, i. 10. 
^And if I hane taken. His office gave 
htm (he powerof oppressing the people, 
and it seema thai he did not deny Ihat 
ilhsdboen done. 1 itv/aZsEOcntnUwii. 
'^^"" is the same wordwhich in Luke 
m rendered, " neither acimse any . 

Tins is 

that this had been always his practice, 
for no man would wenlonly exiort mo 
ney from another, and then resiore him 
St once ibur limes aa much. But it 
means ihal he wss made sensible of his 
guilt ; prhaps thai hia mind bad been 
a conaiderable lime perplexed in the 
matter ; and thai now he wes resolved 
lo make the restoration. This was ihe 
evidence of his penilence and convsi- 
sion. And here it may be remarked, 
that this is always an indispatable evi- 
dence of aman'sconversion 10 God. A 
man who baa hoarded ill-golten gold, if 
bebecomesaCbrialian, wdl he disposed 
with il to do good. A man who baa in- 
jured others — who baa cheated them, or 
defrauded Ihem, even by due fotmi <^ 
lav, must, if be be a Chrisdan, be willing 
as nr aa poaaible to make restoration. 
ZaccheuB, for any thing that ^pears to 
lbs contrary, may have obtained this 
property by ihe decisions of courts o( 
justice ; but he now felt that il was 
wrong ; and though ihe defrauded men 
could not Iwoilir recover il, yet hia con- 
science told Dim that in order to hia be- 
in^ a true peiAeni he must make resti- 
tution. — One of the beat evidences of • 
genuine revival of rehgion ib when it 
produces this result. And one of the 
surest evidences that a profaied peni- 
tent is not B (me one, IS vvhen ha 
is not diBpoaed lo follow the exam- 
ple of this son of Abraham, and make 
proper reetitution. 1 Fmr-fald. Foui 
limCB as much as had been unjustly 
taken. This wss the amount thai was 
reqniredinthe Jewish law wlien a sheep 
had been stolen, and a man was con- 
victed of the tbefl by trial at law. Kx, 
ixii. 1. If ho<Dii/eM«{ilhimBslf, with- 
out beinif ddeeteJ snd triad, lie hid 

140 LU 

half of my ^oods I give tt> the 
poor ■ ' and if 1 havfc taken any 
thing from any man by ^ false ac- 
cuaation, 1 restore ' Aim fourfold. 

9 And JesuB said unto him, This 
'day IB Balvation came to ^ia house, 

fbisomuch as he also is a son '' of 
Abraham. ^ 

10 For 'ihe Son of mania come 

■ n.ll.l. » CEI.S2.L 
_e«^ij.ft; ^ 

Onlv to restore what wbb siolen. and 
addloilBfifLhpsrlofiisvalue. Num. 
V. 6, 7. The sincerity of Zacchaua' re- 
pentuice woBmamlest by UU being will- 
ing ti) make reatoralion uireat as :f 
it had been proved against mni, avinc- 
ms hiM iflue of the wrong, and his 
purpoea to make full restitution. The 
JewB were allowed to take «o intereit 
of their brethren (Lbt. iiv. 35. 56,) ajid 
ihia in the reEiaon why that is 
tioned aa ibe measure of the n . 
When injury of this kind ia done in 
other places, the least that ia proper is 
lo restore the principle and interest; 
for the injured perHon has a right to all 
that his property would have procured 
him, if ii had not been unjustly taken 

9. SolKitian u conic to thit ioiae. 
Tlus family. They this day received 
the bleaainga of the gospel, and -became 
interested in the Afessiah's kingdom. 
Salvation cmnTaencet when men iru'" 
receive Christ, and their sins are pt 
doned : it is compleied when the soul is 
•anctined and received up into heaven. 
' Forojmurf. Beoause. For be baa 
given evideJtee thai 



Abraham. Noi ., .. 

receiving the Christ whose day Abra- 
ham saw and was glad (John viii. 56), 
be has ahown himself to be worthy to 
le called his son. Abraham was an 
Mample qf disiinguished piety ; the fc- 
(her of the faithful (Rom. iv. 11.). aa 
A'ellaslheancestoroftheJews. They 
were called liis sans who were descend- 
ed front him, and particularly they who 
retBiMcd bim. In this place the phrase 
!■ used in both aenses. 
ID. 80s Matt. xriiL U. 

iK. iX. 0. St 

to leek and t) save that which wan 

II And as they heard these 
thinsa, he added and spake a paxa- 
ble TiecBusa he waa nigh to Jem 
salem, and because ' they thought 
that the kingdcoa of God should 
immediately appear. 

11. Ht tpait a faraUt, Tfuaparable 

n Matt, i: 

the parable of the iaieitH i: 

I4-.38. But h is not the same. They 
differ in the following respocts : That - 
was spoken after he had entered Jeru- 
salem — this while on his way there. 
Thai was dehvered on the mount 01 
Olives — this in the house of ZaccbeuB. 
That was delivered to leach them the 
necessily of a^fnrvmg the talents coro 
milted 10 them — this was for a differen* 
design. He was now near Jerusalem. 
A great muldlude attended him. Hia 
disciples regarded him as the Messiah, 
and by this they underatood a temporal 
prince wtio should deliver them from 
the dominion of the Romans and set 
them at liberty. Thev were aniiom 
for that, and suppoaed that the time was 
at hand, and ihm row, as soon as be 
inlered Jeruaalem, he t 

in deaign 01 

this parable. To do that.' be leils them 
of a man who had a right to the king- 
dom, yet who, before taking possession 
of it, went into another kingdom to re 
eeivo a confirmation of his title — ihua 
intimating that Ae would also go«wa7 
before he would completely set up his 
kingdom, ver. 13 ; be tells them that 
this nobleman left his servants properly 
to be improved in hie absence — aa it 
would have his disciplea' talcnla to be 
used in his service, ve. 12, 13 ; he telli 
them that this nobleman was rejected 
by his own citizens, ver. 14, as he would 
be b]^ the Jews : and that he recravsd 
the kingdom and called ihem to an ac- 
count, as he also would the Jews aad 
hia own disciples. 1 Berattie he ou 
nigh Id Jgnuaioit. The capital of iIm 
country, and where they supposed ha 
would probably set up bis kingdom, 
f n* Aingdna ^ GW rtoali imMciwl* 


13 He cud fliMefore, A certain 
Dobleman weot inio a Car country, 
to receive for himself a kingdom, 

13 AndhecalleilliistenBervaiils, 

a title, t 

&,c. This expreaeion 
the Blale of ibmga in Jndsa in tha time 
of our Saviour. Jndea was subject to 
the RomanB, having been conquered by 
Pompey about sixty yeara before Cbrial. 
It was. however, governed by Jsua who 
heldtliegovemtncnl under the Romans. 
It was neceesaiy that the prince or king 
sbould receive a recognition of hia right 
m by the Roman emperor, 
lo this that be should go to 
nome; or, as it ia said here, that he 
might receive to himself a kingdom. 
This actually occurred several timee. 
Arctielaus, a son of Herod the Great, 
■bout tbe time of the birth of Jeans, 
went to Rome lo obtain a conlirmalion 
of the title which hie biherhad left him^ 
and HDCceeded in doing it. Herod the 
Great, hia father, bad done the same 
thing befiire to implore the aid and 
countenance of Aniony. Agrippa, the 
younger, grandson of Herod the Great, 
went to Rome alao ■ - ■ - 
of Til " 

6e<pentiy occurred, would make ihu 
parable perfectly intelligible to those to 
whom it was addressed. By the noble- 
man here ia undoubtedly repreBenled 
the Messiah, the Lord Jeaua Christ: bv 
nia going into a fer country, Is denoted 
his going to heaven, to the right hand 
of hie Father, btfm he should /vKy set 
up his kingdom and eslabbah Jus reign 
■mong men. 

13. Ten lenanti. Nothing in par- 
ticular is denoted by the number (m. It 
b a circumatance intended to keep up 
tiifl narrative. In general, b^ these 
•arranla, our Saviour denolee his disci- 
ples, and intends lo leach ua thatjaletits 
■re <[rren ns to be improved, fiir which 

and delivered them ten ' pouada, 
and said unto them, OcRupj (ill I 

14 But * his citizens hated him, 
and sent a mess^e after him, say- 

it his n 

t Ten poHndi. The word I 
poaiid here denotes lbs Hebrew miiuk, 
which was equal to about tSS.OS. The 
pounds here denote the talents which 
God baa given to his servants on earth 
to improve, and for which they must 

f've an sccotml in the day of judgment. 
Occupy tilX I come. 1 be word ocmpy 

^— "--' — — . \j ^lypottet' "~ ■' 

, employ ii. ... .__ 

. . , of increasing it, or of making 

pro^l on it. The directior — 

this money sr -" ' " 

' So JeauB commands hi 
iprvwe their lalems; t 
X of them ; t< 


to meet him. See 1 Cor.iii. 7. Eph. iv, 7. 
14. Bvthiaciiitena. His iiii/eeta, ot 
the people whom he wss desirous of 
mbng. ^ Hated hbn. On account ot 
bis characler, and their fear of oppres. 
sion. This was the case with regard lo 
Archelaua the Jewish prince, who went 
to Rome to be confirmed in big king- 
dom. T Sent a maiage, laying, dec. 
His disconlenled subjects fearing whH 
would bo the character of his rei^n, 
sent an embassy lo re monalrale. against 



obtain from Augustus 


Urmation of his title li 
part of Jadea which had been left him 
by bia father, Herod the Great. The 
Jews know'ng hia character (coropare 
Matt. ii. 22„ sent en embaaay of fifty 
men to Rome to prevail on Augnilui 
not to confer the title on bun, but ihej 
could not succeed. He Ttetmd the 
kingdom, and reigned in Judea in the 
place of his lather. As this bet was 
ffittt in the memory of the Jews, il 
makea this parable much more striking 
By this part of 't, Cbrial deugned to de- 
note that the Jews would reject kat — 
tbs Meaeiah — and would aay that tiwy 
did not deaire him to reign ovar IhoUi 

Ui . 

Sa^, We win not bare thie man to 
reigD OTer aa. 

15 And it came to pasd, 
when Be was returned, having re- 
ceived the kingdom, then he com- 
manded these servants to be called 
unto him, to whom he had glvei 
' money, that he might know how 
much every man had gained, bj 

1 6 Then came the first. Baying, 
Lord, thy pound hath gained ten 

17 And he said' unto hun. Well, 
thou good servant; because 
hart Men fiithfiil ■ in a very little, 
have thou authority over ten cities. 

18 And the second came, saying. 

Lon), thy j.mai haih gained Sn 


19 And he said likewise to hiBi^ 
Be thou also over five citie*. 

SO And another came, sayinff, 
Lord, Behold, htre U thy pound, 
which I have kept laid up iaa nap- 

21 For I feared thee, because 
thou art an austere man : thou tak 
est up that thou layedst not down, 
and reapest that thou didst not sow 

23 And he saith nnto him, Ont * 
of thine own mouth will 1 Judge 
thee, thou wicked servant. ThoB 
knewest that 1 was an austere man. 
taking up that 1 laid not down, and 
reaping that I did not sow : 
iBSs.i.m jdbts.B. MBtt.w.17. aia 

See John i. II. So it ia tme of all i 
DeiBthal theydanotutsA Jcaus to reign 
over them ; ihey rejecl hitn { aud. i'' '~ 
were poeaible, would case him off, 
',r submit to bia reiga. 

15. i 

3 Matt 

le— 19. See Man. XXV. 20, 21. 1 Ten 
ritUt. We are not to suppose thai Ihia 
will be iiieraay fiilfiUed m heaven. 
Christ teaches here that our rewards in 
heaven will be in jiroporfion to our 
bilbfulneBB m improving our talents on 

20. A napkiit. A towel. He means 
by it thai he had not wasted il, nor 
thrown il by carelesaty. bul had been 
very atrefal of it: so much bo as to be 
at the pains to tie it up in a towel, and 
put il in a safe place, as if he had been 
vert) /aith/ul to bia trust. — So many 
men employ their lalente, sad their 
learning, and their influence. Thsy 
have them ; they hetp them ; but tbey 
never ate them in the service of the 
Lord Jesus, and in regard to their in- 
fluence on the church or the world it 
would be the same If God had never 
eanleiTed on them these talents. 

2i. AnnmtcTtim-n. Hard, seyere, 
oppressive. The word is commonly ap- 
plied to unripe fruit, and means inir, 
unpleasant, harsh. In thiacase.itmeang 
ths! the man was taking every advan- : 
tage [ and while Ae Hved midlene 

Thou dost exact of otbera what thou 
didet not give. The phrase is applied 
to a man who^^nfi what hae l>een losi 
by another, and keepe il himeeU', and 
refuses to return it to the owner. All 
this is designed to show the sinner's 
view of God. He regards him as un- 
just, demanding more than man has 
pmcer (o render, and more, therefore, 
than Ged has a right to demand. Sea 
Note on Matt, Jiiv. 24. 
22. Ont of thine oaHmoulh. By yonr 

my character. 


If yon Inns that this 

._ ._^ ler, and knta (hat I 

should be rigid, firm, and even eevere, 
'' would have been the path of wisdom 

; you 10 have made the best use of th» 

loney in yojr power. But as you 
JhietD my character beforehand^ and 
was well Bcquainied with the lacl (hat 
I should demand ilrictlj the complying 

'ilh your obligation, you have no righl 
.1 complain if you nrs condemned ac- 
cordingly. We are not (o suppose thai 
'^--i -- fMJugtoT auatere, but what HV 
__ .- learn from this ts, that ns mn 
knows that God will be .^l, and wU 
call him to a strict account in the day 

'judgment, he ought to be prepared 
meet him, and that he cannot then 

rmplain if God should condemn him. 

33. The bank. The treasury, a the 
place of exchange. Why did yon ml 
loan il out, thai it mieht be incniMuIr 


93 Wherefore ■ then 
ihou my money into the 
at my coming I might tiave itquired 
mine own wi^ oBnry 1 

34 And he wud'^nto them that 
stood bj. Take from him the poDud, 
ind nve t( to him that hath ten 

26 (And they said unto Mm, 
Lord, he hadi ten pounds.) 

26 For I say unto yo 
* tmto eveiy one which hath shall 
be given ; and from him that hath 
not, even that he hath shall be taken 
away ftom him. 

37 But those 
which would not that I should reign 
3Ter them, bring hither, and slay 
them before me. 

38 And when he had thus spo- 


to Jerusalem. 

39 And ' it came to pass, when 
he was come nigh to Beuphage and 
Bethany, at the mount called the 
mount of Olires, he sent two of his 

30 Saying, Go ye into the village 
3Ter against yoa ; in the which, at 
your entering, ye shall find a colt 
tied, whereon yet never man sat : 
loose him, and bring Aim hithtr. 
' 31 And if any man ask yoa, Why 

■ Bo.a^A i Matl. 13.11 U.S9. HaM.SS. 
»&ia eF>A4^,B, 91.8,9. ^a.WA,\i. Na. 

25. And Oeyiaid unto him. Those 
■Unding around him said. ^ He hilA, 
was prohablv on obBcrvalion 
Bme of the byaUiadBrB sa if 
ID correct tiim in the dislribulioii. ' He 
taw Blready (en nwiub. Wh7 lake 
■■■- and add to what be al- 

— , who has but one pound t' 

Tlie answer to this is given in the fol- 
bwing verse, that svery one thai hath, 
IB him shall be given; eveni man who 
is bithfid and honeet, and impravea 
what God gireshim, shall receive much 

96, 37. Far J M«,&a. lliesearethe 

do ye loose hint? thae abiU ye uy 
unto liim, Because the Lord hatfa 
need * of him. 

33 And tfaey that were sent went 
their way and found even as he hid 


33 And as they were loosing the 
uult, the owners thereof said onto 
them. Why loose ye the colt! 

34 And they said. The Lord hath 
need of him. 

35 And they brought him to Je- 
sus : and they cast their ^ gaimenla 
upon the colt, and they set ' Jesus 

36 And as he went, they spread 
their clothes in the way. 

37 And when be was come nigh, 
even now at the descent of the 
mount of Olives, the whole multi 
tude of the disciples began to re. , 
joice and praise God widi a loi:^ 
voice, for all the mighty works th-l 
they had seen : 

38 Sayinpp, Blessed * be the King 
that Cometh in the name of the 
Lord ; ' peace in heaven, and glory 
in the higheat. 

39 And some of the Pharisees 
from among the multitude said 
unto him. Master, rebuke thy disci- 

irds of the noUenun de-laring the 
principles on which he wou'/l dietrA>nle 
the rewards of bis kinei^rTn. ^ But 
Ihat, &.C, By the punish r I inl of those 
-'ho would not that he I'.lould reign 
tor ihem , ia denoled Ihs ! 'lin that was 
.J come upon the Jewiiih u.licin for re- 
jecting the MoBsiah, and t!i>o upon all 
aianera for not leceivinK hun as thdr 
King. See Notes on the parable of ttm 

See NolBB oo Mitt, iii 1 

I. Thtilanei mnild—trynal. It is 
wr (hat they shnuld c^.brate my 


onto then), I tell 70a, that if these 
ihiMid hold their peace, the * etoneH 
would unmediately cry out. 

41 And when he was come near, 
he heheld the city, and wept over ' 

43 Saying, If thou hadst known, 
wen thou, at least in this thy day, * 
the things vi/tirh belong unto uiy 

■ Ha&ll. M>tl3.«. »P(.II».I». Je.fl. 
I. 13.IT. IT.W. Jno.11.31 CV1M.IJL 

which ihey celebrate — the coming of 
(be Mesaiiih — tbai it ia not fit llut 1 
■bould atlempl lo impose sileDce on 
them. The eipreBsion here seems to 
be ^rmeriial, and Lb doI to be taken 
literally. Proverbs are doBigned 10 ei- 
nresB the ixaliiitrmtgly, but are not 10 bs 
taken lo signify as much as if ihey 
were to be inierpretsd lilenlly. The 
teriH is, that his coming was an event 
of bo much importance, Ibal it ought to 
ba celebrated m soma way, and vnmM 
be celebrated. It would be impassible 
to restrain the people, and Improper 10 
attempt it. The language here i« strong 
proverbial language lo denoLe that lact- 
We are not 10 suppose, tbetefote, that 
our Saviour meant to say that the stones 
were eaiucimu of hia coming, or thai 
God would make them speak, but only 
that there was strong feeling among the 
psople, thai it was praptr that ibey 
should eipnua it in tfais manner, and 
that it was not fit that he should attempt 
10 repress it. 

41^4*. He wept a««r if. Showing 
tiis compasuon for Ibe guilty city, and 
his strong sense of the evils that were 
about lo come upon it. See Matt, ixiii. 
37—39. As he entered the city he 
paasedoicr the mount of Olives, From 
that mountain there was a lull and 
magnificent view of the city. See 
Notes on Malt. xxi. I. The view of 
the splendid capital, the knowledge of 
^- ■ ■' of ,he 

ofGod towards it, thi 

have been sparci _ 

prophets and himself the 

''if il"ha5 

hat it migh 
received ihi ,.,, 
knowledge that 11 was about lo put ftii 

heir long-eipeot ' " ' ' " ' ' 
■nd /or that 

expected Messiah, 
■elation, affected his 

KB. [A.D.SI. 

peooe ! But now diej ue hid flom 
thine ^ea. 

43 For the days ehall come apon 
thse, that thine enemiea AaH easi ' 
a trench aboat thee, and compass 
thee round, and kee^ thee in od 
BTsry side. 

44 And 'shall layfliee even with 
the ground, and thy children within 

of the Savioni wm turned from the !»• 
kens of rttjoicillg to the miaeiiss aboal ^ 

" guilty people. Yel ihey 

en saved. If thou hadsl 

might have been se 
thy guilt, t 

[take for ihy - 

lib thai of the' Son of God, then 
these letrible calamilies woulu not come 
upon ihee. But it is too late. They 
are hid from thine eyes. The natioruu 
wickedness is too great. The cup is liill 
Mercy is exhausted. And Jerusalem, 
with all her pride and splendor, ths 
elory of her temple, and the pomp of 
her service, tmwt jxrii* .' T For Vit 
dayi thidi come, &.c. This took place 
under Titus, the Roman general, A. D. 
TO, about thirty years after Ihia was 
spoken. V Catt a trenA abaat tie*. 
The word (kbcA now means commonly 
a pit or dilcli. When the Bible was 
also eara arm 

This is the m 

,. J<A«, 


larlh. s 

thrown up to guard a camp, and lo de- 
fend it from ihe approach of an enemy. 
This was done at Jerusalem. Joso- 
phua informs us that Titus, in ordei 
that he might compel ibe cil» to sur- 
render by famme, built a wall annukd 
the whole circumference of the dty 
This wall was nearly; five milss ir. 
length, and furmshed with thirteen cas- 
tles or towers. This work was eom- 
pleted with incredible labor in ten daya. 
The profeased dewgn of ihia wall was 
to kerp the city hi on eoery ride. Never 


ttw* ; «im1 Hkj * iImII not leave in 
thee one stone upon another ; be- 
oaiiM ' thnu kneWest not the time 
of thy Tisitation. 

45 And ' he went into the tem- 
ple, and began to owt out tbem that 
■old theiein, and them that bought; 

46 Saying unb) them. It is ' writ- 
(eo, Mj bouBe is the house of prayer, 

alUll.StS. Mir.ll.<e. tLt.l& ] PE.S. 
a. __ c Hill^l.13,13. Hir.Jl.U-lT. looS. 


but ye hare made it ft den ■ 

ione. Titus caumd ■ plough ro puss 
over the plac« where the temple mood. 
See Nolee, Malt. udv. All diis wu 
done, nya Christ, becauae Jenualem 
knew noi Ibe lime of iia vUilalion ; ihal 
ia. did not koow, and uviUd not know, 
thai the Messiah had come. Hit nm- 
in^ was the time of their mereifu! yiei- 
iBtion, That time had been predicted. 

Billable blenings promised a^ 

danger t 

If the Saiiour 

<hal they should be deslroyed. 

4S, 46. See Noiea, Matt. xii. iz, u. 

47. Daily in tlu lempU. Thai a 
for five ot sii days before big cnici- 

48.'C(WU lut fnd.Sic. Were not 
able to Bccompliah [heir purpose : they 
did not koow hom lo bring it about. 
T Very atCenliv*. Literally, ti%ng upo» 
Im to near bim. The word denotes an 
aniioasdenie, a fixed alien (ion, ■ cleav- 
ing to him, and onwillingneaa lo leave 
him, BO that they might hear hie words. 
Thia is always the caae when men be- 
come aniiouB about their salvation, that 
they manifeat it by hanging on the 
preaching of the gospel; by fiied at- 
tendon ; and DnwitlingTiaas lo leave the 
place where the word of God ia preach- 
ed.— Iti view of the bet thai the Lord 
IcBus wept over Jerusalem, we may 

(1.) It was in view of the sins and 
danger of [be iithabitants. and of the 
ici that they had rejected ofTered 

lor it. If (hey « 

m danger; if tbei« was .. _ , 

n the liinuv worlo why aVnld ha 
lot-U —13 


47 And he taught / daily in the 
tomple. But the chief ^rie«ts and 
the scribes, and the chtuf of the 
people, sou^t to destroy him ( 

48 And ciuld not find wlial thty 
migiit Qo : for all the people ' were 
inry attentive to bear him. 

i Ip.SlT. 

/ lot. 

have wept I When the Lord Jeatia 
weeps over sinners, it is the futleat 
proof Ihal they are in danger. 

(3.) Sinnera ore in [he same danger 
now. They reject CliriBt as ihey did 
then. They despise the gospel aa they 
did then. They refine now lo come to 
him as the tnhabilaniB of Jenualem did. 
Why a 

for as to weep, ft is right Nay, canil 
be right not lo weep over the coridition 

(5.) Religion is tenderness and love. 
Jt led the Saviour to weep, and il 
teaches ua to sympalhise, and feel 
deeply. Sin htu^ena the heart, and 
makes it insensible to every pure end 
nobis emotion ; but religion Uacbea ua 
to feel '■ for otbera' woes," and to 
■ympathise in tbe danger of others. 

(6.) Cbriaiiana, and Christian mini* 
ters, should weep over lost einners 
They have soals just as precious ti 
they had then ; they are in Ihe same 
danger; they are going to the judg 
men; bar; tbey are wholly inaeiMbb 
tc their danger and their duty. 


He ibed iluu tun tai i 
Re wepi Ibat wg mliht w 


t« i 


AND • it came to pass, that 
oiie of those dnys, aa he taught 
the people in the temple, and preach- 
ed uie gospel, the chief priests and 
the scnbea came upon Aim, with the 

3 And spnke unto him, saying, 
fell us. By ' what auttority doest 
Aou these things? or who is ht 
that gave thee this authority ! 

3 And he answered and said udU 
them, 1 will also ask you one thing : 
and answer roe : 

4 The baptism of John, was it 
from heaven, or of men ! 

5 And they reasoned with them- 
celves, saying. If we shall say. From 
heaven ; he will say, Why dien be- 
Uered ye him not! 

6 Butandifwe8ay,0f 
the people will stone us; for' they 
be persuaded that John was a pro- 

7 And they answeied, that they 
could not tell whence it uxu. 

8 Aiid Jesus sud onto them. 
Neither tell I you by what aothoii- 
^ I do these things. 

9 Then begmi he to speak 
peoplethisparahle: A''cerlaj 
planted a vineyard, ■ and let 
to husbandmen, and went in 

it forth 

s servant to the husbandmen, that 
.tiiey should give him of the Iruit 
of the viney^ ; but the husband- 
men beat hun, and sent Aim away 

11 And ^ain he sent another 
■errant : and they beat him also, 
and entmated Aim shameMly, and 
sent Aim nway empty. 

H«.121>i:. • 


1 -9, Baa this pwags enlaiited i 


13 And again he Mnt a iM : 

aiid diey woundud tiim also, «ui 
oast Aim oat. 

13 Then said Jie lord of th« 
vineyard. What shall I do 1 I wiU 
send my beloved son : it may be 
they will reverence him, when th^ 
see him. 

14 Bm when the bnsbandmw 
saw him, they reasoned anoiig 
themselves, Baying, This is the heir : 
( come, let * us kill him, that the 
inheritance may be ours. 

15 So they cast him out of the 
vineyard, and killed Aim. What 
therefore shall the lord of the vina- 
yard do unto them % 

16 He shall come and destroy 
these husbandmen, and shall give 
the vineyard to others. ' And 
when they heard it, they said, God 

17 And hebeheld them, and said, 
What is this then that is written, 
The ' stone which the builders re- 
jected, the same is become the head 
of the comer T 

18 Whosoever shall fell upon ' 
that stone shall be broken ; but on * 
whomsoever it shall fall, it wib 
grind him to powder. 

19 And the chief priests and the 
scribes the same hour sought to lay 

3 on him ; and they feared the 
people: for they perceived that he 
had spoken this parable against 

30 And they watched Aini, and 
sent forth spies, which should feign 
themselves just men, that ' they 
might take hold of his words, that 
so they might deliver him unto thv 
power ana aulhority of the goT- 


9—19. See thli narable eipUined in 
Notes on MUL iiL 33-^5. 

— 3& See this ripluned in HMt 
IS— 31: and Morii zb. 1S-<T 


' St AbcI tbay aak«d him, eayiug. 
Master, we know that thoa aayest 
uod tMcheBt rightly, neither accepl- 
eat thou the penon af ami, but 
teMhest the wa^ of Gocl ' truly : 

33 Is it lawful for US to give tri' 
bale uBte Cesar, or no 1 

53 But he perceived their cnfU- 
■esB, and aud unto them, Wli; 
tempt je mel 

54 Shew me A * penny. Whose 
ImagB and soperscription hath iti 
They answered and said, Cesar's, 

25 And he said unto them, Ren' 
der " therefore unto Cesar the diings 
crhieh be Cesar's, and unto God the 
things which be God's. 

36 And they could no* talie hold 
of his words before the people : and 
they marvelled &t his answer, and 
held * their peace. 

37 Then • came to «m certain of 
die Sadduceea, ' which deny that 
diere is any resurrection; and they 
asked him, 

SB Saying-, Master, Moses wrote 
" unto us, If any man's brother die, 
baring a wife, and he die without 
children, that his brother ahonld 
take his wife, and raise up seed on- 
to hie brother. 

39 There were therefore seven 
brethren : and the first took a wiie, 
and died without children. 

30 And the second took her to 
wife, and he died childless. 

31 And the third took her ; and 
hi like manner the eeren also : and 
they left no children, and died. 

33 Last of all the woman died 

33 llieTefore ii 
whose wile of them is ahel for 
•eren had her to wife. 

34 And Jesus answering said 
uto them. The children of this 


world many, aad are giVsn in mm 

iS.1. - - 



33 But they which shall be ae- 
counted worthy S to obtain tliat 
world, and the resairecti(»i from Ae 
dead, neither ptany, nor are given 
in marriage : 

36 NeiAer ( can they die any 
nrrre : for they are equal unto tb 
angels ; * and are the ' children of 
God, being the children of the re 

37 Now that the dead Ae raiaed, 
even Moeee shewed J at the bosh, 
when he oalletb the Lord Ae God 
of Abraham, and the God of Inat^ 
and tiie God of Jacob. 

38 For he is not a God of fte 
dead, but of the living : for * all liv» 
unto him. 

39 Then certain of the scribea 
answering, said, Muter, Add hast 
well said. 

40 And after that they durst not 
ask him any gttation at ali. 

41 And ' he said ttnto them, 
How eaytheythat Christ is David's 

43 And David himself sai& <" ii 
the book of Psalms, The Lobd said 
unto my Lord, Sit tbon on my ri^l 

43 mi I make thine enemies thy 

44 David therefore catleth him 
Lord; how is he then his soul. 

45 Then, in the audience of " all 
the people, he said unto his divi 

46 Beware * of the scribes, whioh 
desire to walk in long robes, aitd 
love Breeungs ' in the markets, and 
the highest seats in the synagogues, 
and the chief rooms at feasts; 

47 Which ' devour widows' 

45— 47. See Mut uin. 1~ 

L)^i.z.iit>,Coogle - 

•onMCt umI lot a thew ■ make long 
f n jers : the samo shall re ~'~~ 
ereater * damnation. 


into the treaHury. 

3 And he saw also a certain poor 
iridow casting in thither two ' 

3 And he add, Of a truth I saj 
■mlo you, that this poor widow ham 
east in tftire ^ than thej all : 

4 For all these have of their 
abundance cast in unto the ofie> 
ings of God : but she of her peuurj 
hath cast in all the living that she 

5 And ' as soma spake of the 
temple, how it was adorned with 
goodl; atones and p^j he said, 

G M for these Uiings which ve 
behold, the days will come, in the 
which ''' there shall not be left one 
■lone upon another that shall not be 
Ifarown down. 

7 And they asked him saying, 
Maaler, but when ahall these things 
de % and what sign unU there at 

. . _ _ ,_J. JaJ.1. 
H.1.AA Hai.l3.lAc- /tlB.44AC' 


1—4. See ihis eipluned in Msrkzii. 

4. Penury. Fovertf. 

9. Goodly itatu*. Beaulitul stones. 
Gither referring la ihe [arge, xiuiire, 
and well-finished Btonea orwhich the 
iielern wall was built, or to the pre- 
nous Blones which might have been 
jsed in decorating the temple iuelf 
See Notes on Mark xiii. 1. ' Gifia. 
This word propfirly denotes any thing 
ievoled or dedicaleu to God. Anciently 
warriors dedicated to their goda the 
ipoila of war, the shields, andhelmets, 
■nd amtOT, and garmsnts of those slain 
in bMlle. These were Huspended in 
the lamples. It would seem that some- 
thing of thia kind bod occurred in the 
■ample of Jerusalem, and that the peo- 
oU lo azDrsss their gradtude to God 

when these things stiiU oome to 

n And he said. Take ' heed that 
ye he not deceived : for many shall 
come in my name, saying, I am 
(Arai I and * the time drawelli 
near; go ye not Uierefore after 

9 Butwhen ye shall bear of wen 
and commotions, be ' not tenified: 
for theKe things must first come 
to pass, but the end ti not by and 

10 Then said he imto them, 
Nadon shall rise against nation, 
and kingdom against Idngdom ; ^ 

11 And great earthquakes shall 
be in divers places, and famines, 
and pestilences ; and fearfiil sights 
and great ugna shall there be uom 

13 But before all theae, Ihey 

all lay their hands on you, and 

persecute ^ou, delivering you tip to 

the synagogues, and into prisons, * 

being brought before kings ' and 

rulers for my name's sake. 

13 And ■* it shall turn to you fbf 


f9Th.3.3,e.ia. 1)00.4.1. 3Jaa.1. IK* 
iFrlsasa. jaag.iSa. kAtA3.S 

pended on thepillan. 

n the pillan andporch- 
le gifts and oflbi^nsB. 

ine with which Hsrod the C 
— horned the coltimns of the tem- 
ple. Ant. 13. B. See also 2 Maccabees 
v. 16: ii. 16. 
E. See Matt. xiiv. 2. 
7 — 36. The account of the destruc 
..m of Jerviaalem contained in thia 
chapter has been fully considered in the 
"'---n on Matt, iiir. All that will be 
tary here wdl be an eiplanatiDn of 
worda that did not occur in that 

9. CmnmofKHti. InaurreclionB. Sub- ' 
jects lising against their rulers. 

11. FfaritifiighU. See Malt. irir. 7. 

13, 13. SyHOgogutt, and into pTiMma. 
See Notes on Mark riii. 9, 10. 

■ ~ " therefart ta nmr iMrta. 

A. D. 33.J 


14 Settle il therefore in your 
beaitB, not to * meditate before what 
ye Hhall answer : 

15 For 1 will give you a mouth 
and wisdom, which all your adver- 
nries shall not be able to gainsay * 

16 And ' ye shall be betrayed 
both bv parents, and brethren, and 
kinsfolks, and fiiends ; and * tome 

n And ye shall be hated * of a! 
men for my name's sake. 

18 But /there ahatl not an ha 
' of your head perish. 

19 In your patience ' possess j 
your sonls. 

Fix il finn^ in your tninda, bo firmly as 
to become a fiied principle, that fou 
are alwa; b Io depend on God for aid in 
all your triala. See Mart liii. 11. 

IS. A mexlh. Eloquence, ahiiny to 
apeak Bathe case may demand. IGain- 
Mj. Speak against. They will not be 
able 10 TfjJy Io it, or to eppme the force 
of what you shall Buy. 

18- A hair of your head perish. This 
is a proverbial eipreesion, denoiing iliai 
ihey should not sutTer any eeeential in- 
, jury. This wag strikingly fiilfilted in 
the fact (hit in the calamiliea of Jem- 
«lem there is reason to believe that no 
'Christian suffered. Belbra those ca- 
UinitiRi came on the city, they had ded 
to Peito, a cily on the east of the Jor- 
dan. See Notes on Matt. uiv. IS. 

19. Innauraaimce. Rather, by your 
The word patitnce here 

ingaffliclioi— ^- j— 

wane read here tho Aitureingtesdof the 
It of the verb rendered jwiai 

prerent of the Ti 
The word jMsseii 

>r keep, and ihs word timli 
Itaet. This passage may be thus trans- 
lated ; By peraevcring m bearing iheaa 
triab, you will save your Uvea, or you 
will he safe ; or, by persevering pr*- 
terve your lives, L e., do not yield to 
'Jiese catamides, but bea> up under 
them, for he that endoreth to the end 

SO And when ye shall Be« Jem 
aalem compassed with amiee, then 
know that the desolation thereof it 

31 Tiiea let Ihem \Thieh are in 
Judea tiee to the mountaina ; end lei 
them which are in tJie midst of it 
depart out; and let not them that 
are in the countries enter thereinto. 

32 For these he the days of vei> 
geance, that all * things which are 
written may be tiillilled. * 

S3 But woe unto them < that are 
with chOd, and to them that ^ve 
Buck in those days I for there shall 
be great diatresa in the land, and 
wrath upon this people. 

24 And they ahall fall by the 


.lOJO. g 1 

1.5.3. B«.l 

the same shall be saved. Compara 
Matt. ixiv. 13. 

S3. AU tttngi whi£h are mitten maf 
iefttlfilUd. Judgment had been threat 
ened by almost ail the prophets against 
that wicked city. They had spoken 
of its Climes, and threatened its ruin. 
Once God bad destroyed Jerusalem, 
and carried the people to Babylon. Bui 
their crimes bad been repeated when 
they relumed, and God had again 
ibrealened their ruin. Pardcularly was 
this very destruction foretold by Daniel, 
ch. ii. 26. 27 : " And after ihreescore 
and iWo weeks shall MesMah be cut 
ofT, but not for himself; and the people 
of the prince thai shall come aAoU di- 
liny the city and the lanctuaTy; and 

, 3d thousand perished 

ID Ihe siege of Jemaslem. ISkoIl It 
led nioay copttrye. More than ninety 
thousand were led into captivity, Se* 
Nates on Mall. xiiv. 1 ShaUie trtd- 
den doan by the Gentilei. Shall be in 
possession of the Gentiles, besubjecl Io 
them. The cipreaaion also implies thai 

when a captive in war is trodden down 
under the feel of the oonquari- * - 
okntly conquerors traf w ■*"" 


.ao LU 

edg« ot Om «woTd, and shell be led 
kwa; captife into sU nationa : and 

Jt'tusalem ' shall be trodden down 
of the Gentilea, until the times * of 
the Gentiles be fulfilled. 

ihoBe vvho were fiuhdued bv ihem, 
Joah.1. 24. 2SBm. iiii.41. Eze. ui. 
19. The bondage of Jeniealam h&s 
boflti long and very oppreesivB. It was 
far a long lime under ths daminion of 
* the Romans, then of the Saracsna. and 
ii DOW of the Turks, and is ^tl; repre- 
aanled by a capiive slrelchad on the 
eround whose neck ie Irodden by the 
fool of ihe conqueror. T Until the tinut 
if Ot Gcnido btftajUled. This paa- 
BBge baa been undetHtood very different- 
ly by different eipositara. Some refer 
it to the lime which the Romana who 
eoQC|uered it had dominion over it, as 
ragrufying that Viey abouLd keep pos- 
•ession of il until a part of the pagans 
ahould be converted, when il ahould be 
rebuilt. Thus it was rebuilt by the 
emperor Adrian. Olhcrs suppose tbat 
it refers to the end of the world, when 
all the Gentiles shall be converted, and 
they shall (tote to be Gentilea by all 
becoming Christians, liieauing that it 
ahould alteayt be desolate. Otbera that 
Chriat meant la eay that m the dmes of 
the millenniumi when the gospel should 
thread universally, that he would reign 
personally on earth, and that the Jews 
would retuni and rebuild Jerusalem 
and the temple. This is the opinion of 
the Jews, and of many ChristianiS. The 
meaning of the paseaf e clearly is, Isl. 
That Jemmlem shoidd be complet^y 
destroyed. 2d. That this ehoukl be 
done by Gentilea, i. e., by the Roman 
armies. 3d. That this desolation should 
contmue as long aa God should allow 
them ; as long as he should judge it 
proper in a fit manner to express bis 
abhorrence of the crimes of the nation, 
.1 until (he times ellotled to them by 

35 And there ehkll be Hgo* in 
the sun, and in the mooD, ano in die 
staiB ; and upon die earth dietrest 
° of nations, irith perplexity; the 
aea and the warea roanng ; 

Umited. IJke all other cities on lbs 
earlii, it will yet be brought under the 
infiuence of the gospel, and shall be 
inhabited by the irue friends of God. 
Pagan, uifidel, anti-chriatian dominioS 
shall cease there ; and it ahall be again 
a place where God shall be worahipped 
in ainceiity — a place men tteo of peciL 
bar interest from the recollection of (he 
eventswhichhave occurred Ihere. Hm 
long il is to be before this occurs, H 
known only (o him ' ' who hath put the 
times and seasons in bis own power." 
Acta i. 7. 

23. See Matt. xziv. 29. 1 ITpm Ot 
earth dulreet t^ nationi. Some have 
proposed 10 render the word earth by 
land, confining it to Judea. It uflch 
has this reference, and there seein! 
some propriety in so using it here. 
The word translated diitrat, denotes 

men ■ have when ibey do not know 
what to do to free tbeniselics from ca- 
lamities ; and it means ihat tbe calami- 
lies would be so great and overwhelm- 
ing that they would not know what to 
do to escape. There would be a want 
of counsel, and deep anxiety at tho 
impending evils. 1 With pejylexitf. 
Rather, on aetount of tbeii perplexity, 
or the desperate slats of their affiiin. 
The Syriac has it, " perplexity or 
wringing of hands." which la a sign ^ 
deep distresB and hiHTor. 1 The wa 
and lAc TDoee) roaring. This is not to 
be understood literally, but as an image- 
of great distress. Probablj it is &- 
signed lo denoie that these cslamitiea 
would come up«n them like a deloga. 
As when ir ' "" 

{ that should be, or what should 
occur to tbe t^ty after that. It may bs 
rebuilt, and inhabited by convened 
Jews. Such a thing is poiiSile, and 
the Jaws naturally seek that as their 
borne. But whether this be ao or not, 
the time when the Gentilee, as such, 
Aall have dominion over the city is 

against the shore, and each sucaeedinK 
anrge is more violent than the one that 
preceded it, so would the calamitiea 

) upon Judea. They would rttll 

the whole land, and each wave of 
>Ie would be more violent than tha 
that preceded il, until the whola 
try would be desolate. The aasM 
image is ahtf nsed Li Ii^ via. 7, 8. aad 
Rav. iviiL IS. 

, Coi")t^lc 

&t Di 33.] 


S6 Mm • heuto &Uiiig them for 

feaT, and for looking aftar thoBe 

things which are coming on the 

Garth ; tor the ' powers of heaven 

^ ^all be shaken. 

37 And then shall they Bee the 
Son of man coming ' in a cloud 
with powM and great glorj, 

28 And when these things begin 
to come to paas, then look up, and 
Ifft up ;our. heads ; for your re- 
dempnoa ' diawelh nigh. 

29 And ' he spake to them a 
parable; Behold the fig-tree, and 
all the trees ; 

S5. JSat't Juarltjailitig tiem. That 
ii an expresuon denoiine the highesi 
terror. The word rentfered /eilm^, 
jommonly denotes to die, and here it 
mesne thai the terror would b« to gteax 
diat men would faint and be ready to 
-die m riew of the approuchmg celami. 
:ies. And if thia was true ia respect lo 
Ihe judgmcnla about lo come upoti 
ludea. how much more bo wilt it be Li 
■he day of judgment, when the wicked 
«hall be amigned before Ibe Son of God, 
and when tber shall have before them 
the prospect of die awful BuiTeKngB uf 
hell; the pains and woe? which shall 
continue for ever 1 It will be no won- 
der then if Ihe^ csl! on the rocks and 
mountaine to hide them from the face 
of Grod. and ii" their heana sink wiiiiin 
them at the prospect of eternal sutfering 

28. Four reda^iiiH draaeth nigh. 
See Mall. xxIt. 33. This is expressed 
in the ihinv-firBt verse Ihua: "ihe 
kmadomofdodisnighalhand." Thai 
is, from that lime God will signally 
build up hia kingdom. It shsU be fully 
established when the Jewish policy 
ahall come lo an end ; when the lem- 
Tie shall be destroyed, and the Jews 
Wattered abroad. Then the power of 
iie Jews shall be a! an end ; they shall 

-30 When Uiey now shoot forth, 

je see and know of jour own selves 
that summer is now nigh at hand. 

31 So likewise ye, when ye see 
these tilings come to pa**i know je 
tltat the kingdom of God is nigh at 

32 Verily I say unto yon, Thia 
generation shall not pass away till 
aU be fulfiUed. 

33 Heaven ' and earth shall pass 
away ; but my word shall not pasa 

34 And take heed^lo yourselves, 
lest at any time your hearts be 

(IM0.S.3JUB. /Bo,l3.l3,ia ITb.!.* 

tnese thing*. Uo not loreet tbem, anil 
do not be itcurt and sstiuied nllb this 
life and the good things which it fur- 
nishes. Do not suffer yourselves lobs 
drawn into the fashions of Ihe world; 

take of its leasts and licendounneBS, and 
so ihese calamities shall come upon you 
whenyouleaaleipectthem.' And from 
thiewemay learn-— ^'hat alae! we may 
from Ibc tivei of many profesaing Chris- 
tians — that then is need of cautioning 
then that they do not indulge in the 
festivities of this life, and /arret that 
they are to die, and come to judgment. 
How many, alas 1 who bear Ihe Chris 
lian name have forgotten this caution 
of the Saviour, and live as if their lives 
were secure, ea if they ieared not death, 
as if there were no heaven, and no judg- 
ment l Christians should feel that they 
are eoon lo die, and that their portioit is 
not in this life; and feeling this they 
should be foahn^/or ana 'uutingtmlotha 
earning of the day of God. 1 Ovtrcharg^, 
Literally, U vade htavy, as is the case 
with those who have eaten and drunken 
too much. H Surftiiiag, Excessive eat- 
ing and drinkingT eo aa to oppress the 
bwy. Indulgence in the pleasures of 
the table. This word does not include 

food ai^d drink, though the ^lod and 
drink should be in themselves lawfiiL 
^ Drunkmneii. Inloiication. intempe- 
rance in drinking. The ancie 

orercharged with sarfe'.'iDg, * and 
drankenneM, and caret of this lite, 
and M that dsj come upon yoD aa- 

35 For * as a snare shall it come 
on aD them that dwell on the face 
of the whole earth. 

36 Watch ' yo therefore, and 
pray always, that ye may be aft- 
counted ' worthy to escape all these 
thing* that shall come to pass, and 
to * stand before^tho Son of man. 

37 And in the day-time he was 
' leaching in the temple : andatni^^t 

• ii.9s.i-a. ico.s.ia tiTh.&s. 

». cHbu.SS.13. ilc^Ji. 
iPi.lJt. /JudelM. 

Hod on w 

way ._ 

ig in folly and diseaee, and poverty, 
death by dmnkennen. And in no- 

became inii 
drink inadi. __ 
pey, &c. All 

manifest ihan 

hasten the ravages of crime and deatlj. 

35. Ai a tnoTt. In Matthew and 

IWark, JeauB coRiparea Ilie suddennesa 

wiih which these calamiiies should 

'fi coming in the days 

of Noah. HereEeUtens'l 
Birds are eoiighl by a snare, or net ; it 
b sprung ca them quickly, and when 
they are u-A nrpectinE il. So, says ho, 
shall ihw^ 'jciiibles come upon Juden. 
The figur* J , often used to denole the 
tuddennew cf calainiliss. Fa. Ixix, 


i. 9. Vs. c 

I', 17. 

36. To H«id Ufoie ill Son of man. 
These approauh j>j cabmities are repre- 
sented as tho urirJig ej Ott Son of man 
to judge Jeraaalein for its crimes, lie 
inhabitants wei-e wi kicked that they 
were not wo/lliy ij fiand before him, 
and would be'uned and be aver- 
Ihmwn, To ttcrJ i.fart Aim, here de- 
notes approba'-irn, '.tquillsl, favor, and 

u>/-ng tl 

V.4. Ps. 

i. 17. 

PernaiMi also, there is : 

lolheday of judgment. See Noteson 
Malt. uiv. 

37. 38. See Mall. in. 17. ? Cvme 
aarlf HI (Ae uwraiiif . He returned early 


ICE. [A.D.» 

he went out, and abode in the 
mount s that is caUed &t moani of 

3S And all the people cameeariy 
in the morning to him )n the tem- 
ple, for to hear him. 


NOW ' the feast of unleavened 
bread drew nigfa, which is call- 
ed the Pasaorer. 

3 And ' the chief priesla and 
scribes sought how they mi^t kill 
him ; for they feared the people. 
3 Then > entered Satan into Ju- 

SJno.B.I.S. - * Mail.S&l. Mir. 
.Sa Ac,4.»r, ■ ■' 

jMiit.9e.U. Har. 

1.1 Ac 

in the temple.— Our Saviour did not 
wasie his mominga in idleness or sleep. 
He Tora early and repaired to the tem- 
ple. Tba people, also, flocked to (he 
sanctuary to hear him. This aimnple 

rising, and to the early uur^hip of God, 
^proof of [hose who spend lh<l 
part of the day be!!i fitted for devotion^ 
•-\ unnecessary sleep. And it shows the 

of the Saviour, and will be found Ic 

Lcnily conducive to the promolionol 
__..„ion. The whole eiample of leaus 
goes to show the importance of begin- 
ning the day with God, and of lifting up 
the heart to him for direction and for 
the supply of our wants, and tor preser- 
vation from temptation, before the mind 
is engrossed by the cares, and distracted 
by the perplemies, and led away by tbs 
temptations of this life. Commencing 
the day with Gwl, is like arresting evil 
at the fountain: prayer at any olhei 
time, without this, is an attempt to ar 
rest it when it has swollen to s stream, 
and rolls on like a torrent. Let the day 
be bo^un teilk God. and the work ot 
piety IS easy. Let the world have the 
aeendancy in the morning, and it will 
le likely to have it also at noonday and 
t evenmg. 

, 2. See Notes on Matt, xxvi, I, t. 
3. Thm entered Satan into JmJm 


ita ramamed Iscariot, being of the 
numbei of the twelve. 

4 And he went his way, and 
•omuiDned with the chief priests 
ud captains, how he might tietray 
him unto them. 

6 And thej were glad, and ci>- 
venanted * to give him money. 

6 And he promised, and sought 
SBportunity to hetray him ^nto 
ttaem ' in the absence of the multi- 

7 Then came the day * of un- 
leavened bread, when the paesover 
mnst be killed. 

8 And he sent Peter and John, 
raying. Go and prepare ua the paas- 
orer, that we may eat. 

9 And they said unto him, Where 
wilt thou that we prepare 1 

10 And he aaid nnto them, Be- 

influenC8 ; he . _ _ . _ 

an evil ptusian, and led him on to be- 
tray hia Master. The particular pu- 
sion cf which Salan made use was 

K\d led to the betraying and crucitixion 
al the Son of God. We ma; learn, 
•Iw, ihat when Satan leofti men, he 
eommoni)' does il by exciting and iHi«- 
ing to tbe higheet pitch their native 
paanoiiB. He does not make them act 
contrary to their nature, but leada them 
en to oef nit (heir proper dispo^ticn. 
f Satan. The word propeilv means 
at) adversary, or an iccueer. It is the 
nuioe which in the Scriptures is com- 
monly given to ihe prince or leader of 
Biil apinis — and is given to him bscause 
be is the atauer or calumnMar of Ihe 
rirfiteoufl (see Rev. lii. 10 ; compare Job 
Lb — 9), ea well as because he is the ad- 
Knarj ofGkid. "iBeiBg of the number of 
.. 1. . One of the iwelve apoetlf 


bold, when 


erefore, by 
■■uH leuucr uei lu jeiiiB. lie wu ons 
fUt bmitf— ^ong with him. tnil treat- 

v entMed into tl 

city, there anal: 

bearing a pitcher of water : follow 

him into the house where he en- 

) th« 

the house. The Maa- 
ter saitn unto thee. Where is the 
guest-chamber, where I shall eat the 
passDVer with mv disciples 1 

13 And he aball shew you a laiga 
upper room fiiruUhed : there make 

13 And they went, and found aa 
he had said unto them : and they 
made ready the paHsover. 

14 Ana ' when ^e hour wat 
come, he sal down, and the twelve 
apostles with him. 

15 And he said unto them, ' 
With desire I have desired to eat 

t HBr.I4.l7- *Bt,J Mmi 
luariiljf daind. 

ei by him with every mark of klndneu 
and confidence j and nothing could mare 
enhance his guilt than thus tomakeus* 
of this confidence for the commission of 
one of the basest crimes. 

4 — ^. Chic/ prieati and captaint- 
See Note, Mall, xivi, 14. See the ac- 
count of the bargBin which Judas made 
with them eipuined in the Notes on 
Matt. vni. 14—16, and Mart xiv. 10, 
il, 1 Ai,l:nao/them^llit*de. The 
multitude, the jiiople, were then favor- 
able to Jeaus. He had preached in the 
temple, and many of them believed that 
he was the Messiah. It was a hezard- 
ouB thing, iheretbre, to lake him by 
force, and in their pTcaencCi as they 
might rise and rescue him. Hence they 
sought to take him when he was away 
from the multitude ; and as Judas knew 
of a place where he could be foiuid 
alane, they were glad of the opportunity 
of so easily securing him. 

7 — 13. See this passage eipiained iir 
the Notes on Mall. xivi. 17—19, and 
Mark liv. 13— 16. 

14. When Ike himr aai cone. The 
hour of eating the paschal lamb, which 
was in ihe evening. See Matt, iivl 20. 

15. With daire I hane deeired. This 
is a Hebrew foro] of eipresaion, iiif 
' ' "r dewed. T* 

I I have greatly d 

this, pauofei mth yon before I 

16 For I say unlo you, I will not 
any more eat thereof, until * 
fiilGlled in the kingilom of Got 

17 And he took the cup, and 
gave thanks, and said, Take this 
Wkd divide i< among; yourselves : 

18 For I Bay nnlo you, I will not 
iiink of the fruit of the vine, ualil 
the kingdom of God shall come. 

19 And ^ he took bread, and gave 
thanks, and brake it, and gave uatc 
tfaem, flaying. This is my body, 
which is given for you; this do in 
remembrance of me. 

30 Likewise also tiie cup after 

■ bU.lf. ICo^T^ Re.lB.e. »lCo. 

teiae Ihem togetht 
■nd of partaking wilh ihem of one i 
the religious pnvUegeB of the Jewi 
diEpenaalba. JeBUS was man, aa wl.. 
ax God ; and he never undervalued the 
reUgioufl riles of his country, 
blessings of social and religiOL 
course ; and there is no impropriety in 
supposing that even ht might feel that 
hia human nature might be prepared by 
the service of religion for his great and 
terrible sufferings. 2d. He doubtless 
wished to take on opportunity to pre- 
pare IhtM far his suflerings, and to im- 
press upon them more fully the certain- 
ty that he was abou. 'o leave them, lllkt 
ihey might be prepared for it. 3d. We 
may also suppose that he particularly 
desired il, that he mighl insiitule for 
fJbir use, and for the edificBlion of all 
Christians, the supper which is called 
by his name — Ike Lord'i mpper. All 
his sufferings were the eipressiou of 
Lavs to h^ people ; and he was desiroiu 
of testifying ahBagi his re^rd for their 
Mafbrt aitd weloro V Before I laffer. 
Before I die. 

16. Until U be fulfilled. See Matt. 
«vi. 39. 

17. And he look tiie cup aitd gave 
tlonA*. This was not the lacranititial 
Bup, for that was taken afttt supper. 
VaT SO. This was one of the cups 
i^Mch ware BsosUr tikan dating (M 

KE. [A. D. IS. 

sapper, nying, This cnp it the new 

testamerit in my blood, which 4* 
shnd for you. 

SI But, behold, the hand of him 
that, betrayeth me ii with me ' on 
the table. 

32 And truly the Son of man 
goeth as it was determined : ■ but 
woe unto that man by whom be is 
betrayed ! 

33 And they began to inqnile 
among themselves, which of UiOBi 
it was that should do this thing. 

24 And * there was also a stiUb 
among them, which of them shooM 
be accounted the greateat. 

iiyil.9- Jno,13-a6- 

oelebiation of the passovcr, and per- 
tained to that observance. After he 
had kept this in the usual manner, he 
instituted the supper which bears his 
name — using the bread and wine which 
had bees prepared for the pasBaver,BB4 
thus engrafted the Lord's Supper on 
the psssover, of superseded the pass- 
over by another ordinance, which WH 
intended to be perpetual. 

19, 20. See Matt. xivi. 26—38. 

21—23. Sea Matt. iivi. 21—25. 

24. A ilHfe. A comention, or da 
bate. 1 WkiiA of Ihem ihould he Ikt 
grtateil. The epoBiles, in commoa 
with the Jews generally, bad aupposed 
that the Messiah would come as a tem- 
poral prince, and in the msnnerof other 
ptinces of the earth ; of <u)urse, that hs 
Id have officers of his govemmeni, 
liters of state, &,a. Their conlen- 

was founded on this expeclaiion, 

and they were disputing which of th«a 
should be raised to the highest ofiic^ 
They had before had a similar conten- 
tion. See Matt, iviii. 1, xi. 20-28. 
Nothing can be more humiliating than 
that the disciples should have had imii 

} >n4 

. That just as Jesus w 

placing his own death, and laboring to 
prepare them for it, they should nirn 
and contend about offices and rank, 
shows how deeply seated is the love of 
rj how ambition will find iat 
into the moat secret and bsc^mI 
I ; and bow even ihs diadplos -td 



2^ Aiid he saia auto them, Hie 

Icings of the Gentiles exercise lord 
ship over them; and they that ex 
ercise authority upon them are call 
ed Benefactors. 

36 But ' ye tkali not be so.- but 
he that is greatest among you, 'let 
Jum be as the younger ; and he that 
is chief, as he that doth serve. 

27 For whether is greater, he 
that Bitteth at meat, or he that 
serreth I la not he that sitteth at 

the meek and lowl/ Jeaua. are same- 
times acluBled by ilua moal base and 
Hacked feeling. 

25. The hijigs of tht Gealilei. The 
kinga of lite ttaliimt, or of the earlh. 
Thev do tliie, and it is lo bo eipecled 
af iheffl, and it ia Hghl, Our Lord 
does not mean lo sa; that it was wrong 
that there should be such Biithority 
among them, but thai AU kingdom was 
to be of a different chai-ajzler, and they 
were not to expect it there. ^ Oeer 
Ihan. That is, over ihe tuluHM. ^ Art 
caUtd bme/actort. The word hene/ac- 
lor is applied to one who beslowsyomr 
on another. It was applied to kings by 
way of omplmenl or ffattiry. gome 
of Ihem might have been truly benefac- 

ra of [heir pcapli . 

eans true of oil. Yet it was upplii .. 
to all, and eapecially to the^ Roman 

omperors. It la found appiie 
«fLen in the wrilinge of Jose 

pies from those of the world ; that ihey 

Mid offices of pomp, in h 

He tbal would lie moat a&\ 

kingdom, would be ho that waa moat 
humble ; and in aider to ahciw tbem 
tliis. fae Ijiok a towel, and girded him- 
self after the manner of a servant, and 
washed tbair feci, lo ahow them what 
ought to bo their feehngB towards each 
Other. See Johniiii.4— 17. ^ He that 
*Uttkatttmt. Tbemaaterofthefeaal, 
KOiie of liisguesla. 1 But I amamffng 
WM.&i:. lUia was *-■* ■ 

meatl Bat ' I am amopg you m hr 
that serveth. 

38 Ye are they which hare con- 
tinued with me in my lempta' 

29 And I appoint unto yoQ a 
kingdom, as my Father hath ap 
pointed unto mo: 

30 That 'ye may eat and drinV 
at my table in my kingdom, and «i 
on thrones, judging' the * twelw 
tribes of Israel. 

iHfAtS. ( Matt.St.34. C.IS.K. ICo.9 
as. IFe.SA. fB.e.13.9. / Matt.19.Sa ; 
Cod-fL Kt.3Sl. 

with his waahing their feet. He littBol 
them how they ought to feel and aci 
toward each other. Tftey ought, there- 
fore, not to aini at office and power, bat' 
to be humble, and serve and aid one 


...them here that Ihey should 

kingdom — their eipectationa 

should be realized. They had con- 
tinued with hitn ; they had seen how he 
had lived, and to what trials he bad 
been subjected ; (hey had all alone ex- 
pected akingdom, and be asBurea them 
thai (bey should not be disappointed. 
^Ai mg Father, Slc. They had seen 
bow God bad sppoimed a lungdom to 
"lim. It was not wi(h pomp, and splen- 
lor, and external ({lory. Bui it was in 
iDverty, want, peiaeculion, and trial. 
io would he appoint to them a kingdom, 
rbey should lurely possess i1 ; out it 
vould be not with external splendor, 
but by poverty and toil. — The original 
word r^jpoiw has the force of a — 

that be pledged himself ic 
Christiana shall enter into the kingdom 
of heaven after the manner of Ihtii 
Lord, through much iribukdon. Bill 
though it sIwU be, aa il was wilh hioT 

ihall surely reach the place of tl 
ind the reword of heaver for 
;ured lo (hem by the covenan 
md faiihfulnesa of (heir Lord si 

t Ihej 


106 Lt 

SI And the I.oTd said, Simon, 
Simim, beliold, Satan hath desired * 
to have 7011, that he may aiil ^ you 
w wheat : 

33 But I ■ have prejed for thee, 
that Ih; faith fail not : and when 
tfaon art converted, strengthen ' thj 

■ IP«J.S. »An.B.e. . Jno.n.B.iS. 
B*.7.«l. IJ110.S.I. 

ng the danger of Peter, and knowinff 
llnl he was about )o den; him, took 
occasion to forewarn him and put him 
an hii Euard, and also lo fiirniil] him 
with a aolBCfl when he sfwuld be brought 
to repentance. ^ Salaa hath iaired. 
Satan \a Ibe prince of evil. One of lib 
works ia la try the faith of believers 
— to place tempiationB and Iriala in their 
way, that they may be tested. Thus 
God gave Job into his hands, that it 
might be seen whether he would be 
foniid bilhfiil, or would apostBtiie. Job 
L 7—12. So Satan desired to have Peter 
in his bands, that he might also try him. 
And our Saviour, by ihia, intimates 
that trials were about to come upon 
Peter. ^ May lifl yent ai iBheet. Grain 
waa agitated or shaken in a bind of fan 
or sieve. The ersin remained in the 
fan, and the chaff and dust were thrown 
off. So Christ says, thai Satan desired 
to try Peter, 10 place trials and lempla- 
Qons before him, ttagilatehim, to see 
whether any thing of faith would re- 
main, or whether all would not be found 
(o be chafF— mere natural ardor and 
false professions. 

32. Thai thy ftil\faa not. Theword 
failk, here, seema to be. used in (he 
•enae of relidon, or attachment to 
Christ; and toe words fdS ti«t mean 
iittsrly faS, or fail altogether; that is, 

Tslatize. It is Ime that the ceitTage 
Peter failed. It is true that he had 
oat thai immediate confidence in Jeans, 
and rehance on him, which be had be- 
•bre had. But the prayer of Jesus was, 
hat he might not eltogelher apostatize 
^ni the faith. Cod heard Jesus nluiayt. 
lohn li. V2. It fallows, therefore, that 
vftry pnyei which he ever offered was 
anairered; and it fbUows that, as he 
tsked here for a specific thing, thai that 
■bins was granted; and as he prayed 
JlalTeter'e feith might not utterly fiul, 
M it follows that there was no lime io 
wfaioh Peter was not really 1 pious man. 

33 Aid he taid onto him, Lord 
I am ready to go with thee, bofll 
into prison anit lo death. 

34 And Jie said, I tell thee, V»- 
ter, the cock shall not crow tliia day, 
be£)Te that than shall thrice deny 
that thou knoweBt me. 

35 And he said unto them, When 

Far as he wandered, and grievoaely ai 
he sinned, yet he well knew that Tesnt 
was the Messiah; he didJbUBlheman; 
and though his fears overcanie him. and 
led him to aggravated sin, yet the prayer 
of Chrisl waa prevalent, and he ws* 
brought to true repentance. 1 Ifiea 
thou art canvertid. The word emvert 
td means turned, changed, recovered. 
The mesning is, when thou art turned 
from this sin ; when thou art recovered 
from this heinous offence, then use 
year experience to warn and strengthen 
those who are in danger of Uke sins. 
A man may beeonverled OT turned from 
any sin or any evil course. He is ra- 
generaled but once — at the beginning 
of his Christian life; he may be cott- 
veried as oflen as he falls into sin. 
^ Strtngtkeit thy britArtH, Confirm 
Ihem, warn them, or encounue them. 
They are in continual danger nlso of nn. 
---- Use your eipeiience to warn them 
janger, and to comfort and 
tiem in their trials. And from 
_ learn, let. That one dengn 
of permitting Christians 10 fall into 
Gin IS to show their weakness and de- 
'ence on God ; and 2d. That they 
have been overtaken in this man- 
ihonld make use of their own ex- 
ince to warn and preeerve others 
(he same path. The two Epvtles 
of Peter, and his whole life, show (bsi 
te was attentive to this command of 
JesuB ; and in Ua deatb he manifested 
his deep thhorrencBorthis act of dread- 
ful guilt in denying hia blessed Lord, 
by requesting to be crucyied with his 
head downwards, aa unworthy to soffer 
the same manner that Cbtiat did 
33, 34. See Matt. tivi. 33—35. 
35. WJitn I tent yott, dtc. See Matt. 
9, 10. ^Laditdve, &.c. Did yon 
ant any thing ? Di* not God fblly 
,..ovide for you T He refers to this lo 
convince ihem that his words w«M 
that Ibeii pi 

nine. C 
of iTieii 


4. D. S3.] 



* I tent ;ou without puree , and scrip, 
and shoes, lacked je any thing 1 
And they said. Nothing' 

36 Then said he untc them. But 
now, he that hath a puree, let him 
lake a, and likewise hii scrip : and 

lead ihem lo put conlideDce in him and 
in God. 

36. Bui nam. The Saviour says iha 
tunes ere chauged. Before, be sent 
ihem out only tor a Ultle time. The^ 
were in iheir own counlry. Theu- 
joiuneye wonid beshorl, uid there was 
up need that ;hey siiould make prepa< 

. r for i 

J great daiieere. Bui turn 

iey were lo go into the wide world, 
Unoog ■iTTuigers, Irialf, dangers, and 

H he was about to die ; and ta Iheae 
■a preesed on; it was proper that 

they B 

Man. X. 9. 

uld make f 

. ^^ I 

1 for 

iravelUrg. TSfrip. See Malt. i. 10. 
T Aiid Ac Ihai tali no tmard. There has 
been much difiicuhy in atiderstanding 
why Jeaua directed hia diacjplea to arm 
tbeinselvea, as if it was bis porpose to 
make a delence. It is certain that the 
Bpiril of his reU^on is against the use 
of the sword, and that it was not his 

Eurpoee CO defend himself agaimt Judas, 
int it should be remembered that these 
directiana about the purse, the scrip, 
Slid lbs sword, were not made with re- 
ference to bis being takm in the garden, 
but with reference to iheir fulure lift. 
The time of the (rii^ in Gethsemane 
was just al hand. Nor was there limt 
then, if no other reason eristed, to go 
and make the purchase. It altogether 
■efcrs lo Iheir jijture life. They were 
going into the midst of dangera. The 
cauntry was infested with robbers and 
wild beasts. It was customary to go 
armed. And he tells tbetn of those 
lluigen — of the neceaaily of being pre- 
pared in lbs usual way to meet them. 
Tiiis, then, is not to bs considered as a 
ipecific positive camiuutd to procure a 
Mword, but an intimation that peai dsn- 
ger^ were before tiiem ; thev taaoner 
of life woold be cbanged, and tbey 
woald mmI the protiaioDs aamrtmriMtt. 
VnL. n. — 14 

he that hath no «word, let him mU 
his garment and buy one. 

37 For I say unto you. That thi* 

that is written ' must yet he accom- 
plished in me, And ha was reck- 
oned among the transgixasors : foi 

(o liat hind of UJe. The anDOM pre 
pBTBitoti liir that manner of life was 
money, pravisionB, and arms. And be 
foretells them of (hat maimer of life bv 

Siving them direciions commonly un 
etatood to be appropriate to it. Il 
amounls. then, to awidirtion that ihey 
would Boon leave Ibe places tliey had 
been accustomed to, and eo into scenes 
of poverty, want, and danger, where 
they would feel tbc necessity of money, 

provisiona. and the ' ''- 

' '1, therefore ' 
,l8t. That 

Erovide beforehand for their ' 
>r mitiiaters and missionaries aa well 
H9 any other. Sd. Thai aelf.defence is 
lawful. Men, encompassed with dan 

ferB, may lavrfully defend their bves. 
t does noC prove that it is lawful lo 

individual. V Zel Aim lell hit garmaa. 
His mantle, or his ouler garment, Seis 
Matt. V. 40. 'The mesntng is, lei him 
procure one .at any eipense, even if he 
IB obliged to sell his clotbea for if— in- 
limatmgthat Ibe dangers would bsvery 
greal and pressing. 

37. Thii Oal it vraten. Isii. !iii..lS. 
^ Was reckoned onon^ the Irantgrettort, 
Not reckoned at a iranagreBsor, bul 
oBun^ or milk Ihem, That is, he waa 
treated as trfnegresBors ore. He was 
put to death in their company, and as . 
he leoald June been if be had been a 
tranBgreseor, He was innocent, holy, 
harmless, and undeGled. Heb, vii. j!6 
God knew Ihis ilways, and coold not 
tiink of him, or make him lo be, other 
wise than he was. Yet it pleased him 
lo bruise him, and to give bim into the 
hands of men who did reckon him as a 
IransgreSBor. and who treated him ae- 

frdirtgly. T Havean end This may 

shall be s: , 

hey are oinf lo be flil- 
_. .. ___«™fiilfilled,' Thefcf. 
Is probably the meaning, denoting 

48 LU 

llw tbingii concerning me haic an 

38 And they said, Lord, beiiold, 
hero are two swords: and he said 
axeo them. It is enough. 

39 And ■ he came oat, and went, 
as he was wont, u> the mount of 
Olives: and hie disciples also fol- 
lowed him. * 

40 And when' he was at the 
place, he said unto them, Piay that 
yo enter not into temptation. 

41 And he was wi^idrawn from 
them , about a stone's cast, and 
kneeled down, and prayed, 

43 Saying, Father, if thon be 
' willing, remove this cud from me : 
oevertheless, not my will, but thine 
be done. 

43 And there appeared an angel 

Hid, ofien went armed. The Es- 
I did BO bIw). The reason was tliat 
ounlry was fijll of robbers and wild 
3, and il wb« necessary lo carry in 

;ms that the disciples followed ihc 
country, and had with 
^a of defence, though 
/o swordfl unons the 
. . etu>ugh. Il is difficnU 
Lderslandlhis. Some suppoae that 
epoken irmicallv. As if he had 
' You are bravely armed indeed ; 
iwo swords amone twelve men, 
o mceteuch a host.' Others, that 
aeanl to reprove them for under - 
lifm liifToUy, aa if he meant 
luai iiiey Hero then to procure swords 
for immediate batLie, Aa if he had said, 
' This is abeurd. or a peryersion of my 
meaning, I did not intend tAii, but 
merely io foretell you of impending 
dangers after my death," It is to be 
observed that he did not say 'Iht luw 
mordiara enough,' but "i(ie enoughs" 
nerhaps meaning amtply, enough 

they bad b 

standing li 

u will y, 



39—46, See Malt iiyi. 30 — 46; 
Harkxiv 26—13. 
43. StrenftkHiing hint. His human 

wd from tl 

* onto him (nxa heaioii, sUeugtbea- 
ing him. 

44 And ' being in an agony, he 
ptayed more earnestly : and his 
sweat was as it were great drops of 
blood ^ling down to the ground. 

45 And when he rose up Irom 
prayer, and was come to his disci- 
ples, he found them rleeping fca 

46 And said unto tnem, Why 
sleep ye! rise and pray, ' lest ya 
enter into temptation. 

47 And while he yet spake, be- 
hold, ■ a multitude, and he that was 
called Judas, one of the twelve, 
went before them, and drew near 
unto Jesus, I9 kiss him. 

4S But Jesus said unto him, Ja- 

cU.l.ia. Jnn.lS.ST. ne,S.7. dver^C 

• MBtl.S6.47,tc Mat.ll.4a,tc. Jnn-isa.te. 

aa well aa human ; for if he was God, 
how could an angel give any stren^lli 
or comfort, and why did not the diviLfi 
nature ofmie Husiain the human? But 
t)ie fact Ihat be was divine does not af- 
fect the case at all. It might be asked 
wiih the same propriety, if he was, as 
all admit, the itiend of God, and be- 
loved of God, and holy, why, if ha was 
a mere man, did not God sustain him 
alone, without an angel's intervening!. 
But the objection in neither cai^ would . 
anyforce. Theman, Cjbril Jetiu, 

■ suffe 


agony ; and it is the manner of God 
lo sustain the afHicled by the inlerren- 
tion of others. Nor waa there any 
more ttnfilneti in sustaining the human 
nature of his Son in this manner, thiui 
any other sufferer. 

44, In an agony- ^~~ '' ' ^~ 
plained in the Wot< 

45. Sleeping/or 
if the grealnesa ot 

D Matthew x. 

I thai he wu not divizia 1 A kbn was tl 


47—53. See this 
uvi. 48—56. 

48. BetTOytst thou the Son 0/ 
wUh a *u. f By the Son of mm 
evidently meant there the STe 
Judaa had had the most satiafii 
evidence of that, and did not doubl 


ri' alleilion. Bv 

\i o; ».] 



te> betnyeat thou the Son of man 
with a kiia 1 

49 When they which were abuut 
hiia aaw what would follow, they 
Mtd unto him. Lord, shall we smite 
widi the sword ! 

60 And one 'of them smole the 
■errant of the hi^ priest, and cat 
off his right ear. 

51 And Jesus answered and said. 
Suffer ye thus far. And he touch- 
ed his ear, and healed him. 

&3 Then Jesua said unto the 
ehief priests, and captains of the 
temple, and the elders, which were 
come to him, Be ye come oU, ss 
Bg^net a thief, with swords and 

53 When I was daily with you 
in the temple, ye stretched forth 
no hands against me: but Chis is 
your hour • and the power of dark- 

54 Then took tiiey him, end led 
Ann, and brought him into the high 
priest's house. And l^eter followed 

65 And when th^ had kindled 
a fire in the midst of ^e hall, and 
were set down together, Peter sal 
down amon^ them. 

5G But * a certain maid heheld 
him as he sat by the lire, and earn- 
estly looked upon him, and said, 
This man was also with him. 

67 And he denied him, saying. 
Woman, I know him not. 

JlMi.lB.S8. iMulSt.7S. MiT U.1%. 

chit slight ertifica Judas thought 
oonceal His base purpoee. Jesus. i 
soTerity, reprosches him for it. 
woti IS emphatic. Belrapett muu — 
ilOBt ibou riolals all thy abligatioaa of 
Rdetity, and deliver lliy Master up to 
deatal Betrayesl Um—tliau. to long 
viih him, so much fevared, so sure 
that this is the Messiah f Betmyest 
thou thiSoK of Man~\he Menioh, the 
nopo of the nations, the deriie of nil 
VSople, the world's Rsdsemert Be- 

58 And aflsi a little whil« ' an- 
other aaw him, and said. Thou ait 
alaoofthem. And Petei said, Man. 
Lam not. 

59 And about the space of one 
hour afler, anotlier ' coofidently af- 
firmed, saying. Of a Ifuth" tiiis /i;/- 
inv! also was with him ; for he is a 

60 And Peter said, Man, 1 know 
not what thou sayest. And imme- 
diately, while he yet spake, the cook 

61 And the Lord turned, and 
looked upon Peter. And ■ P&ts 
remembered the word of the Lord, 
how he had said onto him. Before ' 
the cock crow, thou shalt deny ms 

63 And ' Peter went out, and 
. wept bitterly. 

63 And^themen that -held Jesus 
mocked him, artd smote him. 

64 And when they had blindfold 
ed him, they struck him on die face, 
and asked him, saying. Prophesy. 
who is it that smote thee T 

65 And many other things blas- 
pbemouslv spalie they against him. 

66 And ' as soon as it was day, 
the ^ers of the people and the 
chief priests and the scribes came 
together, and led him into their 
council, saying, 

67 Artthou'theChristl tell us. 
And he said unto them, If I tdl 
you, ye will not beliere : 

/ver.34. I Fs.130.1'4. 143.1-4. Je.31.I3. 
Ek.7.16. ICo.IO.IS. SCo.7.10,11. * Mitt. 
Se.67.CB. Mar 14.03, t Mal(.37.1. JUA. 
K-aS. j Mstt.M.eaAc Har.M.SlAe. 

trayest thoti the Sou of man aiitk a kit! 
— Lbe sign of Iriendship and aflection, 
employed in a base and wicked pur- 
pose, intending to add deceit, disgrnse, 
and a prostitution of a mark of ofTeclion, 
to the erimt of treason 1 Every word 
of this must hnve gone Id the very soul 
of Jadaa! Perhaps few reproofs of 
crime more resemble the awful HSrch* 
ings of the BOiib of the wicked m thi 
day of judgment I 
H-e». See Hut. znL ST— n> 


i And if I tdao ask i/tyu. je irill 

power of God. 

70 Then said they all. Art thoii 
then the Son of God 1 And he Baid 
DDlo them, Ye say that I am. 

71 And tbej said, What need 
we any ftinher witness 1 for we 
otmelvea have heard of his own 


AND ' tiie whole mnliitade of 
them arose, and led him uoto 
9 And they began to accuse ' 

■ He.l.3.e.l. Re.aai. » l(>tt^.3.11AE- 
llv.lS.lJa. Ino.18.agAc eZec.11.8. 
* TM.S. Acia.S0.91. ITAT' 

63—71. See Notes on Matt, k 


3. Tilt fettm. The woid ftUm a 
not in the ariginai. It conveys a notion 

iroper should 

, _. .. Dslauon. Ii 

be InnslBted, 'We tbuod tba man.' 
1 Penerting tU luKuni. That is, ei- 
citing ihem to sedilion and tumulu. 
Thifl was a mere wanton accusation, but 
it WBB plausible beibre a Roman msgis- 
irale: For, Isl. The Galilesns, as Jo- 
sepbuB teatiiiaB, were ptons to ndilions 
' and tumults. 2d. Jesus drew multi- 
tudes sTter him, snd they Ihon^hi it was 
easy to show that this was itself pio- 
moting tumult! and seditions. 1 Far- 
hijdiug, &.C. About theii cWges they 
were very cauitious and cunning. They 
did not say that he laag^ that men 
■bould not giie trUmti. That would 
, have been toogrossacharge, and would 
have been easily refuted. Bui il was 
an HffertBce which ibey drew. They 
•aid 11 follmind from bis doctrine. He 
professed to be a king. They viftrred, 
therefore, if A< was a iiiu'. that be must 
bold that it was not right to acknow- 
ledge allegiance to any foreign 
And if they could make " 
id tlisl Pilate 


KE. [A. D. SI 

him. Baying, We found thia/tAwo 
perverting the oatioa, end forbid- 
ding to gnf tribute * to Cesar, say- 
ing, that he f himself is Christ a 

3 And Pilate asked him, Baying, 
Art thoQ the King of the Jewa.1 
And ' he answered him, and aaidt 
Thou sayest it. 

4 Then aaid Pilate to the chirf 
prieBta and to the people, I find M 
' fault in this man. 

5 And they were the more fierce. 

l^a.l.S i rt.s}A. 

of course. ^ Tr^alt. Toies. 1 Cunr. 
The Roman emperor, called abo Tibe- 
riuB. The name C<e«r was common 
(a the Ronisn empetots, as FiarmtK 
was to the Egyptian kings. All the 
kings of Egypt were called Pharaoh, or 
UeTharaoh ; so all the Roman emps 
mra were called Catar. 

3. See Matt, uvii, II. 

4. ijtNd ro/bhIc. I see no evidenoa 
that he is guilty of what you charge hipi 
with. TUs was afUr Pilate had lakan 
Jesus into the judgment hall by himself 
and examined bim priaitdy, and been 
satisfied in regard to the nature of his 
kingdom. See John iiiiL 33— 38. Uc 
was iktn satisfied that ihouth he claimed 
to be a king, yet his kingdom was not 
of this n srld ; and that Au claims did 
not iniert'ere with those of Csssar. 

5. Tienamjurct. The more urgent 
snd preesing. They saw ihere was a 
prospect of losing their cause, and they 
Bilempied to preas on Pil^e the point 
that would be most likely luiw to afiecl 
him. Pilats had in lact acquitted him 
of the charge of being an enemy to Cffl- 
Bar. and iliey tlierefore urged the other 
point mote Tchemenlly. iSlirreU hv 
Ike peoplt. Eicjiea them to tumuli and 
gediiion. ^ AU Jean/. All Judoa. 
IFram Galila to thii placf. To Jeru- 
salem. Thai ia, ihrougboul the whole 
country. Il is not merely in ons ptacs 
but from one end af 'lie laud t an 




6 When Pilate lieafd of Galilee, 
he asked wliether the man weie a 

7 And as soon aa he knew that 
he belonged onto Herod's ■ juris- 
diction, he sent him to Herod, who 
bimself also was at Jernsalem at 
that time. 

8 And when Herod saw Jesus, 
he was exceeding glad : for ' he 
was desirous to see him of a long 
seaion, because ■ he had heard 
maof things of him : and ' he 
hoped to have seen some miracle 
done by him. 

9 Then he questioned whh him 
in many words ; but ' he answered 
biro nothing. 

■ c.3.1. Ic.9.9. tUitt.14.1. Mar.B.14. 
i 3 KiAIL 

6. Whether he were a Galilean. He 
laked this becaiue, ifbe was, be proper- 
[y belonged lo Herod's jurisdicuoo, 
wbo reigned over Galilse. 

7. Hemftjariidiclioii. Herod An- 
lti>ud.tbe son of Herod ihe Great. This 
was the same Herod thai put John the 
Bsptiet to dsatb. Jesus had paaaed the 
TT.ntl of his life in Ibe part of the coun- 
try where he ruled, and il was therefore 
co.imdered that he belonged to hU ju- 
risdiction ; that is, that it belonged to 
Herod, not to PiUle, to try this cause. 

10. VdiemeiUly aauied Aim. Vio- 
lently or unjuatl]> accused him, endea- 
voring to make it appear thai he bad 
been guilty of sedition in Herod's pro- 

\l' Hend,viiih]iiMmen^tMT. With 
his soldiers, or his body guard. It is 
probable that in trsveiling he had a 
guard to attend bim consuintly. * Set 
Ubi ttt nmight. Treated bint with con- 
tempt and ridicule. V A gorgema niie. 
A white or shining robe, for th-s is the 
meaning of the original. The Roman 
princes wore purple robes, anO Pilate 
therefore put aiicb a robe on Jesus. The 
Jewish kings wore a wAits robe, which 
Was ofien rendered very shininE or gor- 
geoas by much tinsel or silver interwo- 
ven. Joeepbus saye that the robe which 
Agrippa wore was so bright with silvei. 
■hat when the sun shone on it it sodaxzled 
lbs eyes that it was difficult to Unk on 
th The Jews and Romma, therefore. 

10 And the chief priests and 
scribes stood and vehementlj ac- 
cused him. 

11 And Herod with his men of 
war set him al nought,'' and mock- 
ed Aim, and arrayed him in a gor- 
geous robe, ' and sent him again to 

18 And the same da; Pilate andv 
Herod were made Mends together 
for before they were at enmity be- 
tween themselves, 

13 And Pilate, when he had call- 
ed together the chief priests and 
the rnlers and the people, 

14 Said unto them. Ye have 
brought this man unto me as one 
that perverteth the people; and, be- 

(Pa.3S,I3,I4. Sa.I.E 

, /Ii4S.T- 

decked bun in the manner appropriate 
(o their own couticry, for purposes of 
mockery. All this was unlawful and 
malicious, as there was not the least 
evidence of his guilt. ^ Sent him Co Fi 
late. It wag by the intercbange of these 
civilities tbv they were made friend*. 
It would seem that Pilate sent him to 
Herod as a token of civility and respect, 
and with a design perhspa of putting an 
etid to their quarrel- Herod retunied 
the civility, and it resulted in their re- 

11. Made fritnds together, iuc. What 

Jerusalem, as re _, 

The occasion of their reconciUalion 
eeetna to have been the civiUiy and re- 
miect which Pilate showed to Herod in 
this case. It waa ndt because Ibey were 
united in hating Jesus, as is a^en the 
case with wicked men, for Pilate waa 
certainly desirous of releasing bim, and 
hotk considered him merely as an object 
of ridicule end sport. It is true, however, 
that wicked men, at variance in othei 
things, are often united in opposing and 
ridiculing Christ and his followers ; and 
.1 — . -^nn^tiee of long standing are some 
, made up, and the most opposits 
characters brought together simply to 
oppose rebgion. Compare Pa. Ltimii 
5, 6, 7. 

IS, Wtrthj/ uf death. neMrvini as 


uM, 1, 'harlae examined him be- 
tbre^ou, havenjand do fault in this 
man, touching those things where- 

15 No, nor yet Heiod : for I seat 
jou to him ; ind, lo. nothing wc 
thy of death is done unto him. 

16 I will therefore chastiae ' hii 
JUid releaae him. 

■ 17 (For of necaSBi^ he must r 
lease one unto them at the feast.) 

18 And they cried out all at one 
saying. Away with this man, and 
release unto ua Barabbas: 

19 (Who for it certaio eedilion 
tnade id the city, and for murder, 
was cast into prison.) 

20 Pilate therefore, willing to n 
lease Jeeue, spake again to them. 

31 But they cried, saying, Cni- 
cify Aim, crucify him. 

33 And he said unto then 
third time, Why, what evil hath he 
donel I have found no cause of 

dcBlh. The charges are not proved 
agmnat him. They had had every op- 
ponunity of proving (hem, first before 
PilBte, and then before Hemd. unjustly 
subjecting him to trial betore Itua men 
in Bucccsaionrand lhu9 giving them a 
double opponuniiy of condemning him, 
and ;el after all he waa declared by 
trnth 10 be innocent. There could be 
no better evidence that he loai innocent. 
16. ItBiUthfrtforediaitixehm. The 
word duuti ' 

n condemned. 

e reaioQ why, if PL- 
late supposed Jeaus to be tntuemt, he 
ahauld propose publicly to scourge him. 
It waa aa reoZZif unjust to do tluu aa it 
was to crucLh' him. But probably he 
Oipecied by this to eondliate the minds 
ef hia accusers ; to show them thai he 
la willing to gratify them if it aruld 
'-~\e with propriety; snd perhapa 
ictedlhatbyseeinshim whipped, 
and (bsgraced, and con£tnned to ridi- 
■nie. ind conlempl. and sufTering. they 
vould be satisGed. It is ^ther re- 

feringa of (he n 

be dcie V 

KB. [&.D.» 

deatli in him : I wiU flierefon cbas 
tise him, and let htm go. 

S3 And they were instant ' widi 
loud voices, requiring tliet lie mighf 
be crucified. And the voices of 
them and of the cliief priests pre- 

24 And Pilate ' gave eentenea 
that it should be as they ' required. 

35 And he released unto them J 
him that for eedilion end miurdei 
was cast into prison, whom they 
had desired ; hut he delivered Jesus 
to their will. 

26 And ' as they led him awsj, 
tiiey laid hold upon one Simon, a 
Cyrenian, tutming out of the coun- 
try, and on him they laid the criWB. 
that he might bear it afler Jesu4. 

37 And there followed him a 
great company of people, and of 
women, which also bewailed and 
lamented him. 

38 But Jesus turtung nnto themt 

Ma.lsaiAc. Jna.l».lT. 

^ I magiatiale to mflict • 

ili^l punishment on a man when a 
:harge of gross offence was not fuUy 
nnde out, or where there was not mm 
neut testimony lo substantiate the pre- 
nee cbsrge alleged. AU this shows, 
lal, the palpable injuMtnof our Lord's 
condetnnauon ; 9d,theperseveiingma- 
lice and obstinacy of the Jews; and, 
3d, tbe want of fi:inneas in Pilate. He 
should have released him at once, but 
(he love of pMulariiy led him lo the 
murderoftbe SonofGod. Manshould 
do hia duly in ell aitueiiona, and he ibal, 
like Pilate, eeeks only for public favor 
and popularity, will assuredly be led 

IT. See Matt, uvii 

18—93. See Matt. . 

B3— 35. See Molt. 
~ See Mut. uvji 

... Probably lo bei 

roes. . JesuB was feeble and unable U> 
ear it alone, and they compelled SUuoa 
> help him. 

"- Daughlm 

if Jar 


I of JenuoiflN. Women 

This 1 


the Hebrawk. 


CHAPTER xxrn. 


■aid. DaogiiteiB of Jeniaalem, weep 
not for ma, but weep for youiselvea, 
Bud for your childien. 

39 I' or, behold, the iaja ' are 
eomine, in the which they shall 
tay, BleMed ore the barren, and the 
wombs that nerer bare, and the paps 
which neTer gave suck. 

30 Then * shall they begin to say 
to &e mountains. Fall on uB ) ' 
to the hills, Cover us. 

31 For ' if they do these things 
• Miii^.ia. c.«.!3. tii.9.ig.B. - 

to the calamitiBs thai were about lo 
come upon them in the dcsolatioa of 
thmr city by the Romatis. 

30. Toihemeiintaint,Faaontu,&,c. 
This is an imagB of great oalaiailiea and 
judgments. &i great will be the cala- 
mitiea that they will geek far aholter 
from the alorm, and will call on the bills 
In iiTYifpfit thara. The aame figure ie 
^Ihe wicked in the day 

nf judOTi'enl in Rev. vi. 16, 17. 

31. Far if Ihey Jo thtie tliingt in a 
grtat Iret, 4,c. Thia aeema lo be ti 
proverbial eipresaion. A green tree is 
wie thai is not easily set on nre. A dry 
one is easily kindled, and burnsjapidiy. 
By agreaitrea ia represented evidently 
a man of truth and purity. And the 
meaning of (he passaee is i ' If they, 
the Romana, do these things to me, who 
Im innocent and b|^eleBB, if they 
punish me in this manner in the face of 
lUfitice, what will they nut do in rela- 
fion to this guilty nation I What lecu- 
rily have (ley ihat heavier judements 
will not come apon them 1 What de- 
■olalions and woes may not be eipecied 
when injMlice and oppression have 
taken ths place of justice, and have set 
op a rule over this wicked people!' 
Our Lord allades evidently to the cala- 
miues that would come upon Ibem by 
the Romana in the destruction of their 
city and temple. The passage may be 
spplied. however, without impropriety, 
tnd with great baauiy and force, lo the 
punishment of the wicked in the future 
world. Tbusapnlied, itmeans thatthe 
■nflerings of ibe Saviour compared with 
Ibe sulleringB of the guilty, were like 
the burning of a green tree compared 
«t[h the burning <M ime Ihil is dry. A ; 

in a gieen tree, what shall be done 
in the dry ^ 

32 And there were also two 
others, malefactors, ' led with him 
to be put to death. 

33 And when tiiey were come tii 
the place which is called ' Calvary, 
there they crucified him, and the 
male&clors ; one on Uie right hand, 
and the other on the left. 

34 Then said Jeaus, Father, • 
forgive them ; for they know not 

d IiJSaia. ' or, U> five ^ t fCBU 
t MatcS.M Ac.7.StL 1 Co,4.]S. 

en tree is not adapted to 
one ia. So the Saviour- 
e, and holj — stood in rela 

ferine. Then 

being could n 

.._ !, the 

sense of guilt, punishment properly so 
called, and the eternity of woes. He 

he would not sufler for ever. He had 
no passions to enkindle that would rage 
and ruin the soul. The sinncrisivfaniecl 
lo oufTerings — Like a dry tree to the tire. 
He is guilty, and will suffer all the bor- 
roraofremorBe of conscience. He will 
as raging 

.. tbey win 

_ . , [ud will rage for 

ever and ever. The meaning is, that 

if the innocent Saviour suffered lo mbc*. 

the sujferings of the unner for ever in 

" must be more unspeakably dread- 

Yel who could endure the suffcr- 

of Ibe Redeemer on the cross for a 

^iedayt Who could bear them for 

ever and ever — aggravated by all the 

1 _r _ _.:, .. j,^^ jjjij ^ji 

— —-^ ,. ^-„_, anger, and 

hate, and fear, and wrath T—n^Ay WILT 
'e wicked die 1 
39, 33, See Matt. Jivii. 35, 38. 
34. Father, forgive them. This ISB 
__ilfilment of the prophecy in Isa. liiL 
19 : He made intercaiimfor the tram- 
^ . I. The prayer was offered for 
those who were guilty of pultina liim 
to death. It is not quite certain whether 
he referred lo the Jeice, or to ths Raman 
mlditri. Perhaps he referred to both. 
The Romans knew not what they did. 
as they were really ignorant that he wis 
the Son oi' God, and were obeying lb* 


what they do. And they pailed hia 
r^munl, and cast lots. 

35 And the people stood behold- 
Ixifr, And tliB rulers also nith them 
• derided Aim, saying. He saved 
others ; kt him save Rimself, if he 
be Christ, the chimeD of God. 

36 And the soldiers also mocked 
im, coming to him and oSering 
im vinegar. 

coraniBnd of iheu' rule™. The Jewi 
Icdsw indeed )bal he was imiceaU, and 
ihey had evidence, if lhe3' would have 
looked at il. thai he nu ihe Messiali, 
but ihef did not know whsl would be 
the effect of their guiUj the; did 

know whu judgments and cal&mi 

Ihey were bringing down upon their 
country. It may be added, also, that 
though tber bad abundant evidence, if 
they would look at it, that he was the 
Meaaiah, and enough to leave them 
without excuse, yel ihey did not in/acl 
believe ibat he was the Saviour pro- 
miaed by ibe propheia, and had not m 
fact any proper Benae of hia rank and 
dignity aa " the Lord of glory." If 
ihey had bad, they would not have cm. 
cified bim — as we cannot euppoBfl they 
would knowingly putlodesthlbcirown 
Messiah — the hope of the nation — and 
him who had been ao long promised to 
the fathers. See Notes on 1 Cor. ii. 8. 
We may {earn from this prayer: let. 
The duly of praying for our enemies, 
even when ibey are endeavot^ng most 
to injure us. 2d. The thing for which 
we should pray for Ihem la thai God 
woubl pardon them, and give them 
better minds. 3d. The power *^d ei- 
celletice of the Christian Tcligto!i. No 
other religion teacha men to pray for 
ihe forgiveness of enemies; i>o other 
dttpata them to do it. Men of the 
world seek for rntngti the Christian 
bears reproaches and pcnwcaaons with 
patience, and prays that God would 
[lardon them and save tbiim from ^eir 
■ins. 4lh. The greatest sL'-j'./.ra through 
the intercession of Jesus' may obtain 
sardan. God beard him, cod still hears 
him oIiDsyt, and there is no reason to 
doubt that many of his enemies and 
murderers obtained forgiveness and life. 
Compare Ada ii. ?T, 43 43; r* 7; 

!vE. LA. D. 3i 

37 And Baring, If thon be Ihit 
Kii^ of the Jews, save diyielf. 

39 And a superscription also was 
wrilten over aim, in letters of 
Greek, sad Latin, and Hebrew, 

39 And one » of the malefaclon 
which were hanged, railed on hira 
saving. If thou be Christ, save ihT 
s^f and OS. 

xiv. 1. 1 Thev knoa not Kkat Ihty do 
It was done ihrougb Ignorance. Act> 
iij. IT. Paul says that " had ihey knowi 
it. ihey would not have crucified tb< 
Lord of glory." I Cor. ii. 8. Ignorance 

„ And tbue they migU be held 
answerable for all this. But Jesus hare 
shows the compassion of hie heart, and 
as they were reoUy ignorant, whatever 
might be the cause of Ihoir ignorance; 
yet be implores God to pardon them. 

should be pardoned that ihef were ig- 
norant of what ihey were doing. And 
though men are often guilty for their 
ignorance, yet God often looks in com- 
passion over it. averts his anger, and 
rants them blessings of pardon an^ 
fe. So he forJ«ye Pauh fo ' 


: Tim. i. 


3. So God aitAed 

if the Gemiles. Acts xvU. 30. 

hia is no excuse, and no evidono 
safely, for those who in our day 
temptuously put awoy from ihem 
their children the means of in 
35—39. See Malt, iivii. 41— M. 

38. In lelten of Greek, &.C. Sea 
Notes on Matl. xv'ii. 37. 

39. One of the naUfaeteri, Mat- 
tbew 'oh. iivii. 44] says ' ' the thieter- 

Ihi lOTne inhU teeth." See the ap- 

._.jnciled in the Notes on that place. 
V If thou be Chriit. If thou art the 
Messiah ; if Ihou art what ihou dost 
pretend to be. This is a taunt or re- 
proach of Ihe same kind as thai of the 
' s in verse 35. V Saee thyUffmiti 
Save our lives. Deliver as &o<* 

%. p. 39.J 


40 But the otheT jnaweiing, t^ 

baked him, saying, Dost not thou 
feiir * God, seeing thou ait in the 
eaxae * C'Dndemnation I 

41 And we indeed justly; for we 
receJTe tile duo reward of our deeds: 

the erosB. This man did not seek for 
Mlvation truly; be asked not to be de- 
lintred from hia sine ; if he had, Jesus 
wonld ttiso have heard him. — Men of- 
ten in mckness and afflicdon citl upon 
Giod. They sre earnest in prayer. 
Thev sak of God to save them, but it 
is only to save ihem from tanporat death. 
It is not to bo saved from their aina, 
and the coneequence is Ibac when God 
doo niae them up they forget their pro- 
ntiaes, and hve~BB they did before, as 
ibis robber amild have done, if Jeaua 
bad heard bia prayer, and delivered 
bim from the cross. 

to. Dintnolthi»ftarGod,&.c. You 
are condemned to die aa well as be. It 
IB improper for you 10 rait on him as 
the rulers and Romans do. God is 
Ju9t, and you are baatening to hia bar, 
and yon should therefore fear him, and 
fear thai be will ininish vou for railing 
on this innocent man. ySameeimdem- 
■ulioK. Candemaatioa to death, not 
death for the sacae thing, but the same 
JhW of death. 

41. Dae renrd of our rfecdi. The 
proper punishment far our Crimea. They 
bad been highwaymen, and ilwasjual 
that they should die. 

42. Rraexixrm 
prayinB for bvor, or asking b — ._ 
grant Bm an niernt m his kingdom. 

3 acknowledge him as one of his 

This ia a pbraae 

ip^ied thai be believed 

fbllowt _. 

to bless him, though about to expire. 
[t is possible that this man might have 
h^ard him preach before bis cruci5xion, 
and have learned diere the nature of his 
kingdom, or it in possible that while on 
the cross Jesue had taken occasion to 
BCq-iainl them with the nature of his 
kingdom. While he might have been 
doing tltia, one of the maiefactora might 
have GOntinicd to rail on him while the 
pthsr became truly penitent, Such a 
fbsdII of pmaehkiK the goapcl woold not 

have been unlike what has often occur 
red since, where, while the gospel has 
been proclaimed, one has been " taken 
and another left : " one has been melted 

hardened in guilt. The promise which 
follows Bbowa that th' 
awered. Thiswaaai 
in the Isst honrs, the trying houra of 
death. And h has been remarked that 
oKe waa brought to repentance there, 
to show that no one should dfapair on a 
dying bed; and hitone,lbalnone should 
be presumptuous and delay repentance 
to that awbil moment, 1 When tiam 
eamat, &,c. It is impossible now to fix 
the precise idea which this robber had of 
Christ's coming. Whether it be that he 
expected that be would rise from the 
dead, aa some of theJews supposed the 
Messiah would, or i?hether he referred 
the day of judgment, or whether to 
hia kingdom 
tell : an that 

day ol jt 
L the heavens. 

to be the Meaeiab. and that he desired 
to obtain an interest in that kingdom 
which be knew he would estabUah, 

43, To-4ay, dec. It is not probable 
that the dying .thief expected that his 
prayer would be so soon answered. It 
IS rather to be supposed that he looked 
to Bome/uCiire period wben the Messiah 
would rise, or would return. But Je- 
sus totd him thai his prayer would soon 
lie answered, implying evidently that it 
would be itnmtdiaielv at death. This 
is the more remarkable as those who 
were crudfied commonly lingered for 
sevenil days on Ibe cross before ihejr 
died. But Jesns foresaw that measures 
would be taken to Aaitm their death, 
and assured him that thai day he should 
' re an answer to his prayer, and be 

means a efiTdtn, and psrticu 

den of pressure, filled with ti 
shrubs, and fountains, 'and Howen 
hoi cbmatsa such rardena were p 

arly pleasar,',, and^ience th^ w« 

Vflrily • 1 «By unto fliee, To-day 
(halt thou be with me in * naradis*. 

44 And it vas about the sixth 
honr, and there wm darkneHS ovt 
all ' the earth until the ninth hour. 

45 And the auu was darkened, 
and tiiB veil of the temple was 
in tbs midst. 

46 And when Jeaua had ciied 
with a loud Toice, he said. Father, 
into * thy hands I comitiend raj 
ipirit : and ' ha-ring aaid thna, he 
gave up the ghost. 

47 Now whan the centurion saw 
what waB done, he glorified God., 
saying, Cerbinly this was a- rigbt^ 

4S And all the neople that i 
together to ^at sight, beholding the 

■ tSCor.ia.4. Re.S.T. ' 
taitd. ( Pi.31.5, ireS3S. dHatl. 
ftc. Mir.lS.3T,ltc Jni),lD.30. 

— a rich, and 

10 ine palaces of princes. They came 
ihence lo denote any place of happi- 
neas, and particularlT the word was 
used lodenoto the abodes of Ihe blessed 
in anolhor world. The Romans spoke 
of their Elysium, and the Cireeks of [he 
nardena of HeeperideB where Ihe trees 
bore golden fruit. The garden of Eden 
means also the garden ofpfauurs ; and 
in Gen. ii. 8. the Sepiuaguit renders the 
word Edea by Faradiie. Hence this 
name in ihe scriptures comas to denote 
the abodes of the blessed in the other 
world. See Notes on 2 Cor. xii. 4. 
The Jews supposed that the souls of 
the righleouB would be received into 
such a place, and those of the wicked 
cast down to Gehenna until the limit nf 
Ihe judgment. The Jews had 

cessary K 


J „ ._^ The ptsin meaning 

of the pasaage is ' to-day thou ahaU be 
tDade happy, or be received to a state 
of blessedness wiih" me after death ;' 
anjii is to be remarked that Christ aaya 
nothing about the place vkert it should 
be, nor of lbs candjtion of those there, 
Wceplitie that it is a place of bleaaed- 
neai. and thai its happiness is to com- 
mence jmmadialely after death. See 
alu Phil. L 23. Butt^om the narrs-jve 
we may lesm i 1st. Thai (lie soul will 
ku*t wiiaTatelr &om the bod* lor 


thln{^ iritis wore dens, iMole Am 
breasts, and returned. 

49 And all hie acqaaintahce, mni 
the women that followed him froa 
Galilee, stood afar * oS, beholding 
Uiese thing*. 

fiO And, behold, there teat a man 
named Joseph, a coungelloi; owl 
As ivai a eood man, and a juat : 

51 [The same had not oonsei 
to the counsel and deed of lltMM i) 
ie teas of AiimaAea, a cin of tbe 
Jewa ; who ^ also himself waited 
for the kingdom of God. 

52 This ™» went unto Pilate, 
and beeged the body of Jeeus. 

53 And he took it down, and 
wrapped it in linen, and Isid it in 
a ' sepnlchro that was hewn in 

while the tbief and Ihe SaTionr would 
be in paradise, their badia would be on 
the cross or in the grave. 2d. That 
immediately after deaih, Ihe same day, 
the eoula of the ligDIious will be mad« 
happy. They wul teel that they aw 
secure ; they will be received atnonf 
the just, and they wdl have the ssntr- 
ance of the future resurrection and of ■ 
giotiouB immorlBlily. 3d. That stale 
will differ from the condidon of the 
wicked. The promise was made lo but 
one on the cross, and Ihoro is no evi- 
dence whatever ihst the other entered 
See also the jmrable of the rich 

ind Lazarus. Luke ivi. 19 — 31. 

4lh. Il ia the chief glory of this stole, 
— ' of heaven, lo be permitted lo see 

us Christ, and to be with him. 

Thou shall be aith me. I desire ta de- 

irt, and to be tcith Chritt. Phil. L 29, 

ee also Rev. xxi. 33 : v. 9—14. 

44— 4G. See Malt. nvii. 45—50. 

47—19. See Mall. nvii. 53—55. 

48. The thing! which mere dene. Tb« 
earthquake, aitd darkness, and the sof^ 
ferings of Jesus. T Small their braut*. 
In token of alar;u, fear, and anguiah. 
They saw the, jadements of God j ihej 
saw the guill of the rulers;- and tb^ 
feared the further displerisure trf lh« 

50—56. See Notss on Matt, sn* 
51^-61. Msriiiv-4a— *J. 


Hone, wherein r 
9 laid. 


54 And that day wsb the • Pre- 
pantion, and the aabhath drew on. 

65 And the women* also, which 
eame with him from Galilee, fol- 
lowed after, and beheld the eepul- 
ctiTe, and how his body wag Md. 

5(i And they returned, and ' pre- 
pared msicea and ointments; and 
Tmted the sabbath-day, according ' 
to the commandment. 


NOW ' upon the Bret day of the 
week, very early in tlie morn- 
ing, they came unto the aepulchre, 
hnnginE' the spices which diey had 
prepared, and certain olhen with 

2 And they found the stone roll- 
ed away from the sepnlchie. 

3 And they entered in, and found 
not the body of the Lord Jeans. 

4 And it came to pass, as they 
were much perplexed thereabout, 
behold, ^ two men stood by them in 
fhininj^ oannents : 

& And, as ^ey were afiaid, and 
bowed down their ftees to ^e earth, 
fliey said unto them, Why seek ye ' 
ng the dead! 

HL£.i. ver4B. tMu. 


6 He la r 
■ H*lt.37.S2. 

remember how he ipahe • unto yon 
when he was yet in Galilee, 

7 Saying, The Son of man ranst 
be deliTered into the hands of siD- 
ful men, and be ciuciHed, and the 
third day rise agtun. 

8 And they remembered his 

9 And retnmed &om the sepnU 
chre, and told all these things nnto 
the eleven, and to all the rest. 

10 It was Mary Magdalene, and 
* Joanna, and Mary iM malher of 
James, and other viamen that teen 
with them, which told these things 
unto ths apostles. 

11 And their words seemed to 
them aa idle tales, ' aitd they be- 
lieved them not. 

12 Then ' aroBo Peter, and ran 
unto the sepulchre ; and stooping . 
down, he beheld the linen clo^ra 
laid by themselves, and departed, 
wondering in himself at thatwhioh 

13 And, behold, two * of them 
went that same day to a Tillage 
called Emmaua, which was from 
Jerusalem alxHit threescore fiirlongt. 

14 And they talked together of all 
these things which had. happened. 


13. Tvooflhem. Two of the disci- 
ples. The name of one of ihem was 
Claajat, ver. 18. Msnv have supposed 
thai the oiher was Luke, and [hat he 
omhted hifl own narne from modesty. 
Others ha™ supposed thai it w!is Peter, 
Sea ver. 31 . 1 Cor. iv. 6. There is no 
tfrtdcneB to guiile us here. Dr. Light- 
flrat has dliown thai Clenpai is Ihs aame 
name as Alpliau, who was the father 
of the apostle James, MaEt. x. 3. 
f EmnoBi. There were two places of 
this name, one of which was ailerwards 
called NicopoUs, and was near the sea 
sfTiberiH. The place tan mentioned 

1T.S3. M*r.B.3l. B.3I. t9 

was situated to the west of Jerusalem 
1 Thra-iainfiirlongi. Stily furlongs 
or aboul seven or eight miles. It is not 
certain that these were apostles, but the 
contrary seems to be implied in ver. 33. 
See Note on that verse. If they were 
probable that they were ii " 

ale disciples whc 
uch with the 8nv 
r part of his minisi 

the clonng 

why they were going to Em- 
it may have been tbst this was 
their native place, or that they hail 
friends in the vicinity. They seem to 
have given up all for lost, and (o have 
come to ibe conclusion Ibitt Jesua wis 
not the Messiah, though they BstvnUy 

1ft And il 
while thejoonuaaned 'toeelttrani 
feasooed, Jesue himself drew near, 
ind \?eul with them. 

16 But their eyes were holdea, • 
that thnj should not know him. 

17 And he H^d unto them, What 
mzncer of communications arc these 
Ibat je hi 
valk, and 

■ MiLllS. 

conversed about it, and there were ma- 
OT things which {hey could not eiplun. 
Their msBter had been crncilied eon- 
inaj to their ex|>eciaiioTi ; iheii hopei 
dashed ; their anticipiiiion diaB^fiointed, 
and ihey ware now returning io sad- 
nen, and very naturally conversed, id 
the WSJ, of the things which had hap- 
pened in Jerusalem ! 

iS. Ommuncd togeOter. Talked to- 
gether. < And rctamud. Thej rea- 
aoned, doubtless, about the probability 
or imprababihty that Jesua was the 
Mesaiah ; about the evidence of bis 
resurrection ■ and about what was to 
be done in the preeent slate of things. 
1 Jetui kaiudf dreic Mor, &.c. The 
disciplBB were properly employed. Tbeir 
ninas were anxious about the state of 

Jesus came to boItb their doubts, aiid 
establish them in the belief that he was 
the Christ. And we may learn from 
this, thai Chrisi will ^uide those who 

and right, he will guide ) snd often 
n uneipaeted ■■ '" — 

er all lb 
is sincerely 

tru^o, and to uo nis wiu ; anu u ms 
people do this, he will not leave them 
to peiplexily and wandedne. 

16, Thtir eya letn hilden. This 
■ipression is used merelv to denote that 
they did not hunc who hp was. It does 
ool appear that there was anf thing su- 
pernatural or miraculous in il : or that 
God used any power lo blind them. It 
may easily be accounted for withoul 
■uch supposition, for Is 
■s miulier/Tm iMark 

IS anpeaied 

KE. [A. D. IS 

18 And the one of them, w&oM 
name was Cleopae, ' ausweiing said 
untn him, Art thou only a stmige] 
in Jerusalem, and haat not known 
the things whii:h are come to pasi 
there in thsee days I 

19 And he said unto them, Wha 
things 1 And they said unto him. 
Cont\eraing Jesus of Neiaretii, 
which was a * prophet mighty ' in 

an appearance difierent from U* nmol 
appearance. Sd. They were not. tx- 
lee htm — indeed they did 
that he wai alive, and ii 

suppose ti 
uireii the si „ 
X them that be was really rii 

Whet ia il that 

dsath of Jesi . 

, they were conversing about 
rere sad aVthe overwhelming 
I had come upon them. 
Ihou onlif a Mirangir t &c. 
This is an expression of soi^nse that he 
should bs onaoquainted with an affair 
that had made so much ncnae, and been 
attended with bo remarkable drcum- 

The ward sin 
me who had comt 
place only for a time, no 
mhabhant. Many Jew; 

all parts of the world tc ., 

keep the paesover there. Thej look 
JesuB to be such a stranger, or foreign- 
er. The meaning of this verse may^tMi 
'bus e^ressed. ' The affiiir conoera 
ing which we are sad lias been public. 
rell- known, and lias made a gnat talk 
nd noise, so that all, even the strangeci 
''ho have come up to remain there bat 
htlle time, are well acquainted widi 
Art thou llie snlw «u of them nko 
aa not heard itt Is every body to 
rell acquainted with it, and thou hart 
..ot heard of it I It is a matter ofaur 
prise, and we camiot account for it.' 

19. A prajAet. A teacher sent from 
God. They did not now call him tba 
MettiaA, for his dtaii bad led (hem to 

A D.m.] 

iaei imd woid before God and all 
the peopli 

30 And * how the chief prieBts 
and our rulers delivered him t" *" " 
condemned lo death, and have 
ciHed him. 

31 But we truBted that it 
neen ' he which should hare Te- 
deemed Israel : and beside all thia, 
to-day is the third day since these 
thii^ were done. 

3^ Yea, and certain women ■ also 
of OUT company made us aatoniah- 
.■e.33.1. Ae.13.3I58. tcl.eS. Acl.S. 

endencB of thai was so cIbst that they 
nwU Dol call it in question. 1 Xigkii 
mdetd. Powerful in working miraclea, 
in raiaiiig the dead, heahng the sick. 
ttc 1 In Bwrrf. In taachine. 1 Be- 
fore God and 1^ Che pecple. Maoiftwllf. 
pnblicly. So that God owned him.aad 
(he peopts regarded him as a dulin- 
guiahed teacher. 

Sa Bee chapter ixiii. 

21. fVe tnuted. We hoped, and 
expected. T Skmld have rtieemei /■- 
rod. That he wsa the Meauah, who 
would have dehvered the nation from 
the Romimg. 1 Baida all tkii. It ie 
lo be obaerred that Cloopas or Alpheae, 
nates thinp just bb they occurred ic 
hie own mind. There is Utile connei- 
ion. Hia mind is conAued, -end dis- 
tracted. There were so muiy- things 
that were rsmatkable in Jbbub; there 
was so much evidence thai he was the 
Meauah ; their hopes had been so sud- 
denly dashed by hia death, aod the euc- 
caediDg events had been so letoarkable, 
that hta mind was confuaed, and he 
)t what lo thinh. The things 


■n igiiaied mmd. And they are ainoi_ 
the etmpla touches of nature, which 
ihow that the book was not forged. If 

day. &.C. Jeeua had foretold th«ii that 
he would rise on the third day. This 
(bey did not understand ; bnl it is not 
improbable that they looked to this day 
expecting something wonderful, and 
thai the viait (o llie aepulefare had called 

t the Mpal' 

ed, which were eaily w 

33 And when they found not iOM 
body, tiiey came, saying thu ihey 
had also Been a viuou of angelt, 
which said dial he was alive. 

34 And certain ' of them which 
were with us went to the sepulcbra^ 
and found it even so as the womea 
had aaid ; but him they saw not. 

25 Then he said unto them, ■ 
fools, and alow of heart to heliera 
all that the prophets have spoken ! 

t vhAIO. <I var.13. * He.3.11,19. 

it 10 their recollection ; and they wars 
more and more amazed when they nut 
all these things together. As if (hay 
had said, ' the thinl day is come, and 
we have not seen him. Tet we begin 
to remember his promise — the ao- 

Kls have informed us (ha( he is alive — 
I we do not know how to put theae 
things together, and what to make of 

S2, S3. Certain toMm. See Mall. 
xjviii 1—7. John ii, 12, T A bum 
ofiautU, An iq)pearuice of angels, or 
they had seen ancela. See John xz. 12. 

24. Cerdnn J^thenvAidt wtre tnU 
H. Peterand John. SeaJohnix.2— 9. 

25. O/ael: The worf '^-' -nine- 
limes is a term of reproach denui^.^ 
aiduJneti, In ibis sense we are for- 
bidden to employ il in addressing an 
other. Mall. v. 22. That, however 

different word m the Greek, Irom 

The 01 

I Iheii 

m thisplac 
iCH. He reproached 
or not seeing what he had him 
— ^. dearly pretBcled, and what had 
been foretold by the prophets. It does 
the original imply as much n 
tlie word /uoJ does among iia. 
. .'t an expression of emlempf, it 

BipresMon denoting merely lh« 

they were UumghtUa, and thai they 
jzj — __^pg|.[j, gtte^ ta the evidetice 

Bi die and rise ^ain, t Stom 

ef keart to bdiete. Mot quick to per 
ceive. Dull of lettnung. They had 
suffered their previous opinions and 
)rejudices lo prevent their seeing the 
ividence that no must die, and rise from 
the dead. ^ All tlial tie imfiittM hni 
ipaifn. Respecting ihe character and 


96 Ougbt ■ not Chiivl to have 
■D^itid lEeee tilings, and to en 
Into hia glory 1 

37 And beginning at MoBes, ' and 
aU the propEets, '^he expounded 
imto them in all the '' - 

■n&rines of the Wetaah. Sea Note 
on ver. 37. 

36. Ought >u€ Chritt, &e. Ought 
not the ManiA. Wu there not evi- 
dence that he would do it i aod w 

nol indispensable (hat he should, i 

der to fuml the prapbedes t The ne- 
at$jtf of bis eufieiing liiege tilings re- 
fened to ttri vraa that it was Ibrelold 
that he vuuld. The reason whf ii 

pfedicted, and why il wr» necei , 

thsr il should be, was that God was 
joat ; thai it was proper that be sbonld 
nianifeet hia justice, and do honor to 
hia law, and secure the due regard for 
hk goremmeat while be pardoned the 

27, Begmniag at Motel. At the 
writmgi of Moses, or al the beginning 
of the Old Testamenl ; or rather the 
word begvaiiag should be separaled 
from what follows, denoting simply that 
be ammoKtd bis discourse, aoi not 
■hat he began at the prophets hb nell as 
at Moses. Thus, ' And comme.iLJog 
bis discourse, or replying to tbem, he 
expounded from Moses and the pro 
pbeis,' See. T All the propAet§. The 
tooke of Ihe Old Tesiament generally. 
T He MiMnded. He eiplauied or in- 
terpreted it to them. Probably he 
showed them tlial their noUons of the 
Messiah were not according to the 
■criptures. They expected a lemporal 
prince ; they wore confounded because 
Tssus had not assumed the teaal power, 
but had beenpiit lu death. lie showed 
them ihat accordiug to the prapbecies 
be oiuht to Buffer, and lliat hia death 
thsrefate was no srgument Ibal he was 
not the Meseiah. 1 1n all the lerip- 
iurm. In all the vrrititigi of ibe Old 
Testament. They were called tcnii- 
hiru, because they were writtcH — the 
tn of priming being ihen unknown. 
1 7^ (AtHf> CDUCsming Aj'hu^^. Con- 

SE [:A.U.SS 

* made as though he would bars 
gone further. 

S9 Bat they couatiained him, 
saying. Abide with ds; foi it is 
Mwaid evening, and the dajr is tut 
spent And he went in to tanr; with 

• a«.M3S. H*r.e.4a. /HBlt.l4.]tl. 

ceming the Meemab. Il does nol an 
pear ibst he applied them (o himstlf 
but left tbem probably lo make the ap 
plication. He showed what the scrip- 
tures foretold: and Uey saw that these 
things applied to Jesus of Nazareth; 
and began lo be satisfied thai be was 
Ibe Messiab. The most striking' pss- 
sa^es foretelUng the character and suf- 
ferings of Cbnst, are the following, 
which we may suppose il possible our 
Saviour dwelt upon to convince them 
tliat though ho was crucified, yet he 
was the Chriel. Gen. iii. 15. Dent. 
iviii. 15. Gen. xlii. 10. Num. xii. S, 
9. Compare John iii. 14; lea. biu , 
Dan. ix. S5— 27; lea. ii. 6, 7 j Ps. ci. 
ivi. iiii. ; Mai. iv, 3-6. 

38. He made ni though he vmnid have 
gortefurtAer. He did not lay he would 
go furiber, but he kept on as if il was 
-t bis intention to stop; and doubtless 

KwuUhave gone on, if they had nol 

constrained him lo tarry. 

Conitrained him. They ursed 
11 pressingly invited bim. They 
it yet perceive that il was Jeaus, 
ley bad been choimed and de- 
_q_._i with hia disooursefl; and tbey 
wished 10 bear bim farther, and to show 
liim kindness. Christians are deUghted 
wilb communion with the Saviour, 
They seek it as the chief object of 
their deeiro, and they find their chief 

SJeasure in fellowship wilb bim. They 
ell il a privilege 10 enlertaui the preaeh- 
. , ind BO those to whom the gospel is 
preached, and who love il, feelit a pri- 
rilege, and not a burden, to make those 

mforlable w 
e of salvi 

1 bear to them the m 

look Itttad ttMd iUued it, a 



■nd blessed it, EUid brake, and gave 

31 And their eyee were opened, 
and they koew him ; and he ' vmiiah- 
ed out of their eight. 

32 And they said one to another, 

was the office of a msMei oT ihe teasl ; 
and pelhaps Hue firet attracted pordcu- 
Urlf their attenlion. Though be was 
in OtetT house, yel he acted as matta 
of the feast, as he Meed (o do wiih ihetn 
b^re hiB death- Perhaps also ii« he 
gave them the bread they observed the 
prinit in his hands, sod ihav knew that 
II WIS Jgbub. This waa not i laent- 
memlal, but a common supper ; yet our 
Saviour sooght a blessJng on the Ibod, 
and thus set in example to all his fbl- 
lowete to achnowledge God in his daily 
^IB, and to aaek bis bensdictioa in all 

^l.lieireserKetenpeiied. The ob- 
scurity ma removed. They saw him 
to be Che Meissh., Tbeir daubts-weie 
^ne, and they saw clearly that he was 
nsen, and rfas truly, as they had long 
hoped, the Saviour of men. It is not 
meant thai they were before blind, but 
[hat thsy did not tnow till then who he 
was. 1 H* vanitktd aul *f tieir lighi. 
He aaddenly departed. It does not ap- 
pear that Ihere was any thing miracu- 
loua in this ; but daring Ifaeir surprise, 
he look Ihe opporlunity suddenly to 
*ithdrBw from them. 

32. Otir heart htm vUiai lu. This 
is an eipression denotiug the deep ia- 
tereac and pleasure they telt in his dis- 
«ouraa, before they knew who he wja. 
They now recalled his instruccion ; 
they remembered how his words reach- 
ed the heart as he spoke to them ; 
how convincingly be bad showed them 
that the MessiBh ought to su^r. and 
how, wbile he talked to (hem of the 
Christ that [hey so much loved, Iheii 
hearts glowed with intenn kive. This 
won not true of them atone. All the 
' " s Iftiow how precioi 


and ti 

IS of 

the Saviour, and how the heart 
with intense love as they think, or hear 
of his life, and suiTehnEB, and death. 
f He opned laui. He ~ ~ 
, (he amptures. See ver. 
Thi»' narrative shows 
•ilnd men may be to lb 

: How 

Did not our heart hnm ' wiihin u, 
while he talked with us by the way, 
and while he opened to us Ihe sciip- 

Irines of lln scriptures, unlil they ore 
explained to them. These disciplei 
had often read or heard the scriptures, 
but never till, then did they linow thai 
the Messiah must suffer. 2d. It is 
proper to have p«sons to explain Ihs 
scnptilree. Jeans did it while on earth ; 
he does it now by his spirit ; and he has 
appoiuled bis miuisterB, whose business 
it u to explain them. 3d. If meii at- 
tempt to eiplain the Bible, they should 
tbemselTea uoderstand it. They should 
give their time and talents to a suitable 
preparation to explain the sacred vo- 
Freaching shouM consiatiD real, 
>t faacitd explanations of iha 
ampinres ; (he real doctrines which 
Ood has taught in bis word, and not 
the doctrines tiiat nen have taught in 
their ayatems. 4th, Here was convinc. 
ing evidence that Jesus was the Mee- 
Thia wasbftt one p^many 


diacipies contrary to their previoua be- 
lief. In this case the evidence waa 
abundant. He jlrit satisfied them from 
the Old Testaroeot ihat the very thinAi 
which had happened were foretold ; fie . 
then disaipated every doubt, by show- 
ing iinueff to them, and convindnn 
them that he was truly the Christ 
There wae no chance here for decep- 
I, and Juggling, Who would have 
. — I them, Bod talked with them, in 
this way, but tbe real Saviour 1 Wk. 
would have thought of writing this nar 
— ■— 1 to help an unpoetuiet Whai 
. Hor would have recorded the dul- 
ness of the disciples aa to the plain de- 
clarations of the Old Testament, and 
Hen have thought of this device to prop 
up tbe narralivet Evei^ thing sbou> 
this narralrve — its aimphcily — its tan- 
demeaa — its paniculanty — its periset 
nature — and its freedom from ail ap- 
pearance of trick — shows that it was 
taken from real if* ; and if so. Inen the 
CJjristian relieion is true ; for here ia 
endeoce thai Jesus rose from the dead, 
33. The —me Imr. Though it wai 
te, and (hey had sMfipMl ■■ ihn 



1 Saying, The Lord.ii 
1, and hath ° appeared 
36 And they told whsit thbgi 

deed, and hath ° appeared to Simon. 

e way, oivi how 
was known of thera in breaking of 

iboitg|hi for the nighi, jet aueh wu 
their JDS', ihat they Eaalened to leQ it to 
their companioiw and Irienda. It wia 
nuural and proper ; and it ■bowa bow 
quick and ready they w ho have found the 
Saviour are 10 tell It lo othere. Young 
converts lo Chrin ilmld hasten lo tell 
their joy, and should noi ahcintc al self- 
denial, to proclaim to others what God 
bath done for the soul. Pe. Uvi. 16. 

-Mrlipa andcbeerflil bHit prepara 

Wben on nj bead hun Hm 
I joughi tail bareafy aid. 

He tired mv onkini iDul tn 
AnddeathVetetar'-'— ■- 


' TV rfewH, The eleven apostles. Ju- 
das was DOW dead. This ahowa that 
-he two thai went to Emmaua were 
tMI apostlea. 

34. Saying. The eleven said this. 
V HaH appeared to Soum. To Peter. 
It ia not known precisely when this 
bappened, aa the time and place are not 
tnnntioned. Paul has referred to il in 
1 Cor. IV. 5 ; from which il appears 
Ibat he appeared lo Ceplna or Peter 
before he did to any oilier of the apoa- 
tlea. This waa a mark of aoecial love 
and favor, and particularly alter Peter's 
denial it showed how read^ he waa to 
pardon, and how wilUng to imparl com- 
forl to Ihoae who are penitent, though 
their ains are great. 

36, ST. Jam itoed tn tie midtt of 
UflN. Tbia waa when the apoatlea were 
aacembled, and when they had closed 
(be doors for fear of the Jswe. John 

■nd the anddenness of his 

had Be< 

afTrighled, and supposed ' that Ihf^ 
had ieen a Rplrit. 

38 And he said unto Ihem, Why 
are ye troubled 1 and why d( 
thoughts arise in yonr heartal 

39 Behold my hands and my 

c VtaJi/ei. 

nririt. 1 Peon he ta ymt. Thia wau 
form of aalatatioa among the Hebrew^ 
denoting ■ w^b of peace and proapeiity. 
See Oen. ihii. 33. tl was peculiarly 
appropriate tor Jesua, as he bad said 
before his death that he left hit aiau 
with thera as Iheir inheritaoce (Johit 
liv, 27), and aa Ihey were now alanned, 
and feaifai at their slate, and irembling 
for fear of the Jews. John u. 19. 

38. Whyan vttnMedt V/by tie 
you alarmed or irighteTiedt Amd *ihy 
de tlumghU, Slc. The word Hougliti 
here means doabu, or Husfucions. Il ia 
used in this sense also in 1' Tim. ii. 8. 
Tbe double which they had were whe- 
iber he waa the Cbiist. He reproves 
tbem fiH- doubting this, for. lat. The 
scripturL« bad foretold bis death ; 2d. 
He had himself repeatedly done it ; 
and, 3d. They had now the testimony 
of Peter ibat he had seen Jesus alive, 
end ot the angels that he was risen. 
After all this evidence Jeaua reproves 
tbem for doubting whether he was truly 
the Mesaiah. 

39—43. BdaUmyiaiidt, &.C. Jama 
pmceeda to give them evidence that he 
was truly the same peraon that had been 
crucified. He fiist showed them hia 
hanjs and his feet — eliU pierced, and 
with the wounds made by llie naila, 
still open. Compare John zi. 27. He 
told tbem lo handle bim, and see him. 
He ate before them. All this waa lo 
BStisfy them that he waa not, aa xbej 
supposed, a spiril. Nor could bettet 

idence be given. He appealed to 

a disembodied spirit (. _ 
^ HandU me. Or touch me, feel of 
me. Compare John u. 27. ^ And 
tee. Be convinced ; for you could not 
thua handle a spirit. The object hers 
waa to convince liiem that hia body 
liad raally coma to iSe. TF«r •spoil 

A. D. 33.] 


feet, that it is 1 m|f eelf : handle me, 
and see ; for a apirit hath not flesh 

and boneB, as ;e see me hare. 

40 And when he had thus spoken, 
'he shewed them Am himds and Au 


41 And while they yet believed * 
not for joj, and wondered, he aud 
unto them. Have ' ye here any 

aOeASSS. c Ae.lO. 

&r. He appeals hers to what Ihey 

well knew. And One implies ttiKt a 
ipiril may exist separate from the body. 
That v/aa the view of the apoelleB, and 
Dur Saviour distinctly countenances that 

41. Believed net far joy. Their joy 
was so gresl, andnia appearance vta 
so sudden and uoezpecied that tbey 
,were bewildered, uid sdU saught more 
evidence of the truth of what they 
vahid to belieye. This is aspetdmen 
of perfect nalurs. We have siniilsj' ei- 

'ons in our language. Tht newt 

good to fte Inw ; or, 
tl. it it Uxi machfoT 
mexst. This word does not 


1 in the old E 

inse denoting any (Ainj^ 

42. //ffney-ftwii. Honey -abounded 
pHlesline, and was a very common 
article of food. Sees lived m caves of 
the rocks ; in the boUoTS of trees ; and 
were also kept as with us. The disci- 
ples gave probably just what was iheir 
awn common &re, and what was ready 

44. TIaa* art llie werdi. Or this is 
iba falJilmaU of what I belbre told you 
reapectina my deadi. See Lukeivill 
33; Hark i, 33. 1 Wiilt 1 »>a* yet 
wtU yen. Before my death. While I 
was with you as a ■--'--- — ' — ■-"- 
^Inilulaaof Idon 
of Mos e s - ■ Genesis, lucoaus, ijeviucus, 
Numbers, Deuteronomy. Amona the 
Jews this was the first division of the 
did Teslameut, and was called the Ia». 
I T)a projAeti. This was the second 
and lareesi part of the Hebrew sctip- 
lursB. It comprehended the books of 
Joshua, ludces, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 
I K'lgs. which were called the femur 

43 And he took it, and did eat ' 
before thenf. 

44 And be said nnto them, These 
' are the words whiqh I spake nnto 
you, while I was yet with yon, that 
all ' things muBt be hilfillMi which 
were written in the law of Moses, 
and in the / prophets, and in the 
psalms, ' concenUD); me. 

45 Then opened he their under* 
standing, that they might under 
stand the Bcriptures, 

4MD( Ae3.i8. n.n 

33. /T<r.27. traSa-litAn- 

propieti ; and lasisb, Jeremiah, Gie 
kiel anl the twelve smaller books froiB 
Daniel lo Malachi. which were called 
ihelaUtTjnvpkett. 1 ThePtoim*. This 

giegrapia, or holy wnlings. It com- ^ 
prehended (he Psalms, Proverbs, Job, 
Songs of Solomon, Kmh, Lamenlotians, 
GcclesiaBteB, Esther, Daniel. Ezra, anJ 
Nehemiah, and the two books of 
Chronicles. This division of the Old 
Testament was in use long betbre the 
time of Christ, and was whai be refer- . 
red to here. And he meant to say that 
in eati of Ihcse dtvisiDns of the Old 
Testament there were pro[diecieB re- 
specline himself. The partiraiormib- 

.... lit drad. __ . 
itlon of this is contauted In Ps. i 
it with Acts ii. 34 — 3 

45. Opened ke tA»> undenlandau. 
Enabled them fiiUy lo comprehend tbs 
meaning of the prophedea that tbretold 
his deatb and resurrection. They had 
seen him die ; thay now saw him risen. 
Their prejudices, by his instruolions, 
and by the &cla which they couid no 
loneer call in queslion, were renoveil, 
andther no longer doubted that be was 
the Messiah, and that all the faat in the 
case which had before confounded them, 
could be easily accounted for. Here 
we may learn. Ist. 'That facte or Ruths 
w^l yet remove the milmn thai we 
ru>w see in religion. 3d. That our pre- 
judices, and oar preconceived opinions, 
are one cause of our seeing so many 
myateiies in the Bible. If a man la 
willing to take the plain declarations i^ 
tha Bible, he will be liitlo pcrp'exnd 

174 LV 

46 And eaid naio 'hma, That 
it ia written, und thud it 'i>ehoved 
Christ ' to suffer, and to lise ' from 
the dead the Ltiird day : 

47 And that repeutanca and ' re- 
missioa of sins should be preached 
in hiB name among all nationt, be- 
ginnine: at Jenisale: 

48 And ye ore 
■Aese thin^. 

uiih mysleries. 3J. That God only 
can open the mind bo u IuIIt lo com- 
prehend the »eriptarea. He only can 
overcoms our prejudieea — open our 
hearts — and dispose UB to receive the 
sngrafled word with meekness, and 
with the aimphcitT of a chiid. Sea AcW 
ivi. U ; James i. 2t ; Mark i. IS. 4th. 
The design of God's opening the un- 
dantandiDg is (hat we may be ac- 
qnainted wilh the scriptures. It ia not 
uiBt we may be made wise above what 

5K. [A.D.33 

40 And, briioUi I Bend the pro- 
mise of my Father upon jou : but 
tany ye in the city of Jemsalem, 
uniu ye be endued widi power 
fjroim on high. 

60 And he led them oat aa &r 
BB to Bethany ; and be lifted up hit 
hands, and blessed them. 

51 And it came to pasa, while 
he blessed them, he was paited 

^Acl^B. ilg-M.!. Jatia.WAc icX 

Acta ii. Paul also, in his travels, 
preached the gospel fr)( to the Jews, 
the ancient people of God, ofiering them 
pardon ihiough their own Meaaah ; and 
when they rejected it, turned lo the 
Gentiles. Acts xiii. 46. 

48. An mlnenuiif these if,iug: Of 
my life, my suiferinM, my deeth, and 
Ho* aolen; 

- , ,Jt Ibatwi , 

selves wholly to the word of God. 

46. It beimtd. It became ; it was 
proper or necesairy that the Messish 
should thus sufter. Ir was predicted of 
him, and all things huve happened as it 
was foretold. 

47. Repentance. Sorrow for sin, and 
forsaking of it. It was proper that the 
Maeiiily of repentance should be 
preached among all nations, for alt were 
sinners. See Acte ivii. 30. f Semi>. 
tion of$ini. Pardon or forgiveness of 
lins. It ehould be proclaimed that all 
men rfiould repent, and that those who 
are penitent may now be pardoned. 
1 lu n« name. By my command it 
^onld be proclaimed that men should 
repent, and by my merit they may be 
pardoned. Pardon is offered by the 
authority of Christ to jli. natione, and 
this is a sufficient warrant to ofTer the 
gospel to every man, T Beeinning at 
Jenualeni. This was the dwelling of 
his murderers, and it shows his readi- 
ness to foreive the vilest nnnere. It 
was (he h 

B dm preached there. See 

:e to leilify these things to the 
id in the face of suf[ermj{s and 


world, and in the tace of aaSeniupt Si 
death to go and proclaim them lo a4 
nations! In hke manner, oU Christians 
are witnesses fur Christ i thev are (be 
evideneei of his mercy and his love ; 
and thev should live so that others 
tiil^'ht slso he bronght to see and love 
the Saviour. 

49. Tl.' pnmiee ff my fither. The 

promise which the Father had made to 

them Hn»gk the Saviour. See Matl. 

I. 19 ; John nv. 16, 17, 26. 'The nro- 

» was, that they should he ai 

made in the days of Joel, : 


16 — 31. ^ Endued vnti paver f rem m 
itigh. ThepoworwhichVoiildbegiven 
them hy the descent of the Holy titiost. 

_. -p ^les, and of pL ,.„ 

the gospel with the attending blesamg 
and aid of the Holy Ghost. This was 
aceompli^ed in the g^ of the Holy 
Spirit on the day of PeotecoBl. See 

50. 51. To Bethany. See the Note 
on Mark ivi. 19. Bethany was on the 
eastern declivity of the mount of Olives, 
from which our Lord was taken up to 
hesven. Acts i. 12. Bethany was a 
bvored place. It was the abode of 
Martha, and Mary, and Lazani*, and 



&om them, and carried * np into 

53 And * Ate; worshipped him, and 

relamed to Jerusalem witii great joy; 

aAe.]^ UeA-U. 

our Saviour delighted to be there. From 
this place bJso he ascended to hia Father 
and our Father, and to his God and our 
God. i: WhaekebUtiedtKem. While 
he commanded his benedicden lo rest 
upon them ; while he asBured them of 
bis favor, and commended them to the 
protectian and guidance of God, in the 
dangers, trials, and confltcM, which (he; 
were to meet in a snful arid miserable 

52. Theyminkippedhaa. The word 
uBTihip does not olwoiri denote rehgioue 
homage. Butbereii is to be remarked, 
Ist, That they offered this worship to 
an aUaU Saviour. It was after he left 
them, and had vanished out of their 
■i^ht. It was therefore an act of reli- 
zion, and was thsjErtt religioua homage 
that was paid to Jesus after he had ieh 
the workL 2d- If CAcy worshipped an 
■liMiii Sanom— a Svrioar nnawn br 

53 And were continuaU^ in tha 
temple, pTaising ' and blessing God 

the bodily eye — it is right for vt to do 
it. Iiwas an example which we naa 
audfAoKJdfoUow. 3d. If worship may 
be rendered to Jeaos, be is divine. See 
EIioduB II. 4, 5. 

53. Wert amtiniiidly n Ikt tempk. 
Until the day of Pentecost : chat is, aboiu 
ten daya after. See Acta ii. 1 ProuMf 

redeemed them, and had ascended to 
heaven. " Thas the days of their 
mourning were ended." They were 
filled with happiness at the aaaitranc^ 
of redemption, and expressed what eve 

ry Chrisuan should feel — fulnL 

at the glad tidings that a Saviour has 
died, and risen, and aacended lo God | 
and an earnest deaire to pour forth, in 
luary, prayers and thankagnr* 

the God of gi 




J mx, the writer of this Gotpel, wu tbs mm of Zebedee uid Salanie. Cooi' 
pare Matt ixiii. Sfi, with Mirk n. 40, 41. HU father was a fiaherman of 
Galilee, though it woold appear that he iras not deatitnte sT propertj, and waa 
not la the loweat condition of life. He had hired men in hia employ. Hark 
u 90. Salome is deacribed aa one who attended our Baiiour in bia travels, and 
miniatered to hia wanla. Malt. iivu. 55. Mark iv. 41. Jeaua commeaded 
hia own mother Mary, □□ the croas, to John, and he took her tA his awa home 
(John III. 26,27.]. with whom, hiatorjinlbnDau^ihe lived unlil ber da^th, ahont 

IUMn afUr the cruciGlion of Cbriat ; and Jidia was known to Caiaphas, 
print John xviii. 15. From all this it would teem not improbaUe 
uat John had some property, and was better known than anj of the oUhh' 

Hb was the youn^eet of the apoatteB when called, and lived to the ^eataM 
age, and ia the only one who ia auppoied to bavs 'died a peaeefol death. Ha 
vru called to be a follower of lenu while engared with hia fhtbeiand his eUei 
brother Janioi, mending their neti at the tea of Titwriaa. Matt It. 31. Mark 
i 19. Luke Y. 10. 

John waa admitted by our Saviour to peculiar bvor and (Hendihip. One a( 
tha ancient bthen CHieopbylacl) aaya that he was related to ou' Savioor. 
**JoaB[A," besaya, "bad aevcn children by a Ibrmer wifa, lour aona and three 
daughters, Martha, Bather, and &iIoine,whaB8 aon Jofaa waa; therefore Salmne 
waa reckoned our Lord's aiater, and Jobn wa* bia nephew." If thia waa the 
caae, it may eipliin the reaaon why Jamce and Ji^n sought and expected the 
Orat places in his kingdom. Matt ii. 30, 31. These may also possibly be 
the persona who were called our Lord's " brethren" and " aiiters." Matt lili. 
55, 56. And it tnaj also explain the reason why our Saviour cornmitted hia 
mother to the care of John on the crosa. John iit. ST. 

The two brothen, James and John, with Peter, were several times admitted 
to peculiar bvors by our Lord. They were the only disriplea that were per- 
mitted to be present at the niaing of the daughter of Jaints (Mark v. 3T ; 
Luke viii. 51) ; they only were permitted to attend our Saviour to the moanl 
where he was trauafigoind : Matt iviL 1. Mark ii. 3. The same three were 
permitted to bo present at bis sofTeriogs in the garden of Getlwemaiw. Matt 
mi. 36—45. Mark liv. 3S — 13. And it was to that discipka, together with 
Andrew, to whom our Saviour especiany addtened himself mbmi be wad* 

■u3i.z.iit>,Coogle— - 


known tht JeBotitii^u that were coming apon Jcnmlem mnd Jodits. Comgara 
Malt. nil. 12 ; Mark lUi. 3, 4. Jobn wu alw ulmiltsd to paeulur frienduliip 
H'itfa tbe Lord Jecua. Hence he U mentioned u " that ditciplo whom Jegua 
loved " (Jobn lii. 2G), and he ia repreaented (John liii. S3) na leaning on Je- 
lui' bosom at tbe itiBtilution of (he Lord's soppei; an etidence of peculiar 
friendBhip. See Note on (hat place. Though the Redeemer was attached to 
all hi< disclplea, jet there ii no abaurdit^ ia suppoaing Jiat hit diapisiticni wu 
congenial with that of the meek and amiable John j Uiaa autfaoriaing, and aet. 
ling the example of, ipecial friendahlpa among Chriidana. 

To John wai committed tbe care of Mar;, the mother of Jcaua. Afler the 
aaeension of Christ be remained some time "at Jeruialem. Acta i. 14 ; ilL 1 
IT. 13. John ia also mentioned u haiiog been sent down lo Samaiia to preacfa 
the goapel there with Peter (Acta Tiii. 14— SS), and from Acts it. it appean that 
be was present at the council at Jenualem, A- D. 49 or 50. All thia agrees 
with what is aaid by Eueebius, that he lived at Jerusalem till the death oTMarr, 
"" - -a-.tSof— — - -'■—- . "......-.. ..■'. 

fifteen years afW the crucifixion of Christ Till tbia time it ii probable that 
he had not been engaged in preaching the gospel among the Gentile 
At what time John went first among the Gentiles, to preach thegt 

he had not been engaged in preaching the gospel among the Gentiles. 

At what time John went first among the Gentiles, to preach the gospel is Di 
ceitaioly known. It has eommonl; been euppcsed [hat he reai&d in Jodi 

and the neigbborbood until the war broke out wiCb the Romans, and that be 
came into Asia Minor aboat the jaar 66 or 70. It is clear that he iraa not ■! 
Epheaus at the timf that Paul viaited those regions, as in all the traTels of 
Fful and Luke there ii no mentioa CTej made of John. 

Eceleaiaatical history intbrms ui that be spent the latter part of his lifs in 
Asia Minor, and that he resided chiefly in Epheaus, the chief city of that conn- 
try. Of bis residence Ihers, little ia certainly known. In the latter part of his 
life he was banished to Patmoe, a amall desolate island in tbe .Aegean sea, abont 
twenty miles In circumference. This is commtoly supposed to hare been dur- 
ing tbe peraecution <>f Domitian, in the latter part of bia reign. Domilian 
di»d A. D, 96. It is probable that be returned booq afUi that, in the reign of 
the emperor Trajan. In that island he wrote the book of Revelation. Rev. L 9. 
After his return from Fatmoo, he lived peaceably atEphesua until hii death, 
which is supposed to have occurred not long afler. He was buried at Ephesus ; 
and it has been oommonly thought (bat he was the only one of the apostles who 
did not safiei: martyrdom. It la eyident Chat he lived to a Tory advanced period 
of life. We know not his age, indeed, when Christ called bim lo follow him ■ 
but we cannot suppose it was less than 35 or 30. If so, he muat have been not 
br from 100 jean old when he died. 

Many anecdotes aie related of him while he remained at EpbcsuB, bat there 
is no sufficient evidence of tl)eir truth. Some have said that he was taken to 
Rome in a time of persecution, and thrown into a caldron of boiling oil, and 
cams out uninjured. It baa been aaid that going into a bath one day at Ephe 
ana, he perceived Ctriniliai, who denied the divinity of tbe Saviour, and that 
John fled from him hastily, to eipreaa his disapprobation of his doctrine. It is 
also said, and of thia there can be no doubt, that during bia latter years be was 
not able to make a long diaconrac He was carried to the church, and was 
accustomed lo say nothmg but this : " Little children, love one another." At 
length his disciples asked him why he always dwelt upon the same thing. Ha 
re|utcd, " Because it is the Lord's command ; and if this be done, it is suffi 

Learned men have been much divided about the lime when this Goapel was 
written. Wetstein supposed it was written Just after our Saviour's ascension j 
Mill and Le Clerc, that it was written in 97; Dr. Lardn^, thai it was about 
Uw year 68; just before ths desljaction of Jan 


K tbe yeu 97 or 98. Nothing cu be dslarniiDed with oertaint; on tb« 
ni^jeot, and it is a mattf r of TBT7 Hlue conaaqnenoB. - 
Then Unadoabtthatitwwwrittenbj John. Thi* ii abandmlty ooiifiimed 

hj the ancient ftthera, and wu not qoBatiooed by Celaos, Forfdijiy, or Jnlian, 
the acatest enemisa of roTelalian in tbe eail^ agos. It liaa nevsr bocn sitsn* 
lively queetioned to have bera ^Hiiru'k of John, and is one oTtfae bcnkaofith* 
Neir Teatament whoae canonical anlhdKty vn> oeTcr dUpnted. See Lardner j 
•r Faley's Evidences 

The deaign of vnting it, John himself atateo. Ch. xz. 31. It wu to ihow 
•■bet Jeraa was the Chrut, tbe Son of God, and that thoM who believed migh 
haTS life throaeh hie name. Tkit dttign it kept in viae thrmgh tkt a£tle 
Oeiptl I and ihoutd be retntmbered m omr atttmple to explain it. Tarioda at> 
teiajits have been mide to iboirthBt ha wrote it to conAite ttw fbllowera of Co. 
rinthiu and tbe Goostica, but no aatia&ctory eiidence i^aDch a deeign hai been 
ftirniabed. ^ 

Afl he wrote after the other erangeJiEts, he hae recorded many thing* which - 
they omitted. He dwells mach more fnlly than they do on the dimne charaeteT 
of Jeeus; relates many things pertaining to the early part of bis miniitry whicl^ 
they iiad omitted ; records many more of his diacouraes than thej hare duae, 
and particularly the iDtereBting diBConrse at the institQtion of tbe sapper. See 

It has bsBD ntmBilied that there are erideucea in this Gospel that it was not 
written fbr the Jews. He eipliins words and customs whidi to ■ Jew wonld 
have needed no eiplanation. See ch. i. 38, 41 ; v. 1, 9; vii. S; iv. 9. Tbe 
ttjle in the Greek indicitea that he baa an unlearned man. It is aimple, plain, 
nnpolished ; aach aa we ahonld rapp(ne would be used by one in his circnm 
stances. At the same time it is digniHed, contaioing pnre and prolaand aeoti- 
ments, and ia an many accounts the moat difficult of all the boohs of tlie New 
■festament to interpret. It contsina more about Chrut, iiis person, design, and 
~ ~' " a any of the other (loepels. Tbe other evaogetiats were employed 

n recording the miracles, and giving external evidence of the diri 
f Jeaua. John is employed chiefly in telling ns teiot he was, anu wmt 
ir doctrioe. His aim was to show, Ist. That Jesos was the Hee- 

liah. 2d. To show, from Ihe vjordi of Jesus hitmrlf, what the Hpasish 
The other eviDgeliats record his parables, his miraclea, his debates with the 
scribes and Pharisees ; John records chiefly bis discourses atraut himeelf. If 
any one wishes to leam the true doctrine respecting the MesstoA, tit Sen of 
Oed, expressed in simple language, but with most sublime conceptions ; to leam 
the true nature and character of God, and the way of approach to his mercy- 
seat; to aee the true nature of Christian piety, or the source and cbaraiAer of 
religious consolation ; to have perpetually before him the purest model of cha- 
racter the world has seen, and to contemplatB the purest precepta that have ever 
been delivered to man ; he cannot better do it lhan,by a prayettiil study of tbs 
Gospel by John. It may be added that this Gospel ia, of itself, proof that can. 
not be overthrown of the truth of revelation. John was a fisherman, unbonor- 
ed and unlearned. Acts iv. 13, What maft in that rank of life note could 
■Himposea hook like thisT And can it be conceived that any man of that rank, 
anIOBs under the influence of inspiration, could conceive so sublime notions of 
God, BO pure views of morals, and draw a character so inimitably lovely and 
pure as that of Jeans Christ 1- To ask these questions is to answer them. And 
thia Gospel will stand to the end of lime as an nnanawerable deoionstratian 
Jiat the fisherman who nrote it was aqder a more than human |rnidance, sod 
was, «cocwdiDg t) Um pc( luse that he has raoorded (ivi. 13, mmpara lir, 3<li 


guided intv all tmtX, It wiU tlaa remun u an onuiiwerable proof that the c)ia> 
racter wltich be hu deacribed — the chuacter of the Lord Jeaan — wsb leoL il 
is a perfect chaiacter. H hu Dot a flaw. Hon hu thi« happeoed 7 The at- 
tempt bsi often besD made to draw a perfect character — and as ofUn, in evei^ 
other instaace, &i1ed. How is it, when Homsr and Virgil and the ancient hu 
torianB.have kU foiled to describe a perfect character, with the pureat modela 
befve them, and with all the aid of imagination, that in every instance the; 
have failed } How is it that thia has at last been accooiplished onl; b; a Jewish 
fishermanl Tlie difficoltj is vaetlj' increased if another idea is borne in niiud. 
John dEacribes one who he believed had a diiine natare. Ch. i. 1. It is an 
attempt to describe Oed in Annum nature, or to allow how thediiine being acte 
when united with man, or when appearing in human form. And the description 
is complete. There ia not a word expressed by the Lord Josua, or an emotion 
ascribedto him, inconsistent with soch a supposition. — But this same attempt 
was oflen mad»— and as often failed. Homer and Virgil and all the ancient 
poets have undertaken to show what the goda would be if they came down and 
convBisrd with man. And what were Ihey I What were Jupiter, and Juno, 
and Venus, and Mars, and Vulcan I — Beings of lust, and envy, and contention, 

C] hJuod. How has it happened that the only successtul account which ha> 
n given of tlie divine nature united with the human, and living and acling 
as became such a union,, has been given by a Jewish ftshermanT — How, unless 
the charader was ml, and the writer under a guidance far aoperior to the 
reniuB of Homer, and the imagination of ViigiU~the guvWtw of tht Hai| 




tN * the b^nninK waa 
Word, ' and the Word ■ 

I. Inlhe beginning. This... 

B Dsad also in Gen. 1. 1. To llut pUc( 
li^ evidsnll^ has altuaion here, and 
"the" word" an ei- 

" before the world w&b 
when as yet ihere was no- 
"■■ - -neaning ig, that Ihe word 

.. 36 before Iha worrd was 

created. This a not epokeii of ihs 
Man Jeaus. but of that WDich btrame a 
IPBD, or was incarnate. (Ver. 14.) The 
Hebrews, by eipresnone like this, com- 
monl; denoted etemiiy. Thiis the der- 
-'■ -'" ' '■ ' ' ■ -" :. 2): 

if God ii 

d IPs. 

Bifffn the meimtaint acre hnrnghl fitrih, 
&.C. And eternity is commonly ex- 
preaiijd by the phrase, before Ihcfimnd- 
MionofthtuHThi. Whiteveris meant 
by the term " word," it is clesr thsi it 
bad an existence before creatim. It is 
not, then, a rraUtir«,'or created being, 
amy roust be, therefore, uncreated and 
eternal. There is butnw Being that is 
uncreated, and Jems must be tnerefbre 
divine. Compare the Saviour's own 
declaratians reapecdDg himself in the 
foUoffins places: Jolm viii. 58. xvii, S. 
ii. 62. ui. 13. vi. M. viii. 14. xvi. US. 
1 Wai the vord. Greek, "was the 
£«^0v." This name is given to him 
who alierwards became fiah, or incar- 
nate (ver, H) — L e., to the Messah. 
Whatever is meant by it, therefore, is 
■pplicahle to the Lo»l Jems Christ. 
There have been many opinions about 

n of 

ThuM . . . . _. 

Xiett.. The opinion which seema most 

[lausible may ba eipreased as fbllowa : 
•t. A ward IS that by which we com- 
nuTucatc our will, by which we con- 
rsy our thoughts, or by which we issue 
Bommands ; the pedium of eommuni- 
mion with othera. 2a, The Son of 
G»d may be catlap "(he word," b«- 
Vou U — IS 

MTJ. ^Fb.SA Ba.L» 

e Heb 

3d. This term 
lime of John, (a.) It was ueed in the 
Cbsldce translation of the OU Testa- 
ment ; IS, e. a., Isa. xlv. 13: " I have 
made the earih, and created man upon 
it." In the Chaldee it is, " I, by m) 
tBvnl, have made," &,c. Isa. ilviii. 13 1 
" Mine hand also hath laid the founda- 
tion of the earth." In the Chaldee, 
" Bytay mrrd I have founded the earth." 
And BO in many other places. i.h.) Thii 
term was used by the Jews as applica- 
ble to the Messiah. In their wnting* 
he was commonly known by the term 
"Mimra." — i. e., "word;" and iK> 
smalt pert of the uiterpoeitioQa of God 
in defence of the Jewish nation wera 
declared to be by " the word of God." 
Thus, in their I'argum on Deut. iivi. 
17, IS, it is said, " Yo have appointed 

especially those who 
■■-th the Greek philo 
m was used by the i 
among the GiecES, to denote Ihet 
person of the Trinity. The term ruwi 
or aind, was commonly ipven to this 
second person ; but it was eaid that this 

person. The term was therefore ex- 
tenaively in use among the Jews and 
Gentiles before John wrote his Goepel ; 
and it was certain that it KKittU be ap- 
plied to the Hecond person of the Trinity 
by Christians, whether converted from 
' ' " Pagsniem. '" 

1, therefore, that the mamiK^ ol 

term should be settled by an in- 

and accorthngly John, in 

^ Y^ Gospel, ia ai 

1 pams to state cleady what is ihr 
docttiiM Teipwtii« the Lagaa,« 

3 rhe Minie wan ic the beginning 
with God. 

word. It ia pm^e e\aa ihal the doc- 
trines of the GnoBlics had begun to 
■pread in the time of John. They were 
■Q OrienUl wet, usd held thai the Lo- 
gin or tconf was one of the Aemu that 
bod been created, and thai this one 
tiad been united to the man JeeuB. If 
that doctrine iiad,begun ic prevail, it 
WIS of the more important for John 

"oriT Th 

of the hoBOt or wordT 1'hia he has 
done so that there need be no doubt 
about hia meaning. V Wat vjilh God- 
ThiB eipresaion denotea friendship, 
intimacy. Compare Mark a, 19. Jolin 
affirma that be was ailh God in ihe-be- 
ginning — L e., before the world waa 
made. It impUea, therefore, that he 
wee partaker of the divine glorv j that 
he was blessed and happy with God- 
It proves that he was inumalely miited 
with the Father, bo as lo partake of hia 
story and to be appropriately called by 
ibe name God. He has himself ei- 
plained it. See Johnivii, 5: Andtioa, 
Father, glorify than mt, taiih ihint 
oiemelf, viitAlIu gtorytBliieh I had taiih 
Ukte be/ore lie aorld <ku. See also 
Johni. la: No nmnhatk lem Gad at 
any time ; the aiUy-htgotten San, ichicA 

kttk dedared hia 
The f 

SR. hi 

^e also John iiL 13 i 

that the word was vittA Gad. Leal it 
should be Bupposed (hat he wae a dif- 
ferent and in/erur being, he here states 
thai he oat God. There is no more 
unequivocal declaration in (ha Bible 
than this, and there eoald be no stronger 
proof that the aacred writer meant to 
affirm that (lie Son of God was equal 
with the Father, For, Ist. Tliare is 
no doubt that by the Logai is meant 
Jesus Christ. 2d. This is not an ol- 
trAule or quahty of God, but is a real 
tubsislence, for it is said that the Logos 
wasmadejloA; that is, became a man. 
3d. There is no variation here in the 
Eianuscripla, and critics have observed 
that the Greek will bear no other con- 
Itmetion than what is eipresaed in our 
translation — that .the word mat Gad. 
1th. There is no evidence that John 
btraided to uw the word God in an tn- 
ftrw miae It ia not ' the word 'vaa i 

a God,' or the word was lite God. bat 
the word mi 'nd. He had juat used 
the word God as avidenllf applying ta 
Jehovah, the tnie God; and it ia «b> 
Hard (o auppon^ that he would sa tka 
tame w^ria, and without any indicatwii 
that be was using the word in an infe- 
rior sense, employ it to denote a being 
altogether infe nor lo the true God. Sth- 
Tbe name God is elaswhere given tt> 
him, allowing that he ii ' 

God. See I 

I. 6 ; Heb. i 

10—13; 1 John v 
The meanmg of thia important vemi 
may, then, be thus summed up: let. 
The name liogoa, or word, is given to 
Christ in referencs lo hia becoming iha 
Teacher or Inatrucler of mankiiid; tha 
medium - of communicatioQ between 
God and man. 2d. The name was in 
use at the time of John, and it waa hia 
design (o state the correct doctrine rr 


3d. The • 
er«iiw« — ot 

.„ . ,. late and close 

uruon before the creation ; and as it could 
not be said that God was tnlh himielf, 
it followt that ih^ Logos was in some 
sense dittinet from God, or that there 
was a diitindian between his Falliei 
and the Son. When we say that ena 
is with anolher, we imply that therr< is 
some sort of <£etinction between thrin. 
5th. Yet, lest it sliould be apposed he 
was a difertnl and in/eriw bein^ -a 
creature — he afhrma that he was God 
— i, e., eaual with the Father. This ia 
the foundation of the doctrine of the 
Trinity: 1. That the second person ii 

2. That h 

from the first, 
nately united with 
mm m aasence, so (bat there are not 
two or more Goda. 3. That the second 
may be called by the same name, hav 
tha same attributes, perfonjis the Bam* 
works, and is enlilted to the same ho- 

lt the Grst . 

equal in power and glory, ' with God. 
2. The tsme. The word, or (he Lo- 

¥«. 1 Wat in the beginnrnf viA Gad. 
his seems to be a repetition of whal 
was aaid in the first verse. But it ia 
reiMated lo eunrd lie dedrime, and t* 

Inm; and without him wu 

Mag made that was matle. 


not xaj 

of the u 

geien. the poeeibility of > nusiake. 
e haa said dwt he ma before crea- 
tion, sod thst he WBB with God. But 
te had not Kud in the fiist verse iiat 
■!< HIUM «i(k (rail cnited m the b^n- 
SMf. He now expreeseB [bet idea, and 

(hat was eammenccd in lime, and which 
might t>e, therefore, * mere union of 
ffling, or a eompaet, like Lhat between 
•n^ other beings, bul was cme wliich 
ezuied in itemUf/. and wliich waa, 
therefore, a union of nature or enenct, 
3. AU Ihingi. The universe. The 

: — cannot be limited lo any part 

verse. Ii appropriiitelf ex- 

tho' Tsat maasei of material worlds ; 
■nd all the animale, and tilings, great 
or email, that compose those worlds. 
See Rsv. iv. 11. Heb. L S. Col. i. 16. 
t Wtre made. The original word is 
from the verb fo6e, and BJgnifieB "mere" 
by him. But. it ezpreaaea (he idea of 
creation here. It does not alter the 
Benae, whether it is said, 'leerB by Mid,' 
or, ' were ereattd by him.' It is often 
twed in the sense of creatiMg, or form- 
ii^ firom nothing. See Jemea iii. 9 : and 
Gen. ii. 4 ; lea. xlviii. 7, in the Sepcua- 

-.. Tfytun. In ttuB place il IS af. 

-med thai trealiat was eflected by ike 
word, or the Son of God. In Gen. i. 1, 
it ia raid that the being who created tlie 
heavens and the earth wae God. la 
Ps. di. 25—28, this work is ascribed to 
Jehovah. The word, or the Son of 
God, is, therefore, appropriately called 
Owd. The work of crmtuHi ii uniform- 
ly sBcribed in the scriptures to the se- 
condjparion of the Trinity. See Col. L 
16. Heb. i. 2, 10. Br this is meant 
evidently that he was the agent, or the 
efficient cause, by which the universe 
was made. There is no tugher nroof 
*f Owmipetenee than the work of crea- 
tJHi ; uid hence God ofleD qipeala to 
thmi wnrk fo omire lhat ha ia the trvfl 
10 idols. See Isa. zL 


.txxii. II. Prov. iii. 19. It is abanrd 
to 1^ thai God can invest a creature 
with OiniH}»<(«ec. If he can make 

him* nu life ; and the lift 

dc&ae. iJna.s.!! ita.n. . 

with all hia 0' 

bules, or make another being Uke him- 
self, or which is the same tUng, there 
could be two Gods — or as many Godi 
ea he should chooee to make. But ibia 
is absurd. The being, therefore, lhat 
created all things must lie divine; and 
as this work is ascribed to Jeaua Christ; 
and as it ia uniformly in the scriptures 
declared to be ibe work of God, Jeans 
Christ is, tlierefore. efuoi wit* the Fa- 
ther. T Wttkeat him. Without hia 
agency ; hie notice ; the exertion of hia 
power. Compare Matt. x. 29. Thia 
IS a strong way of speaking, desigiied 
to confirm, beyond the possibility of 
doubt, what he bad just said. He eays, 
theretore, in g^nenil, that all things 
were made by Christ. In this part of 
the verse, he ahuta out all doubt, and 
affirms that there was na eactpliim ; 
that there was not a single thing, how- 
ever minute or unimportant, which waa 
not made by him. ia ibis way he con- 
firms what he said in the fim verse. 
Christ was not merely called Ood, but 
be did the Boris of God ; and, there- 
fore, the name ia used m its proper 

" ' iplying supreme diviraly, 

• test JesuB himself appeal- 
ing that he was divine, John 

To this sa 

I. 37, If Ido not THE WORES o/" M> 

Father, bdieeeme «oC, John v. 17. Mv 
Fatbee aorkelh hitherto, and I went. 

t. h kirn wai life. The evangelist 
had just atfirmsd (ver. 3,), that bj the 
Logoi or word, the world was origmally 
created. One jiart of that cr 
siated in brtathirur into or — 
fUfe. - ■■•^ - ■■ 

>l the breaa 

the living God, becausi 

IB me Bource or fountain of Ufa. This 
BtiTibnte ia here ascribed lo Jesus Christ. 
He not merely made ibe nuferiaj worlds, 
but be also cave lift. He was ih* 
agent by which the tegelatle world be- 
came animated; by which brulee live; 
and by which mn became a hving soul, 
orwas endowed with immortahly. Thit 
wag a higher proof that the " word waa 
God,' ' than the creation of the material 
worlds. Bul there is another sense J> 
which be wm Itfe. Tha new matian. 

5 And the light Bhineth in' daik- 
neaa ; and the darkness compre- I 
heoded * it not. 

tion from it slate of sin, i 


Malt. V 

16. Acts n*L 

. bul high 
e of life to ths soul dead in 
;» and gina. Eph. ii. I. And it 
is probably in reference to Ihu, that be 
'- » often called life ' ■ - - 


John VI. 33. "I am the rsaurrection 
BDd the life." John iL 35. " This ia 
the true Ood and eternal life." 1 John 
T.SO. See also 1 John i. 1,S; v. 11. 
Acts^iii. 15. Col. iii. 4. The meaning 
ia thai he is the source, or the fountain 
<•( both nalurai and spiritual life. Of 
^urse he has the attributes of God. 
1 The life iDoi Che light of men. Light 
is thai by which we sea object a dietincl- 
1t. The light of the sun enables us to 
discern the form, dialance, magnitude, 
and relation of objects, and prevents 
(he perplocties and dangers which re- 
•olt from H state of darkness. Light 
is in all laneuagea, therefore, put Tor 
knoaledge — fir whatever enables ns to 
discern our duly, and the path of safe- 
ly, and that saves us from the evils of 
ignorance and error. " Whatsoever 
£ith make manifest is hghl." Eph. v. 
13. See Isa. viii. 20; ix. 3. The Mes- 

. See John 
" I am the hght of the world." 
36, 46. "I am come a hzhl i: 
world." The meaning ia, that l 
goa or word of God, ' 
ttadier of mankind. This 
before his advent by hia direct 

refers here to a wicked aild igr 
people. When it is said that "tin 
light shineth in darkness," it is mesnt 
that the Lord Jeans came to teach in 
ignorani, betiighlBd, and wicked wprid. 
This has always been the case. It was 
BO when he sent his prophets ; so dar- 
ing his own ministry ; and so in every 
--- since. His efforts to enhghten and 
men have been like Ught strugghng 
. inetrate a thick, dense clond; and 
though a few rays may pierce the 
gloom, yet the great mass is still in 
■mpenettable sh£]e, 1 Ccn^thendti 
i not. The word means, admittal it 
r received it not. The word mm- 

prehend w 
This is no 

The darkness did n 


V, for the 

Bt Bffency it 
Landing ; it 


d by aneela at tbe Jiaiidt of a me- 
Uttor," (GaL iii. 19.); by his personal 
niiniatry when on earth ; by ha Spirit 
(Johniiv. 16, 26.); and by hia minis- 
Kra since. Eph. iv. 11. 1 Cor. xiL 26. 
i.The light ihineth la darkneii. — 
Darkness, in the Bible, commonly de- 
MXmiKiiaiUMe, guilti or miserv. See 

e the value of bla 
hey despised and reject- 
BO it is still. The great 

of the character of the Lord Jesus, 
indisposes the mind to receive his in- 

ity for light, and if the one eidsls, ihe 
other must be displaced. 

6. A man lenlfrom God. See M*It. 
iii. The evuigelist proceeds now to 
show that John was not the MesaisJi, 
and to state the true nature of his office. 
Many had supposed that he was the 
Christ, but this ofrinion he corrects. 
Yet he admits that he was temt from 
God : that he was divinely commission 
ed. Thoagh be denied that he was t*4 
Mettiah, yet he did not deny thai ha 

ir by heaven on 

porisni errana to men. Some bave 
supposed that the sole design of ihia 
Gospel was to show that John the Bap- 
tist was not the Messiah. Thoagh 
there ia no foundation for this otarjui 
yet there is no doubt t'aac mh objart 



/ The same came for a witnesa, \ ivu leiU to bear witDom of tha 
« bear witness of the Li^ht, ^at , Li^t. 

ill nun through him might be- 9 That wae the tme Li^t, 
lievB, which lighteth every man tha 

8 He * was not that Light, but cameth into die world. 

his. The main design 
. at Jfn.1 WBB ihe ChrisI 
To do this, it WBB propei 
that John 

been al that lime an iniponani ot 
John made many disciples. Mat 
3. Msnf persona supposed that he 
might be the Meaaiah. Lake iii. 15. 
John i. 19. Many of Oae diicipla of 
John remained at Ethbsus, the ect^ 
plact ahere John it iMppmed to hne 
loriUen this Gospel, tfng^ after the aJcen^ 
lion of Jeiut. Acts lix, 1—3. It is not 
Improbable that there (night havs been 
many others who adhered to Jobn, and 
perhaps tnany who supposed that he 
was the Messiah. On these accounts, 
it was important for the evangelist lo 
■liow that John vat net the Chntt, and 
to show also that he, who was eilen- 
stvely admitted to be a prophet, was an 
imponanl witnai to prove that Jesus 
of Nazareth was the Christ. The 
xangeliat in the first four verses stated 
that the word" was divine; he now 
proceeda to state the proof thai he was 
« luK, siid was the Messiah. Thejtrsi 
evidence adduced, is the testimony of 
Jahn the B^tisc. 

7. 8. For a vknat. To give testi- 
mony. He came to prepare the minds 
of (he ^ople to receive him. Malt. iii. 
Luke ui,] ; to lead them by repentance 
^ to God ; and to paint out the Measiah 
to Israel when he came. John i. 31. 
% Of the light. That is, of the Mes- 
--"- " eIsa.Li. 1. ^Thataa 

. &c. 

John's testimony, that aU men might 
believe. He designed to prepare them 
for it; to aohounce that the Msssiah 
was about to come : lo direct the miuda 
of men to him. and thus to fit ^em to 
Mievo when he came. Thus he bap- 
iBed them saying, "that they ahould 
behevo on him >Tho should come aj\er 
him." Acts xix.. 4. And thug he pro- 
duced a very general expectation that 
the Chrio^ was about to come. The 
lastimonv of John was pecuUarly valu- 
«bte on the following accounts: let. It 

was made when he bad no pertoROl ae- 

quaintatice with Jesus of NozarsQi, an 
of course there could have been no ol 
luaion, or agreement t6 deceive tbenb 
John i, 31. 2d. It was solficiently long 
before he came to eicite general atten- 
tion, and to 6i the mind on it. 3d. It 
was that of a man acknowledged by oU 
to be a prophet of God, " lor all men 
held John lobe a. prophet." Matt-ud. 
26. 4th. It Via for the expreti purport 
of declaring beforehand that he was 
about to appear. 5th. It was diiinlereil- 
ed. He was himself extremely popular 
Many were disposed to receive him as 
the Messiah. It was evidently in bis 

Jew could aspire ; and it shows tho va- 
lue of John's testimony that he Was 
willing to lay all his honoia at the feel 
of Jeans, and to acknowledge that he 
was unworthy to perform for him the 
office of the humblest servant. Matt, 
iii. n. V Th math him. Through Jobn, 
or by means of hie testimony. T Wiu 
not that lighi. Was aot the Matiah. 
This is an explicit declaiation designed 
to satisfy all the disciples of John. The 
evidence that he was not the Meanah, 

n the folloi 
n the conduct 


all might believe, so it 

is no less true of the ministry of Jesus 
himself. He came for a similar pur- 
pose, and we may iu,, therefore, Irual 
m him <br solvation. 3d. Vfe should 
not rely too mut^ on ministers of tbe 

SMpel. They cannot aave us any more 
lan John could; and their omce, ai 
hit was, is simply to direct men (o the 
Lami of God that l^eth aaay the tin 
ef thttDorld. 

9. That teai the true light. Not John, 
lut tha McBsioh. Ho was not a fiilso, 
.ncertun, dangerous guide, nut wa* 
.ne that was true, real, ateadv, and 
worthy of confidence. A false IgtM >■ 
leads to danger or csro! aa ( 

10 He was In the world, and the 
worid waa made by him, and ■ the 
world knew bim not. 

blse beacon on the'shorea of the ocean 
may lead ehips to quicksanda or rocks ; 
or an ignit fataiu to fens, and precipi- 
" COB, and death. A true light ia one that 
doaa not deceivj na, bb the true beacon 
Day guide ua into port, or warn ua of 
danger. Christ leada none aatray. All 
lalge teachers do. T Thai lig&lelh. 
That enligbtcnB. He rBmoves dark- 
neas. error, ignorance, from the mind. 
T Every man. I'hig is an expreaaioo 
denoting, in general, the whole hutnan 
Mce — Jewa and Gentiles. John preach- 
ed to the Jews, Jeeus came In be a 
Ugii to lighlen the GcnlUa. as well as 
to be the gloty of the people of Iirael. 
Luke ii. 32. V That eameth into the 
world. The phrase in the original ia 
ambiguoua. The word ir&nslalcd, "thai 
eomelh," may either refer to the light, 
at to the word man. So that it may 
mean either, ■ thia (me light thai romei* 
into the world, enlightens all ;' or, 'It 
enlightens every man that eometh into 
■he world.' Many critics, and among 
Ihe fathers, Cyril and Augustine, have 
preferred the former, and tranalaied it, 
"The true light was he who, coming 
into the worid, enUghtaned every man." 
The principBl reasons for this are, Ist. 
That Ihe Mcaeiah is often spoken of as 
he that Cometh into the world. Seech. 
tL U ; iviu. 37. Sd. He is often dis- 
tinguished as " the lighl that iBmeth into 
liemrrld." Ch. iil 19. "Thisisthe 
condemnation that light is come into the 
world." Ch. lii. 46. " I am come a 
U^t into the world." Christ may be 
Mud ta do what is accomphshed by his 
command, or appointment. This pas- 

pemonal ministry, and by bis Spirit and 
apostles, light, or teaching, ia afforded 
to b1). It does not mean that every in- 
dividual of the hutnan family is en- 
lightened with the knowledge o^ lie 
(Upel, for this never yet Aa> fr«n. But 
It means, lat. That thia hght is not 
confined to the Jea, but is extended to 
•n— Jews and Gentiles. 2d. That it 
d provided for all, and offered Jo all. 
3d. It ia not affirmed that at thJ time 
'hat Joho wrote, all tosre actually ™- 
lightened, but the word " hghtcth'' has 

» tSAO. 

the form of the future. Thie it (tM 
ligkl to long expected and prtditltd, 
KAtcA, at the rauU of lit eamiag bitt 
the world, tcia ultinaidy etiUghtim oB 

10. He real in the vxn-ld. This r*. 
fera, probably, not to his pre-eztstenca, 
but to the fact that he became incar- 
nate 1 that be dwelt among men. 1 
And ihe mn-ld mu made by him. This 
ia a repetition of what is aaid in verse 3. 
Not only man, bul all material things, 
were made by him. These lacls are 
mentioned here to make what is said 
immediately after more striking, to wit : 
That men did not receive bSo. The 
proofs which he furnished that they 
might to receive him were, 1st. Thoso 
given while ha waa in He worH; the 
iracles that he wrought, and his in 

uctions : and 2d. The fact that the 
-jrld tmi made by him. It was re 
msrkable that the world did not hnov 
or approve ita own maker, t The 
torrid knew him not. The word kneiB is 
mes used in the sense of approv- 
. .„ , . . loning. Ps. 1. 6. Matt. vu. 33. 
In this sense it may be used here. The 
world did not love or approve him, bul 
rejected him, and put him to death. Or 
it may mean that they did not under- 
stand, or know, that he was the Mes- 
siah. For had the Jews knoum and 
believed that he was the Messiah, they 
would not have put bim to death. 1 

Cor. ii. 


" Had t 

1, thev 
i (he Lord of 



land or coantry. It was called hit land 
■' ' of his birth, 
chosen land 
where God delighted to dwsll^and to 
manifest his feyor. See Isa. y. 1 — 7. 
Over that land the laws of God had 
' sen extended ; and that land had been 
sgarded as peculiarly bis. Ps. cxlvii, 



words, which ii 

IS Uutuman; *hb received 
lo them gave he ' power to bei 
the sons of God, even to them ^ that 
believe on his name : 

■ IIJ6.4.S. Bn.B-U. lJnnJ.1. 'ai.Oa 
TjfiU ; «. priviUgt. i Oa^U. 

people leceived him not.' They were 
to people, because Giod had choMn 
them to be his above ell other DSiiona ; 
hod given lo them hia iawB; and hod 
mgowj protected uid favored ihsm. 
Deut. vil 6 ; liv. 3. T Bttmed kirn 
ihX. Did not acknowledge him to be 
(he Mesfflah. They lejecied him ; put 
lim to death asreeablv lo the prophecy. 
IsL liii. 3, 4.~^rom this we leara, let. 
That it ia reasonable to expect that 
those who have been peculiarly favored, 
should wetcoma the meaaage of God. 
He had a right lo expect, Fdter all that 
had been done for the Jewa, that they 
would^m^ive the measage of elemu 


■w should embrace him and be saved. 
Yet 3d. It ia not the abundance of ner- 
tia that incUne men to seek God. The 
Jew* had been Bienally favored, but 
they rejected him. So, meny in Chiis- 
Ciao lands, live and die rejecting the 
Iiord Jesus. 3d. Men are alike in every 
age. All would reject the Saviour if 
left to themselves. All mpn aie by 
nalore wicked. There is no more cer- 
tain and univeraal proof of it, than the 
universsl rejection of the Lord Jesus. 
12. TaatntaJt^iaTativedhm. The 

BfetiDie received him, and many 
•fter his death. To rativt Atn, here, 
menna to Mieite aa him. This is eX' 

Ceased at the end of the verse. T Gate 
pawrr. This is mora ^propriately 
Tendered in Lhe margin by the word 
' 'privilege.' ' It is so used in 1 Mac. 
». 58. T Son* cf God. Children of 
God by adoption. See Note, Malt. I 
1. Cluistisns are called sons of God, 
lat. Because Ibey ere adapUd by him. 
IJohniii. 1. 3d. Because they sre ItJti 
Un ; they resemble him. and bare his 
Kiirit. 3d. They are united to the Lord 
Jesus, the Son of God — are regarded 
by Ant as his btclhren (Mali. uv. 40.); 
and are, therefore, regarded as the child- 
ren of the Most High. S In kit name. 
This ia another way of saying, beliei 

Mb in Am. The a 

13 Which were born, * Dot of 
blood, nor of the will of (he fleak, 
noT of the will of man, but frf 

often put for the person himself. Ch. 
u. 33 ; iii. IS. 1 John v. 13. From 
Ibis versa we learn, let. That to be • 
child of God is a privilege — fer more ju 
than to be a child of a man, though in 
the highest degree rich, or learned, or 
honored. ChriaiianB- are, therefore, 
more honored iban any other men. Sd. 
(rod rave them ihispnvileee,' It is not 
by their own works or deserts : it is 
becHuse God chose to impart this bless- 
ing to them. Rph. ii. 8. John iv. 16. 
3d. Tbis &vor is giiven only lo those 
who believe on him. All olhers are 
the children of the wicked one ; and no 
one who has nol canfideHce in God, can 
be regarded as his child. No parent 
would acknowledge one for his child or 
approve of him, who had no eonfidtitet 
in aim ; who douUed, or denied all he 
said, and who despised all liis goodness. 
Yet this the sinner consianlly does to- 
ward God, and he cannol, therefore, be 
called his aon. 

13. Whid, tnere bom. This doubt 
less refers to the tms birth, or lo lhe 
greatchange in lhe sinner's mind, called 

that they ^d not become the childm) 
of God ID virtue of their birlh ; or be- 
cause t'ley were ibe children of /nM, 
or of pdiu parents. The term " to be 
bom, is often used tO' denoie this 

LuliiiiUy, this great chsrigs. 

ural birlh inUu^cee ua lo life. This 

is the be^nning of apiritual hfe. Be- 
'■^le, the unner IB dead in sins. Eph. u. 
Now he be^ns lo live for God. 
efore, he was in darkness. Now ha 
ushersd into life. And as the natural 
birth is the beginning of life, so to be 
bom of God is to be mtroduced u> nal 
life, to %ht. 10 happioesB, and to (he 
favor of GoH. The term expresses K 
the ^raofBui, and the natun of 
hsnge. T JVoC e/ blood. Gi. plu- 
ral. Nol of iloodt I L e. not of sun. 
Compare Matt. uvii. 4. The Jews 
prided themselves on bung the dssoand- 
of Abraham. lUul. iu. 9. Tha? 

14 And the Word * irss made 
flesh, and dwelt among us, (and 
we beheld hii glory, the gtory as □ 

•niitled to the bi 
hapa the meaning miiv h 

there is a union of illuE _. 

ancestry or Uomb in them. Ths law 
of Christ's kingdom is different from 
what iho JewB suppoBod. Compare 1 
Peter i. 33. It was necessary -- ■-- 
iBTiio/'CrtKl by regeneration, re 
it may mean that they did not become 
children of God by Ihe bloody rite 
draincuim, sa mi;n;[ of the Jewasi; 
ised they did. . This is agreeable 

the d 

of P 

29. f JVbro/(ieiijiao/«*fl«*, 
by natural gencratir- ' *' - 
mUi^man.^ This b 

adopting a cltild, as 
Ilie design of using these 

birth ; and Ibe design < 

ibree phrases mag havt , 

Jiat they became the children of God 
Dot in virtue of their descent from illus- 
triooH parents hke Abraham ; not by 
tbev natuiai binh : and not by beltig 
adopted by a pious man. None of the 
wsya by which we become antitlsd to 
the privileges of children of men can 
0ve ua a uile to be called the sons of 
God. It ia not by human power, or 
BgeBcy, thai r ' 
t£^ Most Higl 
is. God produ 

t But of God. Tha 


id by his 

children. The 
power. And no privilege 
unaided effort of man ; i 
onrs, can produce this change. At the 
■ime time, it is true that no man is re- 
newed who does not himself deiirc and 
win to be « believer — for the effect of 
the change is On his aili (Pa. ci, 3.) 
■nd no one is changed wfio does not 
strive to enter in at tbe strait gate. 
Phil. ii. 12.— This important verse, 
therefore, teaohea ua : let. That if men 
■re saved they must be born again. 2d. 

the oaly-begotien of llie Falfaeij 
full * of ^^tace and truth. 

»sWl.lT. lIna.1.l,S. tftMa. CM 


entage. 3d. That the duldren ol 
ricb and the noble, as well as of the 

_ , _ . bom of God if they will 

■Bved. 4ih. That (he children of 

go ti 

work is the work of God, and no a 

can do il for us. 6th. That we should 
forsake all human dependence ; casi 
off all conHdence in Ihe tlesb and go at 
once lo the throne of grace, and be- 
seech of God to adopt us into his family 

... .... Luke 

.i.3; ii.5. The " Word" 
nan. This ia commonly ei- 

en we say that a being fas- 
Tnate, we mean chsl one of 
der than man and of a difler- 
assumes the appearance of 

that " the Word," ortho second 

person of the Trinity, wBom John had 
just proved to be equal with God, be- 
as imited with the 

il Job 


-eth, BO thai it 


. said that he vai madefiah. 1 Wat 

Buiile. This is the same ward thai is 

in verse 3: "All things were 

hy him." It is not simply affinn- 

flesh, but was made flesh, 

.. . the doctrine of the scripluies 
elsewhere. Heb. i. 5. "AbodytoMt 

Srepared me." Heb. ii. 14. " Ai 
Idren were partakers of flesh and 
1. he aieo himself likeiyise took 
pari of the sama." 1 John iv. 2. " Je- 
- Christ is come m Ihe flesh." See 
■ 1 Tim. iii. 16. Phil. ii. 6. 2 Cor. 
9. Luke i. 35. The eipresaioa 
1 means that he became a man. anf 
: he became such by the power of 
1 providing for him a body. It can- 
mean that Ihe divine nature was 
(Aoual into the humnn. for that could 
not be. But it meani, thai the Logos 


of him, and et'ed, Mjing, This wai he of 

malelf united 10 JeSuB 

1 eaid ihal ho was a 

cornea so tmited I 

body and the animal life thai we may 



_ .. „ w. The word 

Ui« original denotea ' ' dwelt &•* in 
Ubernacla or tem'Vwilh U£i and lor 
have Biwposed thai John meana lo aay 
thai tbe oucnan body waa a tabernacle 
or lent lor the Lo^b lo abide in. in al' 
lusion lo the labGrnacle amon^ ihe Jewg 
in which the Sfaechitish, dr viaible ayiti- 
bol of God, dwelt. Bui it is not necca- 
aair to suppose ihis. The object of 
John was to prove that " the word" 
became iiuaraale. To do this be ap- 

Ibal he dieeU among them ; aojourned 
with them ; ale, drank, alept, and was 
with them for years, so that they " saw 
him with their eyes, they looked upon 
biiHi and tbeii bands handled him.' 1 
Johni. 1. To dwtU in a lent aULiMu, 
is ths same as to be in his family ; and 
when John saya he labenucUd witb 
them, ho means that ho waa with them 
as a friead. and as one of a family, so 
that they had full opportunity of becom- 
ing familiarly acquainted with him, and 
could not be mistaken in suppo^g that 
ke wai naUy a man. 1 Wc beheld hii 
gbtry. This la a new proof of 


in. The first i 

._._ _F God 
IS thai they 
le now adds 
proper glory 

that they had see . ._ 
— _God and nun unitedin (HxwriM, 
eoDStilntiog him the unequalled Son of 
the Father. There is no doubt thai 
there is reference here to the transfig- 
BTation on the holy mount. See Matt. 
xviL 1 — 9. To tins samoeTidence Pe- 
ter also appeals. 2 Pet i, 16 — IS. John 
was one of the witnessea of that scene, 
and hence ha says, ' ' wb btheld hit 
flary." Mark ix. 3. The viordgUrry 
beie maana majesty, dianity, splendor. 
Fatier. The dignily which was appro. . 
nisls lo [hs oaly-besotten Son of God. 
3nch glory or splendor as could belang 
JO no other, and as properlyexpressed 
ni» rank and eharacier. This glory 
(raa seen eminently on the mount, and 
to this John had doubtless special refer- 
tlM. It was also »e*n 1b nis minclesi 1 

bis doctrine, his reaurrection, his ascen- 
sion ; all of which were such as toillus- 
trate the perfections and mai^est tb« 
glory that belongs only to the Son of 
God. 1 Only hwtten. ThU term is 
neverappUedby John to any but Jesus 
Ghrial. , It is spphed by him five times 
to the Saviour [ch. I. 14, 18 ; iii. 16, 18. 
]JohniT.9.) ItmeaDBhterallyanonly 
child. Then, as an only child is pecuh- 

especially beloved. Compare Gen. iiii. 
2, 12, 16. Jer. tI. 26. Zecb. zii, 10 
Un 6c>(A these accounts it is bestowed 
on the Saviour. Isl. Ah he was emi- 
nentty the Son of God, sustaiiun^ « 
peculiar relation to him in his divine 

gels, and thus worthy to be called by 
~iy of eminence his only Son. Saints 
... 3 called his amis, or children, iiecause 
they are bom of his Spirit, and are hhe 
him. But'the X«rd Jesus is exalted &r 
above all, and deeerves eminently to 
be called his only begouen San. 2d. 
He was pecuharly dear lo God, Hod 
therefore this appellation, implying len- 
derafiection,isbeBtowedoiihjm. 1 FuU 
afenctand tmlk. The word/aK here 
refers to the Werd madefiah, which is 
declared to be full of grace and truih. 
"'be word grace means/iwii'i, eifts, 
liens of beneficence. He was Kind, 
erciful, gracious, doing good to all, 
_id seeking man's weSare by great 
sacrifices and love : so much so thai it 
besaid tobe cbarscleriaticofhimi 
.. __ aboundtd in favors to mankind. 
He was HBofull ef truth. He declared 
the truth. In him waa no Ealsehood. 
He waa not like the false prophets and 
blae MessiBlis who were wholly im- 
postors; nor was he like the emblems 
and shadowH of the old dispensation, 
which were only types of the true; bul 
IB was true in afl things. He npn. 
renfnf Oiingi a> thty are, and thus ba> 
cams the tnifA as well as lie a«« attd 
tkt life. 

15. John bare joUneti of Ann. Ills 
evanaeliBi now retuma to the testimony 
of John the Baptist. He had stated ths; 
the Word became incarnate, and he now 

S peals lo the testimony of John to show 
It ho waa the Messiah. ^ He thai 
anaeth after me. He of whom I am -ha 
forrr mner, or whose way I am come ic 


h ftiftTTti ie/ore me. Is Bupeiior to 
me. Mosi ciidca hsve supposed Ihoit 
the worde trauBlated "isprefened." te- 

John, ^el ihat 

fore him. Sonic, uumum, uma uu- 

deratood il as our iraaBUtora Mem to 
hive done, aa meaning he wsa worth; 
of moreionor than I am. IHeiwuie. 
ffn wte. Thia can refer to itdthing but 
m^ pre-eiiatence, and can be explained 
only on the supposidon that he txitted 
before John, or as tha evangeliat had be- 
tore ehi)wn, from the beginning. He 
CBme afttr Joh(i in hia publtc ministi^ 
and in biB human nature, bat id his di- 
rina nature he had esiaiad long before 
Jtrflll had a being — from atemily. — We 
may learn here tsat it ia one mark of the 
Eroe Bpirii of a minister of Christ to de- 
nre and feel that Chrial ia alwaya pre- 
ferred to ouraelves. We ahould keep 
ourselves out of view. The great object 
is to hold up the Saviour; and however 
much auch mimaters may bo honored or 
bteaaed, yet they shouli! lay all at the 
feet of JeauB, and direct all men to him 
aa the undivided object of affection and 
honor. Itiaihebusmesaof every Chria- 
lian, aa well as of every Christian minis- 
ter, to be a viitnttt tor Christ, and to 
endeavor to convince the world that he 
is worthy of confidence and love. 

16. Ofl,ufidnat. In the Uth verae 
[he ev&ngeliat has said Ihat Christ was 
fyiR ef grace and tnth. Of Ihat/al- 

1 truth and' mercy grace to 
understand the plan of Balvalion. to 
preach the gospel, to live Uvea of hoU- 
oeta j they partaok of the numerous 
blessinga which he came lo impart by 
Ida inatiuoiions and hia death. These 
•re undoubtedly not the worda of John 
the Bsptisl, but of the evangelist John, 
the wnier of this gospel. They are a 
conlinuilion of what he wae saying in 
(he !4th verae, the 15ih verse being 
■ridantlT thrown in aa a pareatlteais. 

IB And oC hifl (Uneu ■ hm «i 

we Teceived, and grace for rraoe. 
17 For the law was giTen by 

The dectaration had not eietushe refer 
ence probably to the qKMlles, bnl it is 

extended to all Chiisdans, for all belier- 
era bava received of the ^Inoio/'gniet 
and truth that ia in Christ. CompttN 
Eph.L23: iu.l9. Col. i.l9; iL9. la 
all theae places our Saviour is repiesenta 
ed aa the fiilaesa of God, as otnuHtinf 
in mercy, aa exhibtting the divine attn 
bales, and possessing in bimself all tha 
is necessary to tilt hja pe^te with tmth 
and graoe, and love. ^ Croce/or grace 
Many interpretations of this phrase hare 
been proposed. The cbief -are bdeflr 
Ibefonowing: Ist. ' We have received, 
under the gospel, grace or fevor nutaad 
of those granted under the law. And 
God baa added by the gospel important 
favora to those wbich he gave under the 
law.' This waa first propoaed by Chry- 
sostom. 2d. 'We. Christians, have 
received grace iwi»iiJeri«^ lo, or corres 
ponding to that wbich ia m Jesua Christ 
Weaieititf him in meekness, humility,' ~ 
&c. 3d. ' We have received grace for 
grace »o*e, aigrace, that is, freely. We 
have not purchased il, nor desarvad it, 
but God has conferred it on us freely.' 
Grotius. 4th. The meaning is probablj 
simply that we have received throun 
hjip tSmr^danct of grace or favora. THo 
Hebrews, in ejpresHng the n|>erJattH 
degree of comparison, used simply to 
repeat tha word. Thus "pits, irils," 
meaning many piu. Heb. in Gen. xiv 
10. So here grace for grace may mean 
mvdi grace, superlative ftvora besloweii 
on man, superior to all that bad bem 
under tbe law, superior to all olhei 
things that God would confer on men in 
this world. These favora conost in par* 
don, redemption, protection, aanedso*- 
tion, peace here, and heaven hereafter. 
17. The laic ma given. The Old 
Teatament economy. The institatiant 
tmder which the Jews lived. ISy JWt- 
itt. By Moses, as the servant tx^God. 
Hewaathegreat legislator of the Jam 

i_ 1 — _^ — J — God. tl ' 

I worfeel- 

ended with many bur- 

iiea and ceremonies (Acts it. 

r preparatory to another elat# 
The gospel succeeded lh«( 

Moms, buf gnee * and tmth c 
bj Jesaa Christ. 

18 No man heth seen God 
any lime; the ' onlj-b^;otteii Son, 
which is in the hoeom of the Father, 
he hath declared Atm 

<F>£I1.1C. Ho^M. IEi.33.30. ITiA 

■ttd took. itB place, and llius ebowed tlie 
fMlneii of the gospel ecoaomy, as well 
» iu ip'ace aiul tmlb. 1 Oraee and 

tmU fame by Jeiut Chritt. A Byatem 
til religion full of bvora, and ihe true 
ByMem was revealed by hio). The old 
syMem was one of lam, and lAadmM, 
■ ' ■ ilea. Tkii wbh fall of 



Ihinga. We may learn from ihese ' — _ 
es : Ist. Thatall our mercies come from 
JeeuB Christ. 2d. "All true believerB 
receive irom Chrial'B fulness ; the best 
and greatest Baiaca cannot live wtlhout 
■ iiim, the mowiest and weakeai may live 
by bim. This eicludes proud boasling 
dial we have nothing, hul toe have rertiv- 
td it ; and eilencetfa perpleiing feora 

18. NemBilaaiamaodataHglime. 
This deciaralion is probably made lo 
show (be aaperiiirity of the revelation of 
Jeeiu above that of any previoua dia- 
peniation. It is said, theTefote, that 
Jcsas AaJ an iiU^nole krumledge o/ God, 
which neither Moses nor any of the an- 
cieot prophelB had posacased. God Is 
mvinble. No human eyes have seen 
him. But Christ had a knowledge of 
God which might be eipresaed to imr 
.__ •- - inby saying^lhat he aaa him. 

19 And this ' li die reAoid o' 
John, when the Jews sent priestl 
and LoTites from Jerusalem to ask 
him. Who art lh(M 1 

30 And he canfeased, and denied 
not; hut confessed, 1 am not the 

kitowledge of God. T In ty hmam of 

Ike Poljbr. This expression is taken 
from the custom among the Orientals 
of reclining at their meals. See Note 
on Matt, xiiit. 6. It denotes intimacy, 
friendship, affeclion. Here it means 
that JeBuahadaknowledgeof God auch 
as DOS friend has of another, knowledgo 

which no other otie possesBes, and which 
readers hint therefore qualilied ^ove all 
_.u.__ ,__ u._ ,. ^ Haa 

declared iioL Hath fully revealed him 
- ■ ■ ■ Cort " 

This v( 

t) known. Compare Heb.i. 


saymg t 

', and was therefore fitted lo moke a 
iller manifestation of him. See John 
37;Ti46. IJohniv. 12. Ei. xxiiii. 
This passage 

n had witnessed 

naiu/n(a(unu i^ God. as when 
peared to Moses and the prophets. 
Compare Num. lii. 6. Iu. vL But 
it is meant that no one lias Been the es- 
sence of God, or had /uUu kmnm Gad. 
'As prophets delirered what they heard 
Odd apeak ; Jesui what he jlninii of 
Ood as hia equal, and as understanding 
folly bianature. ^Thtonlif-begolieiiSim, 

g of that <: 

This v 

a knowledge of God above that which 
any i^ the ancient propbeta had, and 
thai thAullest revelations of his charac- 
ter are to be eipected in the gospel. 
By his word uid sinrit he can enbghlen 
and guide ■ ' ■ . ., 

obtained through his Son. 
piiro I John u. S2. 23. 

19, Thii is tie rteord. The word 
record here means (eilinunti, in what- 
ever wsy given. The word Tea/rd-non 
refers to isriKcn evidence. This ia not 
its meaning here. John's testimony 
was given without writing. 1 When 
th^ Jews teul. John's fame was great. 
See Matt. ill. 5. It spread to JeruBalem, 
and the nation seemed to suppose from 
the character of his preaching that he 
was the Messiah. Luke ilL 15. The 
great council of Ihe nation, or the aan 
hedrtm, had among other things the 
charge of teligion. They felt it to be 
their duty, therefore, to inquire into tbe 
character and claims of John, and t« 
team whether he was the Messiah. It 
ia not improbable that they miihed thai 
he might be the long-expected Christ, 
and were prepared to regard him at 
such. 1 Prteils. See Notes, Matt, iii 
^ Levite*. See Notes, Malt. iii. These 
probsbly members of die aanbe- 

I. fa 

■Kt lit Ckiiit. This MR 

31 And they asked him, V!hat 
Ihent Art thou Eliasl And he 
•aitli, I am not. An thoa ' ihat 
prophet 1 And he answered, No. 

SKi Then said they unto hii 
Who art thou 1 that we may give 
an answer to them that sent us. 
What gayest thou of thyself! 

fesmoo Bhowa thai John waa not u 
poator. HshBdawiderepulBtian. 
nation was expecting that the Messiah 
was about to ixime, and muliiiudeB were 

Luke iii. 15. If John had been vi im- 
postor, he would have taken advantage 
of tliis excited slals of public feeling, 
proclaimed himself to be the Messiah, 
and formed a large partr in his lavor. 
The fact thai he did iwl do it, is full 
proof Ihat he did not intend to nnpue 
on men, but came only as the forerun- 
ner of Christ. And his example showa 
. that all Christiana, and especially all 
Christian miniaters. 'however much 
>hey may be honored and Resaed, 
should be willing to lay all their honors 
at the feet of Jesus, to keep thnrudcei 
back, and to present only the Son of 
God- To do this is one eminent mark 
of the true spirit of a minister of the 

21. Art thou Eliai ! The Greek way 
»f writing Elijah. The Jews expected 
that Elijah would appear before the 
Messiah come. See Note, Matt. xi. 14. 
TSey supposed that it would be the real 
Elijah relumed from heaven. In this 
sense John denied that he tnu Elijah ; 
but he did not deny that he was the £lias 
which the prophet intended (Matt, iii, 3). 
for he immediately proce.ede to state 

the way of tlie Lord. So thai while he 
corrected ihoir false notions about Eli- 
jah, he so clearly slated to them Mb 
true character, that they might under- 
stand that he was really the one pre- 
dicled IS Elijah. 1 That prophet. It ie 
possible that the Jews supposed that 

this question has reference lo the pre- 
dicdoit of Moses in Dent, iviii. 1&. 

73. I am tit naitt, im. See NotK 
Ultl. iii 3. 

33 Hs ' said, I am the TOM« of 
one crying in the wildeness, Make 
atraig'ht the way of the Lord, as 
said the prophet * Esaias. 

34 And tfiey which were sent 
were of the Pharisees. 

SS And they asked him, and said 
unto him. Why baptizest thou then, 
■ MbIIJ.3. Mar.j.a Lu.3.1. C3.2S. tb.MS 

. Wer, of iht, 

For ■ 

« Note. Matt 

it seems that ihey 
n in Bending to him to know 
the design of John. This 

_ ce is one of those incidental 

and delicate allusions which would oc- 
cur to no impostor in forging a book, 
and which show that the writers of the 
New Testament were honest men, and 
knew what they affirmed. For: Isl. • 
The Phariaees composed a great part 
of the sanhedrim- Acts Xiiii. 6. 11 is 
probable that a deputation from the 
sanhedrim would be of that party. 24- 
The Pharisees were very tenacious of 
rites and customs, of tretiilions and 
ceremonieB. They observed nianv. 
Thay believed that they were lawfu'i. 
Mark vii. 3, 4. Of course, they he- 
ed; but ihey did not Buppose that it 
could be done except b" "' 
of a prophet, orof the IV 
therefore, John came iapittmg, aauing 
he observed by his followers, 
not only GentiliM but also 

, ...e question was, whether he 

had autAoriry to insdtute a new rile ; 
""'heiher it was to be received amonj 
ie ceremonies of religion. In this 
ucstlon the Saddaceea felt no interest, 
•I lliey rejected all such rites at once. 
<ul the Phariiea thought it was worth 
inquiry ; and it was a question on whicii 
they fell themselves specially called aa 
tci aa the gnardiDns of the ceremo- 

5. Why baplixett thai then, &.C. 
itism on receiving a proselyte from 
heatheBitm wob common before the 
)f John. But it was not cueto- 
mary to bapilxe a Jeto. John had 
"iBnged the custom. He baptized ail; 
id they were desirous of knowing by 
hat authority he made Ach i cbuin 


ifthoa b« Bot Hat Chriflt, nor Etiaa, 
neither that prophet 1 

36 John answeied diem, saying', 
I baptize with water: but there 
■tandeU) one • among yoa, whom 
je know not : 

97 He it is, who, coming after 

to the religious custom ol the natioo. 
They preaamod from ihe fact that bo 
inlrMMced that 'chsuge that he claimed 
(0 be ■ prophet, or the Christ. Tbey 
(unNMed that no one would attempt it 
without pretending at least authority 
from heaven. As be disclaimed the 
character of Christ, and of the prophet, 
they ashed whence he derived hia an- 
Ihority. As be had juat helbre appbed 
to bLmaelf a prediction that they all 
conndered as belonging to the lorerun- 
ner of Christ, they ntight have under- 
■tood B*u be did it. But they were 
blind, and manifested, as aU sinnera do, 
a remarkable slowness in underetand- 
mg the plainest cases in religion. 

26, / baptae. He did not deny it. 
Nor did be condescend to state fais au- 
thority. TAol he had given. He adutit- 
Hd that he had introduced an important 
dhtfif e in (be rites of religion. And be 
goes on to tell them that thi> was not 
all. Greaterandmoreimportantcbanges 
would soon take place without tJinr au- 
thority. The Messiafa was about 

(*eir hands. * There ttand- 

tn the midst of you. — _ _ 

K'ahed among the muldtude. 
«8iah had already come, and was 
about to he manifested to ^e people. 
It was not onlil the next day {ver. S9) 
that Jesua was manilested, or pro- 
claimed OS the Messiah. But it is not 
improbable that be was tia* among the 

nie that were assembled near the 
in, and mingled with them though 
he was undistinguished. He bad gotie 
there probably with the muitiludas diat 
were attracted by the fium of John, 
and had gone without attracting atten- 
tion, though his real object was to re- 
ceive baptism in this public manner, 
and to be exhibited and praclaimed as 
the Messiah, t Wlum jri jIiuid aoC. 
JeiuB «as not yet declared publicly to 
IM the Christ. Tbough it is probable 
that he wu then among the muititnde, 
, V:>i.n,-17 

23 The^ things were done in 
Belbabara, ' beyond Jordan, where 
John was baptizing, 

S9 The next day, John eeetb Je- 
> Judg.i M. 

yet he was not knairn aa the Messiab. 
We may hence learn: tst. That there 

is often great excellency ir "' " 

thai is ohscnre, — ■■■-' 


people, but they n 

bis presence, and be was retired and 
obscure. Though the greatest person- 
age ever in the world, vol he was not 
externally distinguished from others. 
2d. Jesus may be near to men of th« 
world, and yet they know him not. 
Ho is every where by his Spirit, yai 
few know it, end few are detavut of 
knowing it. 

27. Wheie thoi't latAtt. Note, 
Matt. iii. II. The latiAtt of sandals 
was the string or thong by which they 
were fastened to the fMt. To unlooas 
them was the office of a servant, and 
John means, ihererore, that be wai 
unworthy to perform Ibe lowest oSae 
for the Messiah. This was reinark^hle 
bumibty. Jobn was well known. He 
was highly honored. Tboasands came 
to bear him. Jesus was at thai time 
unknown. But John was unworthy to 
perform the humblest office for Jeaua. 
So we all should bo wilbne to biy all 
that we have at the feet of Christ, and 
feel that we are unworthy to be hia 
lowest servants. 

28. In B^ki^ra. Almost all the 
ancient mannscripls and venrions in- 
stead of BtHuAoTa here have JtcUmqi, 
and this is doabtless the true reading. 
There was a Bethany about two milGa 
east of Jerusalem, but there was also 
another in the tribe of Reuben, on lh« 
east aide of the river Jordan, and in ibis 
place probably John was b^liung. It 
ts about twelve mites above Jencho. 
1 Beyond Jordan. On the east aide of 
the nver Jordan. 

29. Ta not day. The day afier the 
Jews made inquiry wbelher he was the 
Christ. ^ Behold the la^tf God. A 
lamb among the Jews waa killed and 

their deliveiwic*.fii>m Egypt- E*- * 

Mia coming unto hint, and saith. 
Behold (he Lamb ■ of God, which 
' talceth ' away the sin of the world ! 
30 This is he of whom I said, 
Aiter me cometh a men which is 
prefeired before me : for he was 

prefeired b< 

Zl And T knew him not : but 
that he should be made manifest to 
Israel, therefore am 1 come baptii- 
ing with vrater. 

33 And John bare record, sapng, 
• Ei.iaa Ib.53.7.11- Ke-SA 'oi.ttar- 

A lamb wu offered in the lempla every 
morning and evening, bb a pwt of ths 
duly worship. Bi. nil. 38, 39. The 
MsBBiah vaa predicted as a iamb led to 
ihe slaughleT, to show his patience in 
tus Bafferinga, and readiness to die for 
man. Isa. liii. 7. A lamb aniong the 
Jews was also an emblem of patience, 
meekoBsa, gentleness. On ail these 
accounts, rather than on an; one of 
them alone, JesuBwaa called ihiLiadi. 
He was imiocent (1 Pel. ii. 23—05) ; be 
was a BBcrifice br an — the substance 
rapresenled by the daily oflering of the 
lamb, and elain at the nana] ^e of the 
evening aacriSce (Luke ixiii. 44 — 46) ; 
and he was what was repreaented by 
Ibe posBover, turning away ihe anger 
of God, and saving ua by hie blood from 
vengeance and eternal death. 1 Cor. 
T. 7. < Of God. Appointed by God, 
approved by God, and most dear to 
turn. The sacritice which he ehatt, and 
which he ammwet to save men from 
death, t Which toMAavav. Thisde- 
notea hli hearing the btiu of the world, 
or the safierings which mads an qtane- 
ment for nn. Compare laa, liii. 4. 1 
John iii. S. 1 Pel. ii. 34. He ukes 
Bvray rin by btaring or sufienng in his 
own body the nsing which God ap- 
pointed to show his»ensfl of the evil of 
sin, thoB magniJying the law. and rsn- 
dering it consiatenl for Him to pardon. 
Rom. iii. S4, 25. 1 Of Ike world. Of 
all mankind, Jew and Gentile. His 
workwianottobeconfinedto the Jew, 
but was also to benefit the Gentile ; it 
waa not confined to any one part of the 
world, but waa dengned lo open the 
way of pardon lo all men. He was the 
propitialion (oi the hub of the whalo 

IN. LA-D.M. 

I saw bhe Spirit deaceitding' fion 
heaven like a dove, end it aboda 
upon him. 

33 And I knew him not: but he 
that Bent me (o bapti/e with water, 
the same said unUi me. Upon whom 
thou shall see the Sjurit descending, 
and remaining'on bim, the same t* 
he which baptizeth ■* with the HoIt 

34 And I saw, and bare record 
that this is the Son of Uod. 

(AC13.39. IPe.2S4. B».1Jt. ee.Ul 

world, 1 John ii. 2. See Notes oa 9 
Cor. T. 15, 

31. Ihnachimnot. John wasnot per 
msoUif acquainted with Jeaus. Though 
they were remotely related to each 
other, yet il seems that Ihey had no 
personal acquaintaiice. John fiad Uved 
chiefly in the bill country of Judea. 
Jesus hsd been employed with Joseph 
St Naiareth. Until Jesus came lo be 
baptized by John (Matt. iii. 13, 14), it 
seems that be had no acquaintance with 
him. He underslood that he was to 
announce that the Messiah was about 
to appear. He was sent lo proclaim 
his coming, but he did not personally 
know Jesus, or that he was lo be the 
Messiah. Thiaproveal' 


^ShmU be ».___ 
Measiah should be exJiSiiled or made 
known. He came lo prepare the way 
for the Messiah, and it nmn appearBd 
that the Messiah was Jesus ol Naia 
reth. 1 To Itrad. To the Jews. 

3Z. Bare retord. Gave testimony. 
1/ (Qw the Spiril, ke. See Note, 
Malt. iii. IS, 17. 

33. 34. Tie tame taid, &e. Th4 
lign by which he was to know 

the MeseiA 

was to see Ihe Spiril 

he hod n 

oes not follow, hov . 

intimatiiin before this thsl 
.. _ the Christ, but it means thu 
i he should infaUiUy latom il. 
rmm Matt. iii. 13,14, it aeems thai 
John supposed, before the baptism of 
Jesus, that be clatsud to be Ibe Mes. 
sish, snd that he believed il. But tlu 
■it/sUiZiI*, cerlma lealimony in the caaa 

a: d. S6.J 

S5 Again, thenextdayafler, John 
»tood, and two of his ditcjples ; 

36 AndlookingupoD Jesus as he 
walked, lie auth, Behold the Lamb 
of God! 

was the deaeenl of the Holy S[Mrit on 
him at his baptiBm. T That Ihii it tke 
Sm ^ Gad. This whb diBtincily de- 
clared by a voice from heaven bL his 
baplism. Mall. iii. 17. Thia John 
heard, and testified that he had heard iL. 

35. 7»eite«ifay. The day after his 
remarkBble testimony that Jeeus was 
(he Son of God. This testimony of 
John is reponed hecause it was the 
main design of the Evangelist to show 
;hal Jesus was the McBsiah. To do 
this, he adduces the decided and re- 
peated lealimony of John -the Baptist. 
ThiBWBBimpartisi and decided evidenco 
in the case, end hence he so paniculaTly 
dwells upon it, ^Jatantood. Oi, was 
standing. This was probably apart 
from the multitude. T Tm cf hit dii- 
riplti. One of these was Andrew (ver. 
iO); and it ia not improhable that the 
other was the writer of this Goapel. 

36. Loi^ngupiinJi>ui,&.c, Filing 
his eyes intently lyion him, SingUng 
him out and regarding him with special 
miention. Contemplating him as the 
lang-eipected Messiah and Dehverer 
of the world. In this way should ^1 
minislers fix the eye on the Son of God, 
ajid direct all others to him. ^ Ai ht 
m^ktd. While Jenu was walking. 

37. Tkev faaamtd Jem. They had 
bean the dieciples of John. Jfti office 
was to point out the Messiah. When 
[hit was done, they left at once Aeir 

ir and teacher, John, and followed 

desiroua of forming a party, or of build- 
ina up a seel ; that he was willing that 
all his followers ehoold Ibllow Cfanet. 
The object of ministers should not ba 
to bnild ap themselves. It ia to point 
men to the Saviour. And ministers, 
however populu' or succenliil, should 
ht willing that their distdples shonld 
look (0 Christ rather than to them ; 
nay, should /srgvl them, and look away 
Irom them, to tread in the footsteps of 
ihe Son of God. And the conduct of 
these disciples shows us that we abouhl 
ibraske oil and follow Jesus when he 
<• nninted out (o us as ibe Meniah, 

>f7 And the two d aolplea lirard 
bim Bp^k, and they followed Jems. 

38 Then Jesus turned, and aaw 
them following, and saith unto 
them, What seek ye 1 They raid 

We shoukl not delay nor debase the 
matter, but leave at once sU our old 
teachers and guiiiee, and follow the 
Lamb of God. And we should do that, 
too, though to the toorU the Lord Jesui 
may appear, aa he did to the multitude 
of the Jews, as poor, unkuowa, and ' 
despised. Reader, have y« left all and 
followed him I Have you forsaken all 
I do- 

e guides of false philoi 
■ ' " '■ -ielil) 

ind infidelily , and committed 
yourself to' ibe Lord Jesus ChristI 

38. WhiU ttrk )«f Tbis waa not 
asked to obtain titfornultm. Compare 
ver. 4G. It was not a harsh reproof, 
fbrbiddinir them <o follow him. Com-. 

! Matt 

aU iheii 

feeiingB respectuig the Mesnah and 
theh own salvation. We may learn, 
Isl. That Jesus regards the first indi- 
nauons of the soul to follow him. He 
turned towards these disciples, and he 
will incline bis ear to all who beran to 
approach him for salvation. 3d. Jesus 
is ready lo bear their requests, and to 
■nswerthem. 3d, Ministers oflhoeos- 
pel, and all o^er Chiistians, should be 
accesnble, kind, and tender, towards 
all who are inquhing the way to life. 
In eonformity with ineir Master, they 
should be willing to aid all those who 
look to them for guidance and help in 
the great wOTk of their salvation. Ifiob- 
4i. Thia was a Jewish title conferred 
somewhat as the title of Doctor of Di' 
vinity now ia. and moanhig hterally 
master. Our Saviour solemnly forbad* 
bis dieciples to wear thai title. 8ea 
Notes on Mail, iiiii. 3. The fact Ihal 
John inlerprelei Ibis word shows that 
he wrote his Goapel not for the Jew* 
only, but for those who did not undei^ 
stand the Hebrew language. It issiqi' 
poaed to have been wnlten si (^dietna. 
1 Wkert dvdlal rWu t This questioD 
they probably asked him in order to 
signify their wish to be with him, and 
' ' ~ instructed hy him. They wished 
ftiUy lo hstsn to hiia than they 
couU now by tha waynds. Tbey wwa 



onto huD lUbbi, (which is to nj, 
bmai InUipreted, Muter,) whoie 
dwefleet ' ihou 1 

39 H« snith unto tbeni. Come 
and see. They came and saw 
wher^ be dwelt, and abode with 
him that day: for it was about' the 
tenth hoot. Joi 

40 One of the two which heard ph: 
John ipcoA, and followed him, was A > 
Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 43 The day following, Jeeua 

lot.atMW. "Tlmliimi.ilmirih^fen *o!.'l»4 a-uiruA a Halt. IS. UL 

.41 He first findeth hia own bro- 
ther Simon, and saith unto him. 
We have found the Messias, whiob 
is, being interpieled, ' the Christ. 

43 And he brouEht him to Jesnt 
And when Jesus oeheld him, he 
said, Thou art Simon the son of 
: Thou • shall be called Ce. 
, which is, by inteipretatioo, 

unwilluig to inletrupl him in hii travel. 
ling. Religion teatJiea men true potile- 
nesa, or a fiposiuon to coiunilt the con- 
venienee of olhers, snd nol improperly 
to molesl them, or lo bieab in upon 
ibeiD when engBged. ll also leacbea 
OS lo daire lo be inU Chriti ; to seeli 
every opporlunily of communion wiih 
lum, and cbieity to desire ta hemtk him 
aitrt ht U when we leave (bia world. 
Compare Pbil. i. 23. 

39. Cemi ami •«. This was * kind 
and gracious answer. He did not pul 
Ihtm off 10 some future period. Then, 
as now, he wsa willing that thev should 
coma at once and enjoy the full oppor- 
tunity which they desired of his coDver- 
(Blion. leaui ia ever ready to admit 
ihaae who seek him lo his presence and 
bvor. T Abode icitli him. Remained 
with him. This was probably the 
dwelling of some fiiend of Jesus. Hia 
□bubI Imme was at Nazareth. 1 The 
tenthtiKiT. The Jews divided their day 
nto twelve equal parts, beginning at 
sunriso. If John used tbeir mode of 
Domjmlation, it was about four o'clock, 
F. M. Tbe Romans divided lime as 
we da, begimune at midnight. If John 

and teld in ■6oM Jetiu before he 
brought him to Jeaus. '^ We haiie/o%iid 
Ot Metiita. Thev had learned from 
[he testimony of John, and now had 
been more lully convinced from con- 
vemtion with Jesus, ibat bs whb the 
Meaaah. Tbe word Messiab, or Mes- 
siss, is Hebrew, and means the same 
ta the Greek word ChHit, anoinled. 
Bee Nate, Matt. i. 1. From the con- 
duit of' Andrew wa mai learn diat it is 

the nature of rehgion to desire thai 
olbera may ptneeBS il. It does no( lead 
us to monopolize it, or to bide it undei 
a bushel ; but it seeks that others also 
msy be brousbt to the Saviour. It does 
not uair for Uiem to come, but it goes 
for them ; it eeeks them out, and tells 
ihem that a Saviour is found. Young 
converts should itek tbeir friends and 
neighbors, and tall them of a Saviour : 
aodnot only tbeir reUtivei 

in of tbe 1 



'orld, that sll may 

'ii~ Cejjuu. this is a Syriac word, 
eaninr iha same as tbe Greek word 
stone. See Note, Matt, xvi, 
... __3 atone, or rock, is a symbol oi 
firmness and steadiness of cbaracter—a 
trail in Peter's character q/ler the as- 
cension of Jesus that was very remark- 
able. BefaTt^hB death of Jesus be was 
rash, headlong) variable ; and it iaona 

troaf of the amoiacience of Jesna ^I 
e saw that Peter vxmld possess s 
character that would be eipressed ap- 
propriately by tbe word rgejt. The 
word Jona is a Hebrew word, whose 
original aignificBlion is a dote. Tt may 
be that Jesus bad respect lo that when 
he gave Simon tbe name Peler. ' You 
now bear a name emblematic of timid- 
ity and inconstancy. You shall b« 
called by a name denoting fa 

43. I('<mi_._,_ 

CO. T Jnto Galilee. 
Judea, where be went to be baptized 
by John. He was now about lo relara 
to his native country. 1 Findelk FhUif. 
Tbis does not refer to his calling Ihsei! 
disciples to be miitlei, for that took 
place at the sea trf Tiberias. Matt. iv. 
18. But it refers lo their betns con- 
vinced that he was the Christ. Thie is 

re coDTinced of 

wonld m forth inti Galilee, and 
findetfa Philip, and saith nnto him. 
Follow me. 

44 NowPhUipwasofBetheaida, 
the citT ot Andrew and Peter. 

46 Philip Gndeth Nathanael, and 
•aith tmio him. We have found him 
of whom Moses ■ in the law, and 
die prophets did write, Jesos of 
Nazarath, the son of Joseph. 
.Ui^.!t7,«. »cT41. 

the object of this 
bow and when ihey 
this. Matthew states me mae ana oc- 
casion in which they were called la be 
notUei. John, the time in which the; 
Erst became acquainted with Jesos. 
Theie is, therefore, no contradiction In 
the E venae lisCe. 

44. of Bmhiaida. See Malt. li. SI. 
1 The eityof. The place where An- 
drew uidTeter dwell. 

45. Mattt, m llu lor. Mobbb, in 
■hat put of the Old Testament wluch 
tas wrote, called br the Jewg the law. 
See Dent, iriii. 15, 18; Gen. ilii. 10, 
iii. IS. 1 And tie jm^eti, laa. iiii. 
\x. 6, 7. Dan. ii. 84—87, Jer. iziii. 
S, 6, Ilc. T Jam of Naaanll,, ice. 
They spoke according to common ap- 
prehension. They spoke of him aa the 

ly snpposed to be. They spoke of Um 
as. dweliina at Naiareih, ihough they 
might not have been ignorant that he 
was bom at Beihlebem. 

46. Can any good thing, &c. The 
characler of Naiareth was pnnerbially 
bnit. To be a Galilean, or a Naiarena, 

I eipreseion of decided contempt. 

u. na. Note, Mall. ii. Z3. Na- 
tnanael asked, therefore, whether it waa 
possible that the Messiah should come 
irom a place proverbially wicked. This 
was a mode of judgiiiK in the case not 
imcommOD. It is not by examining 
saufmer, but by prejudice. Many per- 
None aulTer iheir minds lo be filled with 
prejudice against religion, and then pro- 

They refuse lo eiomino, for ihey have 


from, or whal is the place of bis birth, 
provided he be authoriied of God, and 
qualified for his work. 1 Comi and 
<■*. This was Iba ban way to anawer i 

FER I. m 

4G And Nathknael said unto him, 
* Can tliere anj good thing come 
out of Nazareth I Philip sfuth onto 
him. Coma and see. 

47 Jeans aaw Nathanael coming 
to him, and eaith of him. Behold, ' 
an Israelite indeed, in whom is no 

48 Nathanael Baith unto him 
Whence knowest thou me T Jesn 

Nazerelh ; 

to go and eiatnme for himself, to sea 
the Lord Jeaus, lo hear biro converse, 
10 lay aside bis prejudice, and lo judge 
from a bdr and candid examinanon. 
So wo should beseech sinners lo lay 
aside their prejudices againat religion, 
and (0 be Chriirtiant, u>d thus make 
trial for Ihomselves. If men can ba 
persuaded to come to Jssua, all their 

!iet(y and foolish objeclions againsl re- 
igion will vanish. They vrill be satis- 
fied froin their 0wm escpervnce thai It is 
true, and ui this way only win they 
ever be saliafied. 

47. .4n hraeiile indted. One who ia 
really an Istaefite, not by birth only, 
but one worthy of Ihe name. One who 
poBsesBes the niirit, the piety, and the 
mlegrily, wiucn bsfit a man who ia 
really a Jew. who fears God and obeya 
hia law. Compare Rom. iz. 6; ii, ^, 
29, »JVo^ae. Ifo deceit, no fraud, 
□0 hypocriay. He is really whal hv 
protesBea 10 be, a Jew, a descendant of 
[be Pauiarch Jacob ; fearing and serv 
ins God. He makes no profession 
which he does not believe arid live up 
to. He does not aay that Nathanael 
was wilhont (^ilt or sin, but that he 
had no disguise, no trick, no deceit. 
He was sincere end upright. This waa ' 
a must honorable Isstimony lo be borne 
of ihis rnan. , How happy would it b« 
if he who knows the hearts of all as ha 
did that of Nathanaul, could bear tha 
lony of all who profess the 

le go^iel '. . 

Ifcm me? Na- 

him azpreas a bvcKabie opinion of Un 

198 JO 

answered and said unto him, Before 
that Philip called thee, when thou 
irast under the fig-tree, 1 ^w * thee. 
49 Nathanael jjusweredand B^th 
onto him. Rabbi, thou ' art the Son 
of God ; thou ait the King * of Is- 

• Pii.l3g.lA t Mall.14.33. 

„ His ' 

consownce teatilied to the truth of 
what Jesus said, thai he hsd no gtille, 
and he waa aniioua lo know whence he 
had learned his character.^ 1 Before 
tial Fhaip called thee. See ^eree 45. 
f Wkea IhnH uxat under the jig-tree. 
It is evident that it waa from gomething . 
that occurred under the fig-tree thai Je- 
sus judged of his chsiacter. What that 
n recorded. It is noi iniprob- I 

HN. [A. D. St 

50 Jesus anawered and said nnlo 
him, Because 1 said unto thee, I 
saw dtee under the Hg-tree, betiereat 
thou 1 Thon ahalt see greater thii^g 
than these. 

61 And he saith unto him. Verily, 
verily, 1 say luto you. Hereafter ye 

It that ha 


e loM 

able that Nathanaelw .. _ 

retire to the shade of a certain tree, 
perbaps in hia garden, or in a grove, 
for the purpose of meditation and pray- 
er. Tbe Jews were much in the hsbii 
of aelectine Budi places ibr private de- 
TOtion, and in such acenea of stillness 
and retirement there ia aomething pe- 
<:ulisrly favorable for meditation and 
prayer. Our Saviour also worshipped 
in such places. Compars John ;iviii, 
a ; Luke vi. 13. In that place of re- 
tirement it L9 not improbable that Na- 
Ihanael waa engaged in private devo- 
tion. T / »aio tA«. It IS clear from 

lo say that he waa bodily present witb 
Nathanael, and sew him ; hut he knew 
hia Ihongbts. hia deaires, his aecret 
feelings, and wishes. In this sense 
Nathanael understood him. We may 
learn, lat. That Jesus sees in secret, 
and ia therefore divine. 2d. That he 
sees us when we Httle think of it. 3d. 
That he sees us especially in our private 
devotiona, hears our prayera, and marks 
' our meditations. Antl 4ih. That be 
judges of our diameter chiefly by our 
private devotions. Those are secret ; 

clnBels we show what we ars. How 
does it become us. therefore, lo seek 

without guile and hypocrisy, and 

li. 10. ^ThtSn^Goi. By 

, and that therefore he must know 

the heart and dcaires of Ihe mind. If 
so, he could not be a mere man, bttt 
must be the long-expected Messjali. 
t The King of Itnel. This was one 
of the lillos by which the Mesmdi 
was eipectedj and this was the title 
which waa amxed lo hia cross. John 
xix. 16. This case of Nathanael, John 
adduces as another evidence thai Jesus 

waa the Chrial. The great abject he 
id in view in writing this gospel waa 
collect the evidence thai ho i 

Messiah. Ch. XX. 31. A case, iheie- 
fare,iwhere Jesus searched the heart, 
and where hia knowledge of the heart 

Christ, is very properly adduced as im- 
portant testimony. 

50. GrmSet thing: FulUr proof of 
his MesBiahahip — particulaTly what is 
mentioned in the following verse. 

51. Verily, verily. In the Greek, 

truly, c 

The « 

l«nly, , 

with the bodily eyes, butyou shall have 
evidefue that it is ao. The thing shall 
take place, and you shall bs a witnsBS 
of il. V Heaven open. This is a figur- 

ring Bffavart. Ps. Ixiviii. 33,24: '■Ho 
opened [he doors of heaven, ond had rain- 
ed down manna." And also it denoiei 

in attestation of a particular thing. See 
Matt. iii. 16. In the language, here, 
there ia an evident allusion [0 the ladder 
ihat Jacob saw in a dream, and lo tiie 
angela ascending and descending on it. 
Gen. ixviii. 13. It is not probable (hat 
he ri^larred to uv pailiciikr tnatanea m 

t. U. 30.J 



(halt Bee heaTen * upen, snd the 

ui|{sIb ' of God ascending and de' 
»oendincr upon the Son of man. 
A ND the third day cbeie waa 
Hi. a. marhjge in Cana ' of Gall- 
■ Eu.l.l. iGc.iB.ia. Da.T.B.lO. Ac.I 

vhich Natbanael ■bonld liierall}' s 
he hoivens opened. The Iwptism i 
Ttiflus had taken phkce, and there is : 

•aid that the Aanwiu vere opened.- 
1 A ngdt ^ God, Those pure and holy 
tieings that dwell in heaTen, and thaL 
are employed ai muiiatering Bpirils to 
our world. Heb. i. 14. Good men are 
represented in the scripiurea aa being 
inder their proleetion. Fa. ici. 11. 12. 
jen. uviii. 12. They are ihe ngenTs 
oy which God often expressed his wUI 

, o men. Heb. ii. 8, Gal. iii. 19. They 
ue r^reeenled as Blrenglhening the 
Lord Jesua and minlatering unto him, 
ThuH they aided him in the wilderness 
(Mark 1. 13), and in the garden <L ' 
xiii. 43): and they were present w 
hg roie from the dead. By [heir asce 
jng and descending upon him it is [ 
babJe thai hs meant tliat Nathai 
wotdd have evidence that they cami 
hia aid, and that he would have 
EllfD of prolectian and aid from ( . . 
which would show mare fuUy Aal he 
aai the MatM. Thug his life, hia 
many detiTeraneea from dangera, his 
wisdom (0 confute his skilled anl cun- 
ning adTeraariea. the scenes of his 
death, and the attendance of angela at 

- nia resurrection, may all be represented 
by the angele deacending upon him, 
and oU wQutd show to Nalhanael and 
Ihe other disciples, moat clearly, that 
he was the Son of God. 1 The Son o/' 
mait, A term by which be alien de- 
ecrihea himself. It ahowa his hnmility, 
his love for mtm, his wilhngnese to be 

1. Phil, ii . . 

wwilh Nathanael 

we may ieam, let. That Jeaus searchea 
rhe heatl. 2d. Thai he was truly Ihe 
Messiah. 3d. That he was under the 
proloclion of God. 4th. That if we 
have hiiih in Jsana, il will be continual. 
IV strengthened. The evidence will 
TOW brighter and brighter. 5th. That 

■ V-l UZ i !.-[] „, gjg 

— 6th. , 

lee; and the motbet of Jeaai wu 

2 And both Jesus was called, and 
his diaciplea, to the marriage. ' 

3 And ' when they wanted wine, 
the mother of Jesus saith unto his). 
They haye m 

Is. 13.4. 

rBc.lO.IS. Il.l: 

As Jeana was uitder the protection of 
God, so shall idl his frienda he. God 
will deiend and save us also if we put 
our trust in him. Tlh. Jesua applied lo 
himself lenna eipressive of humiUly. 
He was not sohciloue even Je be tailed 
by titles which he mi^hl claim. So we 
ahoMld not be ambitious of lilies and 
honors. Ministers of the gospel most 
resemble him when they seek for the 
fewest titles, and do not aim si distino 
tions from each other or their brethren. 
See Nate on Mall. uiii. B, 
1. And the third day. On the third 
day after his comersation with Na 
tbanael, 1 Cana. This was a atnati 
town about fii'teen miles north-wesi of 
Tiberias, and six miles norlh-eait of 
Naiarelh. Il is now called Refer Kea- 
na ) la under the government of a 
Turkish officer, and contains, perhwa, 
three hundred iLihabttents, chiefly Ca- 
tholics. The natives still pretend (a 
show the place where the water was turn- 
-^ into wme, and even one of the large 
me water-pots. Large stone pots are 
id to be lound there whose use aeeme 
be unknown to the present inhahit- 
__ts. It was called Coiu o/ GelUee, to 
dislinguish it ftom another Cana in the 
tribe of Ephraim. Josh, ivi 9. This 
was the native place of Nathanael. 
John ixi. 3. 1 The mother of Jettu. 
Mary. It is not improbable that she 
~ 'aa a relative of the bmily where the 
larriagfl look place. 
3. ^ia diae^Ui. Those that be had 
made when in Judea. These were 
Peter, Andrew, Phihp. and Nathanael. 
~' ley were not yet called to be afottloo, 
I they believed that he was the Mes- 
h. The miracle wrought hers wai 
doubtleea to convince them mora fully 
that he was the Chrial. 

3. When Ihty waiUed wint. A mar 
riage feaat among (he Jewa, was com 
monly observed ur seven or eight days 
' ' lot probable that there would be a 
of wine at the maniase itsa'.C and 

4 Jmos Mifii Dnto heTt Woman, 
what have I to do with thee 1 Mine 
hoar u not jet come. 

5 His motlier flaitJi unto the Ber- 
Tants, Whatsoever " ha saith unto 
jo\i, do if. 

11 kpasaibls, theretbre, thai JeBuscame 
:here some lime during ibe mairisge 
feast. 1 Tkn AatM no »<«. It ia not 
known why Msr; told this to Jeaua. It 
4ouId Bcem that she had a belief that 
'1, though he had 

imerfenng in ihet which did not proper- 
ly coniern her. But it is evident Ibal 
no auch reproof or dierespecL wne in- 
(ended by the use of the term suman 
inalead of maiher. It ia the some term 
by which he tenderly addreaeed Mary 
Magdalene after his reaurreclian (ch. 
II. 15), and his mother when he was □□ 
ihe croBs. Ch. xix. 26. Compare also 
Matt. IV. 28; John iv. 21 ; 1 Cor. vii, 
IE. 1 IFJbri hare I to da mlk IkeeT 
Bee Note, Mad. viii. 29. This eiprea- 
raon La Bomelimes used to denote indi^- 
— ■• — ir contempt. See Judgt» n. 


t denoted 

either in thiaphice, _. 

mild repropf of Mary for sttemptiog to 
control or direct him in his power of 
working muvclea. Moal of the ancients 
supposed thia to be the miention of Je- 
sus. The words sound to us harsh, but 
they might have been apoken in a ten- 
der manner, and noi have been intend- 
ed as a reproof. It ia clear that he did 

only to delay it a hltle ; and the design 
was, therefore, lo compose the aniieiy 
of Mary, and lo prevent her being so- 
hdtouB about it. It may, then, bo thus 
eipreseed : ' My mother, be not anx- 
ious. To you and to me this sbnuld 
not be a mailer of solicitude. The pro- 
per iuno for my inlorfering has not yet 
came. When that rs come, I will ttir- 
□ish a supply. And m the mean lime, 
neither you nor I should he solicitous.' 
Thus nnderaiood, it is so far from being 
■ jlnrsA Trnvef, that ii wae a mild ex- 
hortalion (or her to dtsmiaa her fears. 

aTM to put proper trust 
bor, &c My tune. 

iti. IA. D. 30 

6 And there were set then aii 
watei^pots of stone, after the maniiei 
of the puri/yinff of the Jewa, con- 
taining two or mree hrkina aaiece. 
T Jesvis saith unto them, Fill thb 
water-pots with water. And they 
filled them up to the brim. 


ly interposing. Perhaps the 

ras not yet enliTrfy t— ' '-^ 

had begun ~ '' 

ly lohBusted. Tbs 

h-om ail poMbilily of suspicion. It dc_ 
not mean thai the proper time for his 
working a miracle, or enterinB on his 
public work, had not come ; out that 
the proper time for his mterpoang Utn 

5, Hit maiher taiti, &.c. It is evi- 
dent from this verse that hia mother did 
not understand what he had said as a 
harsh reproof and repulse, but as an 

indication of hia wilUngnesr — ■' 

— .; — tQ fumiih w — 
in he evinced 


. ^Jjcer the BHnn.r. After Iht 
cuslom, ^ Of the purifying. Of 
athiiig! or ablutions of {lie Jews. 
y,-rTe placed there after the uaual 

^er of the Jews, for the various 

washings and minute riles of purifying 
tbemsdves at their feasts. Tbey were 
'le purpose of washing the l^ands 
t and after eating (fnati. iv. S), 
and for the formal waaiung of vessels 
and even arlicleB of furniture. Luke 
X!. 39. Mark vii. 3, 4. 1 7\ni or Urn 
jlrkim. It is not quile certain whal is 
meanl here by (he word Jirkiia. It is 
probable that the measure intended ia 
the Hebrew bath, coDtaining about seven 
gallons and a half. If so, the qnandty 
~ ' ne was very consulerable. 

With KOler. This was done by 
irvaiils employed at the feast, Ii 

done by thetn so that there mighl 

be no opportunity of sayiog that tha 

disciples of Jesus hut filled tbem wiih 

■ le to produce the amamiee of • 

-Bcle. In this case there coutd be 

.._ deception. The quantity waa very 

considerable,' The servanla would know 

whelher the uuu or tnjier had been 

It in these vessels. It could nol bs 

ihaved that they had the power a 

A.D.3tt.] CHAP" 

8 And he saith unto them, Drew 

* out DOW and bear onto (he governor 

* of the feast. Aitd the; bare it. 

9 When the ruler of the feast 
had taated the water that was made 

diafWBUiOD to innioae on olberB in this 
■Manner. And (he way was therefore 
olearfbi ihe proof ihst Jesus hail reall; 
ebuiged what was known to be vmter 
mloaniu. ^ToUubrm. To the lop. 
Full. So that no vine could be ^rtil 
u lo give ihe appearance of s. mixture. 
Fimlier, vesaelB weie used for this 

e there were many gueatB. 
6. ilraa oBl nam. This command 
waa given lo the servanta. It showed 
that the miracle had been intmeduitely 
wrought. Aa Boon ss they were filled, 
the aervHDtB were directed to take to the 
governor of the feast. JeauB made no 
parade about it, and it doea not even 
appear that he approached ibe water- 
{•all. He willed it, and it was done. 
This waa a clear exertion of his divine 
power, and made in such a manner as 
k) leave no doubt of ita reality. T Tke 
gevtmuT, One who presided on the 
oKMion. The one who stood at the 
iead, or upper end of the table. He 
had Ihe charge of the entertainment, 
provided the food, gave directions tp the 

9. AnilfawBaoCBAtnmiftoM. This 
la nid probably to indicate that his 
jndgmenl was not biaaaed by any &vor, 
or wmHt of &ivor towards Jeaus. Had 
be known whet waa done, he would 

dmony tiut this waa real , „. 

w> fine a body and flavor as to surpaaa 
thai which had beeti provided far the 
oocaaion. Every Ihing in this miracle 
■bows that there was no collusion, or 
nnderatanding between Jeaua and any 
of the Mrsona at the feast. 

10. EBtry DUO. It is customary, or 
it is generally done. 1 H'Xm men Jtaot 
meB ilmnk. Tbia word does not of 
aeceasity mean that they were tnten- 
adol, Ibough it is usoaUy amplo;ed in 
dial aonaa. It laxf mean when, they 

wine, and knew not whence It yraa, 
(bmt the ' setvants which diew tlia 
water knew,) the governor of the 

feast called the bridegTOom, 
10 And seiUi nnto him, Eveiy 

( PikllS.lOO. C7'1T. 

have drunk sufficieul ; or lo aadety ; or 
so muBh as to produce hilarity, end to 
deatroy the keenness of then taste, so 
that they could not resdily dislingiiuh 
the good finm that which waa worse. 
But Uiifi cannot be adduced in favor ot 
drunkenness, even if it mesuB to be 
inloiicalod. For Jsl. It is not said ol 
those who were present at that fealt, 
butofwhatgoKriallji o^uired. Forany 
thin^ that appeera at that feast, all were 
perfectly teinporale and sober. 3d. It 
iB-not the sayiog.of Jesus that is here 
recorded, but <H the governor of the 
feast, who ia declaring what usually 
occurred as a fact, 3a. There ■ 

1 of it 

Sriely even by that govejnor. 4th. It 
les not appear that our Saviour eveti 
heard the observation. Sth. Still les* 
ia there any evidence that be approved . 
auch a state of things, or that no de- 
signed that it sbnuld take place bete. 
Funber, the word tranelated " well 
drunk" cannot be shown to mean in- 
toiicalion. But it may mean when they 
had dnmk aa much as they judged pro- 
per, or as they desired, then the "Tiiher 
wsa presented. It is clear that neither 

the speaker here. 

ir the sacred w 

ipressea any oppra- 
omvm Ol intemperance, nor is there the 
least evidence that any tiling of the kind 
occurrsd here. It is not proof that aia 
approve of intemperance, when we men- 
tion, as this man did, what occurs Osually 
among men nl feasta. 1 h owrie. Is of 
an inferior oualitj;. T The good mne. 
This shows that this had all toe qiialitiea 
ofrealwine. Weshouldnotbe deceived 
by the phrase" good leiiM." Weosethe 
phrase to denote that it ia good in pro- 
portion to its strength, atid its power to 

innocenlit. The m 

that aa Iki iut uuu. 

tj. or innotenl — poculo villi 

futMnm vinum — waa that which had 
little strfPEth ; and the most wliolesoma 
wine— taiiikmaulM vvhhi— waa t^ 

man at thn begiimins doth set forth 
good wiiifl ; and wEen men have 
<rell drunk, then that which 

which had not been aduUerated by "ihs 
•dditioD of any thing to the niue or 
Joice." Phn7 exprenly ssys that a 
'g90d wine" was one tital wirfdoali- 
tate of spirit, lib. W. c. 13. It should 
Itot be asannied, theiefbre, that the 
"good wine" was ttronger ihan the 
other. It is rather to be preaumed that 
i( was milder. That would be the bat 
wine certainly. The wine referred to 
here wus doubtless auch as was com- 
monly drunk in Palestine. Tbat was 
the pure juice of the grape. It was not 
brandied wine ; nor £ii^ged wine ; nor 
wine compounded of vanous Bubalances 
such OS we drink in this land. The com- 
mon wine drunk in Paleatine was that 
which was the aiinple juice of theerape. 
We use tbe word vine now to denote 
the kind of liquid which passes 

■iderable portion of alcohol — . 

bill added to keep l. _. 

But we have no right to take Oat aenae 
of the word, and go with it to the inter- 
pretation of the scriptures. We should 
endeavor to get '"'" '' 

cisely what idea the word would 
(0 those who used it (hen ; and apply 
tial sense to the word in the inteipre'- 
iBtionof the Bible. And there ia not the 
slighiesi evidenee that the word so used 
would have canveyed any idea but that 
of the pure juice of the grape ; nor the 
slightest circumstance mentioned in this 
account that would not be fuUv met by 
aach a auppoMtion. No man should ad- 
duce ail instance in lavor of dnnking 
wine, unleae he can prove that the wine 
made in tbe "water-pots" of Cana was 
f u( lika the wine which he proposes to 
drink. The Saviour's example may be 
■1 ways pleaded 



HM. lA. U. 30. 

wone : but thou hast kept the good 
II This beginning of miiaclen 

rarcnmstancea of the case are met, and 

'as nearly eihauated. The object was 
not to furnish a large quantity for iuture 
use. Tbe miracle loo would be more 
(qiparenl and impressive. Oji thiasup- 
poBinon, lbs casks would appear to be 
nlled with water only ; as 11 was drawn 
oul,ii was pure wine. Who could doubt 
then that there was the exertion of mi- 
raculous power! All^ therefore, that 
bat been said about the Redeemer's fur- 
nishing a large quantity of wine for the 
newly-married pairj about his benevo- 
lence in doing it, &.C., ia wholly gratui- 
(ous. There is no evidence of it what 
i:esBBry to BnppOM 


99 of the case. 


>nof ll 

nuigeofthe substance of water 

...., which no human power conid 

do. ^ ManifeiiedforUi. Showed. El- 
hihiled. ' Hit glory. His power, a^ 
proper character as tbe Meaaiab ; show- 
ed that he had divine power ; and thai 
God had certainly commissioned him. 
This, ia shown to be a rod miracle, by 
the following considerations. 1st. Real 
water was placed in the vessels. This 
the servants believed, and there was no 
possibility of deception. 3d. Tbewater 
9S placed where it was not emiamarj/ 
keep wine. Ii could not b '' 

B goven 

part of the water was convened i 

(ha water-casks tor the use of th(guei 
On this Rippontion. ccrtauilv. all 

nothing but a divine power 
He thai can change tnUer inio a bud- 
stance like the juice of the grape, must 
beclothedwilhdivinepower. S Btlieted 
an him. This does not mean thai they 
did not before believe on him, but ihia 
th eir feiib was amfrmed orstrengibened. 
Tbey saw a miraclei and it satiifiad 
them that ha was lHb Mraainh Biftn. 


K. D. 30.J 

did JdiuB ii Cana of Galilee, and 
manifesled • forth his glory ; and 
hii dieciptee believed ' on him. 

13 After thia he went down to 
Capernaum, he, and hia mothtsr, 
and Mb biethien, and his disciples ; 

dMT bdlevtd on the tsslimony of John i 

and they oontinaed there not man; 

13 And the Jews' paaaovet'm* 
at hand, and Jesns ' went ap to Je- 

er.XS. eJ.l. t.*. ILU. 

L 3S — 51. Jftrej, they av that he was 
nresledwith almighty power, and their 
fiulh was established. 

From thia narraiiva we may leant, 
IbI. That marriage ia hoitOTable, and 
that Jesus, if sought, will not reitise 
bis presence and blessing on such an oc- 
csaoD. 2d. On such an occasion, the 
presence and approbation of Chiist 
thouid be sought. No compact formed 
on earth is more importattt. None en- 
ters BO deeply into our comfort here. 
Perhnpa none will so much affect our 
destiny in the world to come. It should 
be entered into, then, in the fear of God. 
3d. On all such occasions, and on aU 
others, oiu conduct should be auch as 
that the |)reBence of Jesus would be no 
intaiTupIion, or disturbatice. Heisboly. 
He La always preaenl in every place. 
And on all festival occaaiooB, our de- 
portment should be such as that we 
should welcome the presence of the 
Bbrd Jesus Christ. Thai im not a pra- 
pef ifotfl of feeling or employmeni which 
vaitld &e jatOTMpted by Ou prettnei of 
Ut SoBiaur. 4th. Jesus, delighled to 
do good. In the very herinning of his 
mimatry he worked a mu'acle to show his 
benevolence. This was the appropriate 
ODijiroencemenl of a life in which he 
was to go about drnuR good. He seized 
every opportunity ofdoinj^ it ; and at a 
marriage- feast, as well aa among the 
Mck and poor, he showed the character 
which he slwaya sustained — that of a 
benebctoT of mankind. An argument 
sawiaC be drawn from ihis instance in ia- 
»or of intemperate drinking. There is no 
evidence that any who were present on 
that occasion drank coo freely. Nor 
can an aigument be drawn from this 
ase in lavor even of drinking wine, 
nich as we have. The common wine 
of Judsa was the pure juice of the 
grspe, without any mixture of alcohol, 
■ad was harmless. It was the common 
drink of the people, and did not tend to 
produce inioncatian Our wines are a 

brandy; and the habilof dunking them 
should be classed with the drinking of 
all other hquid fires. 

The following table will show the 
danger of drinking the wines that are in 

Bnndr bas Bftr-ttaRe pans sad 

-alcohol,™ 33.39 per ewM. 

Hum S3.68 ■■ 

Whiskey. Scotcta StX " 

Fort wine, bigbcM kind SSJO 

Hadeira, higlKBt SS.U " 

Liibon v.'.'.".'.!!!.'! le.M ■' 

Malaga 1738 " 

Red cJumpaEse 11.30 " 

White da. 12^ 

:;iirranl win* SOJU - 

It follows that a man who drinas Iwi. 
•lasBSs of moat of the wines used hss 
' il as if he bad (a 

iiperience of the world hi 
that water, pure water, is the 

holesome, and safe, andrnvigor- 

aling drink for man. 
12. To Captmaum. Note, Matt. !t. 
:. ^ Nat many dayi. Theresaoawhy 

r, and they w 

the passover «— , — 

lerusolem to attend it. 
... The Seal' panner. The feast 
among the Jews called the passover. 
"-- * - ""■ ' " 17. ^Ak4 

pear at tliis feast Jesua, in oM^ienoa 

the law, went up to observe it. Thia 

is lbs frsi posaover on which oat 8a- 

14 And fbuw) * in tb» Umple 

tboae that Bold oxen and sheep and 
rfoves, and the chaugera of mooej 

15 And when he had made a 
Mourga of amall coids, he drove 
Ihem all ont of the temple, and the 
rtieep, and the oxen; and poured 

■ Hul.SLia. Hii.ll.U. LU.1IU5. 

*famr attended, after tie entered on the 
work of the miniBlry. Ii ia commonly 
nipposed that he obeerved three others: 
one recorded Luk£ vi. 1., another John 
vi. 4. and the last one that when he vam 
cracked. Johnxi. S5. As his baptism 
when ha entered on hia ministry had 
taken place Bome lime before this, pro- 
Lisbly not tar from sii monlhs, it foUowa 
that the period of his miniatry was not 
far from three years and a half, agreea- 
blr to the prophecy in Dan. ix, 27. 

H. Found in the Itmple, &c. The 
transaction here recorded is in almoel 
all respeciB similar lo that which has 
been explained in Matt. ixi. 13. This 
' look place at the conmencenienl of his 
public ministry, and that at lie clon. 
Thus he showed that his greal regard 
was for the pure aoriha ofliis Father ; 
andonegreal design t« his coming was 
to rsform the ahnses which had crepi 
into thai WDrship, and lo bring man to a 
proper regard for the glorv of God. If 
It be asked how it was linit those en- 
gaged in Ihis traffic so rei^l> ^idJed to 
Jesus of Naiajeth, and that ihey left 
their gains, and properly, and fled from 
Ihe temple at the command of one so 
obaoura as he wan; it may be replied, 

them for iheir impieiy, and they could 
not setup the ii|;pBinHi« of self-defence. 
2d. It was customary in the nation lo 
oherish a profound regard for the au- 
thority of a prophet ; and the appear- 

to f^leai 

•o decided, sofiutharilaiive, led them 
suppose Ae was a prophet, and they fear- 
ed to resisi him. 3a. He ioij even then 
a reputation among the pco 


out thfi ohangen' monej, and om 
threw the tables ; 

16 And said unto them that sold 
doves, Take theae things hence; 
make not mj Father's house an 
house of merchaudise. 

17 And his disciplsB remembered 
that it was written, * The zeal of 
thine hooBO hath eaten me up. 

and made them tremble al his presence. 
On this occasion, he had ihe wKnuitr at 
a prophet, the authority of God, and iha 
testimony of their own conscieoces, and 
they could not therefore reidst the au- 
thority by which he spoke. 

Though Jesus thus purified the tern 
pie al Ihe commencement of his nutris- 
try, yet in three years the same scene 
was to be repeated. See Matt. ni. IS. 
And from this we may learn, Isl. How 
some men forget the most solemn re- 
proofa, and return to evil praclkes. Zd. 
; That no sacredness of time nor place 
will guard them Irom sin. In the very 
temple, under the very eye of God, ihey 
relumed lo practices for which theu 
consciences reproved Ihem, and which 
they knew God disapproved. 3d. We 
see here how strong is the lore of cam 
— ihe ruling passion of mankind. Not 
even the sacredness of the temple ; the 
presence of God ; ihe awful ceremonials 
of religion, deterred ihem from this un- 
holy tralKc. So wicked men and hypo- 
criies will always turn rdigian, if possi- 
ble, into gain ; and not even the sanc- 
tuary, ihe sabbath, or the most awful 
and sacred scenes, will deler them from 
schemes of gain. So strong is this %ra 
veiling passion ; and so deep is that de- 
praviiy whicB fearsnotGod, and regards 
not his sabbatha, his sanctuary, or his 

IS. A tamrge, A whip. T O/tmati 
cBTdt. This whip was made as an em- 
blem of aulhority, and also for the pur- 
pose of driving from the temple the cat- 
tle which had been brought there for 
sale. There is no evidence that he used 
any violence to any of Ihe men engaged 
in that unhidlowed traffic. The onginal 
word implies that these tordt were made 
of twisted TutJtet or reedM — probably 
the ancient mateiial for maktne rones. 

17. It <«u imHen. &.c. 'HiU is ro- 
rordnd in Fa. lidi. 9. Tta meaiiinit M 


18 Then uiswenKl the Jews and 
■aid unto him. What si^ ' sheweat 
thoa auto us, seeing that thou doest 
ttteso things 1 

thai he was allseted with gntL leal __ 
esnesm Sot the pure woruiio of Clod. 
t Tie Mat of ihau home. Z»al is in 
'.enso jirdor la referaace la anf objecl 
The Mtai af Iha haiue laemui exlrsordi 
Mr; coacem Tor the temple of God; 
huaoae nlicitude that the worship tbero 
■hould be pore, and such aa God would 
•pproTa. 1 H^h taien me up. Hath 
aoHOhed me, or engaged mf ealirs al- 
UUtioo and afleclion ; hBIh mirpHSBed 
all Dlhsi feeliaga, bo that it ma; ba said 
to be iba one great absorbing afeclion 
and desce of lae mind. Here ii an ex- 
ample net for miniflters, and for all 
Christiana. In Jeaua, thia waa the 
It of his life. 

La na it BbaaM be ajao. In thia he be- 
gan, and ended, his miniatry. In ihia 
weBhould begin and end our livea. We 
leaca also that ministera of religion 
•hould aim la puiily the church of God. 
Wcked men, cooscience- smitten, will 
tremble when ihey aee proper zeal in 
dienumatereofJeauB Christ; andihere 

stand be- 
ing oi loe goapei. ino preaching of 
every miniater ahonld be auch that wick- 
ed man will feel thai they must either 
become Chrietiaoe. or leaie the house 
of God, or spend their Uvea there in the 
contciauaneas of KoUt, and the fear of 

18. tnpl tign, Stc. What nimcb 
dost thou work. He aasnmed the cha- 
ncier of a prophet. Ha was refbnn- 
mg, by Us aathorily, the temple. It 
■ras natural to aik by what auiivrili/ 
ihla was done; and as they bad been 
accustomed to miiacleB in the life of 

Clfoaes, and Elijah, and the other pro- 
lets, BO they demanded evidence that 
bad authority thus lo cleanse the 
house of God. 1 Setiag that that iatt. 
Rather ' by what lille or autiarity thou 
doest these things.' Our translation is 
ambiguouB. Thsv wished to know ty 
mhal nirocic he had shown, or could 
ahow, his right to do those things . 

19. Detlrog tiiM ttmplt. The evan- 
triiit informs us (ver. SI] that by l«pli 

Vol. n. — IB 

19 Jemsai 
them, Destro; ' thia temple, and » 
throe days X will ntise it up. 

tHalua&ai. 37,40. 

probable thai he pointed with his EngM 
to his body as be spoke. The word 
deitnry, used here in the mperatiwt, 
has rather the force of the future. Its 
meaoing may thus be eiptessed. ' Yoa 
Bje now prolacers of the temple of God. 
You bave defiled the sanctuary ; yoo 
have made it a place of traffic. Yon 
bave also despised my authority, and 
baen unmoved by the miracles which I 
have siready wrought. But your w' 

ednesa will t 

1 here. You vrill 

reject and d— , — — _ ^ 

wickedness you will take my life, and 
destroy my body.' Here waa thercibre 
a distinct prediction bolh of bis deaili, 
and llie cause of it. The word loNpIi. , ' 
or dmdliiig, WBS not unfrei^uently used 
by llie Jews to denote the 6«jyas beuig 
the residence of the apirit. 2 Cor. v. 1. 
Christians are not unfrequently called 
the temple of God, as being Uioee in 
whom the holy Spirit dwells on earth. 
1 Cor.iii. 16,17; vi. 19. 2Cor.Ti.l6. 
Our Saviour called his body a temple 
in accordance with the common use of 
language, and more particularly because 
in hitn Uc falntti ij lAe Godhead dwdt 
Mily. Col. a. 9. The lempU at Jeru- 
salem was the appropriate dwelling 
place of Gcd. His visibls presence 
WBB there pecuhaily manifested. 2 
Chton. uivi. 15, Fa. luvi. 2. As 
the Lord Jesus was divine ; as the fid- 
ness of the Godhead dwelt in him ; so 
his body might be called a Itmli. T fa 
three dat/iIiiiiUraittiluji. Tbe Jews 

fill] and decided proof of that would be 
his reiurratim/rom tliedtad. Thoujjii 
they would not be satisfied by any 
olher miracle, yet by this, they ougti 
to be convinced that he came from 
heaven, and was the long-expected 
Measiah. To the same evidence thai 
ho was the Christ, he refers them oa 
other oecauons. See Matt. lii. 3S, 39. 
Thus ewly did Christ foretell bis death 
and reaotrectioD, aad at thr beginnbif 

90 llieueaid the Jews, F'jityand 
rix yenra was this temple id huild- 
ing, and wilt thou rearit up in three 

of the work had a clear forastg^t of all 
Ihat was to take place. Thia know- 
ledge Bhowa clearly that he came from 


of his love ; — thi 
come to save us, knowing clearly what 
it would coat him. Had he come aith- 
tat Buch BQ eipBclalioD of aufTering, hig 
tove might have been fai less ; bat 
when he fully knew all that was before 
him ; when he saw thai it would in- 
volve him in contempt and dBBlh, it 
shown a compasflian "worthy of a 
God," thai be was willing to endure 
the load of all our soitowb, and die to 
rave us &om death eveitasling. When 
Jems aays "/ will raise ii up," il is 
proof also of divine power. A mere 
nan could not saf tlus. No deceased 
■nn can have such power over his 
body; and there must tiavebeen [here- 
fore in the person of Jeaus a nature 
superior to human, to which the term 
" I" could be appUed ; and which had 
power to raise the dead^lhat is, which 

20. Tlttti laid the Jews. ifcc. The 
Jews, either from the ambiguity of his 
language, or moreprobably hrom a de- 
sign to cavil, understood hmi as speak- 
ing of the temple at Jerusalem. What 
he said bere is all ihe evidence that 
they could adduce on hia trial (Matt, 
iivi, ei ; Mark liv. 58), and they re- 

KDached him with it when on the cross, 
ait. xivii. 40. The Jews freqnenlly 
Crvenod our Saviour's meaning. The 
iguage which he used waa oUen that 
of parables, or metaphor ; and as they 
lougkl to mimnderstand him, and per- 
vert his language, so he often left them 
Co their own delusions, as he himself 
•ays- "that seeing they might not 
"B, and hearing they migr' ~"" — -"-- 

Matt. : 

;. ]3. Thia « 

about the lemplo, and though he pro- 
bably pointed to his body, or desig- 
UBied It in some plain way, yet they 
•inte W understainl him a« referring to 
liw templg ilaelf. Arid M it appeared 

HN. LA-D.30 

21 Hat he spake of the temple ■ 
of his body. 

33 When tiieiefoie be was riaen 

£rom the dead, hie disciples remem- 

■ EII.S.31.U. Col.iS. HbAS. 

so improbable that he could raise ii|i 
thai in three days, they wished to per- 
vert bia words, and pour ridicule on hii 
preteneions, 1 Forty and liz ymrr, &c. 
The temple in which they iheu were. 
waa that which was commonly callei'. 
the iKond trmple, built after the rcturE 
of the Jews from Babylon, Sea Note, ~ 
Matt. xii. 12. This temple Herod the 
Great commenced repairing, or to re- 
build, in the 18lh year of his reign, that 
is, lixtem ytar* before ihe birth of 
Christ. Jos. Ant, b. iv. 4 1.. The 
main body of the temple he completed 

tinued to ornament it, and to perfect It 
even till the time of Agripna. Jos. Ant. 
b. XX. ch. viii. ^ t1. As Herod began 
to rebuild the temple sixleen years be- 
fore the birth of Jesus, and as this hap 
pened in the lliinieth year of his age, 
eo the time which had been occupied in 
it was foriy-tix ytan. Thia circum- 
stance IB one of the many in the New 
Testament which show the accuracy 
of the evangelists, ' ■ ■ ' 

.mpostors do 
IB very acou- 
I. And there 

what they recorded, 
not trouble themselves t 

is nothing in which they are more Liable 
to make mistakes. T W^.Uiom, &.c. 
This is an expression of contempt. 
Herod, with all his wealth and power, 
had been engaged in this wdTk elmost 
half a century. Can you, an obscure 
and unknown Galilean, accomplish this 
in three days f The thing in their judg- 
ment was ridiculous; and showed, a* 
they supposed, that he had no authority 
to do what he had done in the temple. 

33. WhenhewairiMtn from the dfd, 
A.C. This saying of our Saviour at 
that time seemed obscure and difficult. 
The disciples did not understand ii. 
But they treasured it up in their memo- 
ry, and the event showed what was its 
true meaning. Many prophecies »r» 
obscure when spoken, which are per- 



bered * fluu tie had aald this unto 
ihem : and tliej believed the scrip- 
ture, and the word which Jeaus.had 

23 Now when he wae in Jerusa- 
lem, at the passover, in the feaat 
thy, manj believed in his name, 
wben thej saw the miracles which 
be did. 

34 -But Jesus did not commit 

ectlr plain when the event takes place. 
Weleun fiom ihia also the importance 
of ireaauring up the initha of the Bible 

.. ^ _ . ia Iherefore imporlanl 

that children should learn the truiha of 
the wcred actiptures. Treaaiired up in 
their memory they may not be uni 

ireaiter those truths 
iSy school, 

may be clear K 
BBged in leac) 
therefore, may _ . . . 
which may be undcrsiood. snd may 
impart comtoit long after tbe teacher 
has gone to eternity. 1 Thes btlieved. 
That is, after be rose from the dead. 
» Tie leripliire. The Old Tefltaroent, 
which predicted his resarreciion. F 
ference here must be made to Pb. ) 
10, Compare Acta ii. 27—33 ; »iii. 3; 
" ' " Compare Acts liii. ; 

fere. 1 The aonl tehi/A Jeiui had laid. 
The prediction which Jesus had made 

aod on other accaaiana. See Matt. ii. 

. he did. These miracti 
cnlarly recorded. Jesua took occasion 
lo work miracles and to preach at that 
lime, for a great multitude were prejent 
m all parts of Judea. It waa a favor- 

brawd it. We should' always seek 
Utd embiHce opportunities of daing 
good, and we ihould not be dtlerrtd, 
bat ratlier excited by tiie multitude 
aronnd iis, to make known our real 
n the aubiecl of reliipoB 

bimaelf unto them, becauae he * 
knew all men, 

35 And needed not that anj 
should testify of man : for he knew ■ 
what was in man. 


THERE was a man of the Pbaii- 
sees, named Nicodemos, * t 
ruler of ;Ke Jews : 

»IB>.li).7. - lCh.!8.9. 39.1T. Je.lT.S,ia 
M»tt,9,4. c,ia,W. AC.1.B4. Ee.aS3. ( t.7 
50.S1. c.lB.M. 

word tnuislated co 

nil himitlf. The 

lit here tattie aame 

aa in verse 33 is translated believed. It 

them. He did not leave himself m their 
haoda. He acted cauliously and prudent- 
ly. The proper time for him to die had 
not come, and he secured his own safety. 
The reaten wb^ he did n 

J, that he knea all mtn. 

He knew tbe incmttatuy and fichlenei* 
of the multitude. He knew how easily 
they might be turned a^inst hiin by 

35. Should lettify of nun. Should 
give him the character of any man 
"1 Kt itftew loAflt tool IB nuIB. Thia ho 
did becauae be bad made ail (cb, i, 3), 
and because be was God [ch. i. 1). 
There can be no higher evidence than 

this that h •—•—. — j 


h the beal'l 
■lone. Jer. 

And B 
was in t}a*e iiidfia, and as it is pi 
pressly said that he knew what was ii 
sun, that is, in oil men. so it foliowi 
that he must be equal wilb God. 
he knows oM, he ia acquainted wit 
JoJiepretenaiona and profeE 




lires of all 
ir groans. 

his rmffrienda. Hehea 

hesees ibeir sighs, he coi 

Snd in the day of need will come to their 


1. A nun of &t Pharaeet. A Pha 
riaae. Sea Note, Matt. iii. 7. T JVk« 
dcmui, a niler o/ lilt Jeva. One of iha 
iSoMk^rim, or great council of the nk 
tioQ. He ii iwiee mentioDed after tUi 

■B being frieDilly lo out SsviOi 


and deleixling him sgiiinst the uiijuet 
nupidoii of IDS Jews (cb. vii. 50,) and 
in Ibe second instance aa ous who caige 
lo aid in embalming his body [ch, xii. 
J9). Il will ba recollecled that the de- 
EigD of John 'a wridng this gospel wka 
10 show th&t Jesiis waa tke MeiiuiA. 
To do tUs, he here adduces ihe lead- 
many of one of the rultrt of the Jews 
«lia earl J became convinced of it, and 
who retained tha belief until the 
death of Jeans. 
' 2. Theiame eamt to Jaat. The de- 

ID inqaira more Mly of Jeaus what was 
the doclriae which he came lo teach. 
He seems to have been convinced that 
he waa (he Mesaiah, and desired to be 
fenhar inalructad tn pneoJf reapecling 
hia doctrine. Il was not naual for a 
man of rank, power, and riches, lo come 
to inquire of Jesua in this manner. Yet 
we may leam thai Ihe most favorable 
opportunily tar teaching sach the nature 
of peiBonal religion is when they are 
alooe. Scarcelyany man. of anyrank, 
will refuaa lo converae on this aiibject 
whea addreaaed respectfully and ten- 
derly in pTtBole, In the midst of their 
companions, or engaged in businese, 
they may refiise lo fialen, or may 
When alont, they will hear the 
dTealiealy and parauaaion, and be 
ins to converse on the great sabjeciaoi 
jiSgmeni and eteniiiy. Thua Paul 
aaya (Gal. ii. 2), " priailely to them 
whieh are of reputation /'^ evincing hia 
conaummsle prudence, and his pro- 
found knowledge of haman nature. 
1 By night. It la not mentioned why 
be came by night. It might have been 
being a member of the sanhedrim he 
was engaged all -the day. Or it may 
have been becauae the Lord Jaaoa was 
occupied all the day in teaching publicly 
■nd in working mitaclea, and there was 
no oppori itiity for conversijig with him 
■s freely aa he desired. Or il may 
have been that he was afraid of (he 
ridicule and contempt of those in power, 
■nd feartiit thai it might involve him in 
dinger if publicly known. Or it may 
Mve been that he waa afra d thai if it 
■•ra publielv known that he was dt*. 

we know that thou art s teaehn 
come &om God ; for ■ no mao cak 

posed lo favor the Lord Jeaua, it misfal 
provoke more opposition againal htm, 
and endanger his life. As no lad mo 
live ia imputed lo him, it is moM in ae 
cordance with Chiiatian charily to sup- 
pose that his motives were aucn as God 
would approve, especiaily as our Sa- 
viour did not reprove him. We should 
not he disposed to blame men where 
Jesus did not, and we should desire u 
find goodntii in every man railier than 

See 1 Cor, iiii.4 — 7. We may leam 
here, lal. That our Saviour, though 
engaged during the day, did not refase 

iiight. Miniatera of the goepel at all 
timea ahould welcome those who are 
asking the way to life. Sd. That it is 
praptr for men, eveii ihoae of elevated 

temper of mind 
dieponiion It 
At all timet 

pecially in ti 

citement, they should 

At Jerusalem then waa . . . 

solicitude- Many believed a_ 

He wrought miracles, and preached, 
and many were converted. There was 
what would now be called a reaitsil rf 
religion, haying all the leaturea ofs 
work of grace. At such a season it wa< 
proper then aa it Is now, that not only 
(he poor but the rich end ereal, ehould 
inquire the path lo life. And from ihg 
— vereation of Nicodemua it is mani- 
ihat the inquiry had become eene- 
whelher Jesus was not the Mea- 
aieh. 1 SaM. This waa a title of le 
apect conferred on dialinguiahed Jewish - 
teachers, somewhat in the way that iha 
title doelor of ditinity is now conjerred. 
" "hit forbid Sis diaciples lo weoi 
though it waa proper for Mim 

, _a beirig the great TeadieT <^ 

matikind. It literally signifies graal, 

ten by Nicodemus douhileas 

HIS gave dialinguiahed pnxA 

ne aa a teacher fiom God. 

1 [Te krune. I know, and thoae with 

whom I am connected. Perhaps he 

acquainted wilh soma of the PW 

y ahoulif ac 

1 about TeauB .that 

na ^"l^n^ 


cune to be more fully conSnned in the 
belief. ^Came/romGod. Sent by God. 
Thu implies hu nadinat lo hear him, 
•nd his dttirt to be_ inttrucled. He 
•ckjiowlednw the divine miaraon of Je- 
tns, and delieitely uka him to instruct 
iim in the truth of religion. When we 
read the worda of Jenu \b the Bible, it 
should be with a belief that he came 
from Qod. and vaa therefore qualified 
arid authoriEed lo leach ua the way of 
life. T Thai miradeM. The miracleH 
iriiicb he wrought in the temple and at 
Jenimleni (ch. li. 23). 1£iMiK God be 
wUk Abu. Except God aid him. and 
Bxcept his instructions are apprevtd by 
God. Mirades show (hat a prophet or 

causa God would not work a~mi- 
raele in atiaaialian of a falsehood, or 
to enoonrace a false teacher. If God 
gfivos a man power to woric a mirBcle, 
It is proof tbat He approves the leachii^ 
of that man, and ihe miracle is the 
proof or the credential that he came 
nvQi God. 

3. Verilif, MTtljF. Bxpresnons of 
sirong affirtnalion. denoting the eertaiii- 
Iv and the nmsrfaiics of what he was 
about to say. Jesus proceeds to stale lo 
him one of the fiindamema) and ini^ 
pensable dootrinea >of hie religion. Ii 
may seem remarkable thai he ahonid 
introdnee this subject in this manner. 
But N should be remembered that Nico- 
deinns acknowledged that he was a 
ttttHer come from God ; thai he in- 
fHid by_ that his readinai mid drain to 

B, that Jesnsshould 
le of the iiindamenlal 

-- ,. — ^1 humbfing truiha 

* of the gosjwl. Nolhing was kept back 
for fear of ofTanding men of wealth or 
power; and tor them, as welt aa the 
nan poor and lowlf , it waa declared 
to be indispensable lo experience a 
dmnge of heart and of life. IBinpta 

pression d 

Und. Of .._ ^ 

Mtaasbsi* bora again bees 

Bj.s.1. JaL 

3 Jeeus answered and said d; . 
him, Verily, verity, I say unto Ihee, * 

te.l.ia B;.S.l. T " ' 

18. IPB.l.aa. IJno.liS, 3.9. 

kingdom of God. It includes, tbetefors 
men of every character, and rank, and 
nation, moral sad immoral, rich and 
poor, in office and out of office, old and 
young, bond and free, the alave and hia 

i Gantila. 

Ifiademiu the idea also tbat A* must be 
bom again. It was not sufficient lo be 
a Jew, or to acknowledge him to be a 
teacher sent by God, that is, the Mes- 
eiafa ; it waa necessary, in addition lo 
Ibis, lo experience in hia owti aonl ihat 
great change called the nev btrtA, < 


word transtaled here again, e 
fnm aim*, and ia bo rendered in the 
margin. It is evident, bowerer, that 
Nicodemus underslood it not aa refer 
ring loabirlh /ran aftotw, for ifhe has 
he would not have asked the questioo 
in verse 4. It is probable that in tha 
language which he used, there was not 
Ihe same ambiguity that there is in the 
Greek. The ancient versions all un- 
derstood it aa meaning again, or tla 
leeond tint. Our natnml birth intro- 
duces us to light ; ia the commence. 
menloflife; throws us amidst tha works 
of God, and is the beginning of our ex- 
istence here. But it also introduces na 
to a world of sin. We early go astray. 
All men tranagreas. The imagination 
of the thoughts of the heart ia evil from 
the youth up. We are conceived iv 
■ia, and brought forth in inTqnityj and 
there is none that I'oeth good, no aot 
one. The carnal miud ia enmity against 
God ; and by nature vfe are dead in 
tisapasaes and sins. Gen. viii. 21. Ps. 
liv. 2. 3; li. 9. Rom. i. SS — 3a; iiL 
10-^ ; viii. 7. This sin eiposos men 
to misery here and hereafier. To ea- 
oapB irom this ain. to be happy in the 
world to come, it is necessary that man 
shontd be changed in hia principles ' ' 

feohnge, and his or ''^ "'- ' 

change, or the be 
life, u called the hi , „ 

(»n. It is so called because in many 
respects it has a striking analogy to tha 
natural burth. It ia the beginmng at 
spiritual life. It introduces us lo the 
bghl of the nxpel. It is the monunf 
when w-1 n^ I y begin to live to any par 

>r of life. This 

Exeep', B man be bom ' again, he 
eannoi see the kingdom if God. 

4 Nicodemus sailh unto hin 
[Tow can a man be bom when he : 

old 1 Can he enter the aecMMl itina 
into his mother's womb, and ba 

6 Jesua answered. Verily, verily, 

Kwe. It is the moment when God i 
Teals himself lo us as our lecondled 
Father, and we are adopted into bia 
faniljr «s bia sons. And as every maa 

■honld experience this change, or he 
cannot be bappy or aavBd. This doc- 
tod was paniculsrly predicted as a doc- 
trine that would be laugbl in Ibe times 
aftbe Messiah. See Deut. i. 16. Jsr. 
iv. 4, ixii. 33. Eie. xl 19 ; uivi. 35. 
Ps. U. 13. The cbonge iu the New 
Testament is elsewhere called ibe nno 
treaiioH (2 Cor. v. 17. G»l, vi. IS), and 
hfe from Ihe dead, or a resurreclion. 
Eph. ii. 1. Jobnv. 21,e4. ^ Heean- 
ntt let. To ice, here, ia put evidently 
fcr enjoying ; or be cannot be fined for 
it, and partake of il. 1 7^ kingAm 
tf Ovd. Either in ibis world, ai iu 
that which is to come, or beaven. See 
Note. Matt. iii. 2. The meaning is. 
tbal tbe kingdom which Jesua was 
about to ael up, was so pure and holy 
that itwaaindiapenaable inat every man 
should experience ibis change, or be 
<ou!d not partake of ila bleaaings. This 
ia aolemnlf affirmed by the Son of God, 
by an affirmauan equivaleni lo an oaih. 
and there can be no poasibilily, there- 
lore, of enisling beaven wilbout expe- 
riencing the change which our Saviour 
contemplated by the new birik. And it 
becomes ever/ man, as in the presence 
of a holy God before whom he must 
■oon appear, to aak himself wheiher he 
has experienced ihia change, and if he 
has not. to give no rest to hie eyes 
until he has sought Ibe mercy of God, 
and implored the aid of bia Spirit thai 
hia heart may be changed. 

indlled (o all the privileges of 
1e of God. When, ifaererore, 
mr used it of a Jetc, when he 
affirmed its necessity of «wry ■•ait. Ni 
codenfue supposed that there was an 
abaurdity m the doctrine, someihing 
'''II surpassed bis comprehensiDn; and 
therefore asked whether it waa pos- 
nble thai Jesua could leacb so absurd a 
doclrine — as he could conceive no other 
sense aa appUcable lo a Jew — as ihsl he 
should, when old, enter a second time 
mother's womb and be bbm. 
may learn from this : 1st. Thai 
e leads us to misunderatand (lie 

,. dootrinesof rebgiou. 2d. Thai 

lhir:gs which are ai iirst incomprehen- 
sible, or apparently absurd , mav wher 
explained become clear. The doclrint 
of re^neration, ao difficult to Nicode- 
mus, la plain to a child tlisl is bom of 
tbe Spirh. 3d. Those iu high rank in 
life, and who are learned, are often 
ant about the plainest matteta 

^ It ia often wonderial that 

they exhibit so httle acquaintance with 
'be most simple eubjecls penainineto 
be soul, and so much abaurdily in their 
riews, 4tb, A doctrine is not to be 
■ejttted because the rich and the great 


r unden 

s did n 


: compre- 

ose among the Jews to denote a change 
from Geritiliim to/udazfrn bybecoming 
eproeelyte byioplum. Tbewordwilh 
them meant a change trom the state of 
a heathen to that ot a Jew. Sut the; 
oever used it as applioible to a Jeit, 
«ecaiuB they suppoaed I tat by lis birl^ 

JoTB i^ ttettr. By iraier ben 
is evidently signified haplim. Tbns tbe 
word is used Eph. v. 26. Titas iiL 9. 
Baptism was practised by tbe Jews in 
receiving a Gentile as a proselyte. Il 
was practised by John among llie Jewa. 
And Jesus here says that it ia an iHdi- 

of his religion, and the sign and 

seal of Ibe renewing influences of hia 
id (Mark iv!. 1«. he 
that believelh and ii iaplixed, shall b« 
saved. It is dear from these places, 
and from the example of Ihe ^Kiadei 
ii.3B. 41; vui. 12, 13,36, 38 ; ix. 
I. 47. 48! ivi. 15, 33; xvuL 8- 
16. Gal, ui. 27), that they conai- 
this ordinance as binding on all 
who proteased to love (he Lord Jeaaa. 
And though it peihapa <aiuiM be aaid 




thee, Except a, man b( 

rater ' and of the Spirit, ' 
. enter into the kingdom of 

that none who ore notbii^lMed can bs 
■ared, yet Jesus meant nndoubledly to 
be'Qiideratood aa afErmin^ that thia vrOE 
to be the regular and uniform way of 
entering into hts church ; that this was 

of ui 

tession of religion ; and that a men who 
oeglected ihia when the duly waa made 

mandofGod. Itisi 
other comma 

be neglected ,. _ — 

that it IB ifae duty of every one not only 
to love the Saviour, but to mafae an 
acknowfedgnient of thai love by being 
baptized and devnlod lo hie service. 
But leat Nicodemus should suppose 
that Ibis was all that was meant, he 
added that it wbh neeeBaary llial be 
should be born of tkt Spirit also. Tbia 
was predicted of the Saviour that he 
should bapliie tcith the Holy Ghott and 
mlh (re. Matt. iii. 11. By this is 
clearly intended that the heatl must be 
changed by the agency of the Holy 
Qhosi ; that tlie love of ein musi be 
abandoned ; that man must repent of 
crime and turn lo God ; thai ne must 
renounce ell his native evil propensitieB, 
anjd give himaelf to a life of prayer and 
holiiwss, of meekness, purity, and be- 
nevolence. This great change is in the 

Hoiy Spirii. Titus iii. S. 1 Thoss. I 6. 
Rom. V.5. l?et.i.22. ^ Canm* aHer 

Mf. This is the way, the appropriale 
way, of entering into ibe kingdom of 
the Measiah here and hereafter. He 
cannot enter into the true church here 

neiion with a change of heart, and by 
the ptofet expressioB of [hat change in 
tbe ordinances appointed by the SaviotU'. 
6. 71a( tehich it bom of the ftth. 
To show the ntrteiity of this change, 
our Saviour Jirecta ihe attention of Ni- 
codemus to the natural condilion of 
man. By tliat mhidx it bom ofikefiah 
he eTidenlly intends man as he is by 

nral hirl i. Perhaps aiao iie alludea to 

^eah is fle«h : and that wbioh ii 
bora of the Spirit is spirit. 

7 Marvel not that I said nnltt 
thee. Ye muBt be bom ' again. 

8 The wind bloweth where i* 

the question asked by NicodemiM, 
whether a man could be bom when h* 
was old? Jesus tells him thai if Ihk 
could be, il would not anewer any va 
luable purpose. He would be still poa 
sessed of the same propenaitiea and 

Csions. Anolher change was ihere- 
I indispensable. V h fietfi. Par- 
takes of the nature of the paretn. 
Compare Gen. v. 3. As the parents 
are coirupl and sinful, so will be their 
descendants. See Job liv. i. Aud as 
the parentsaretoiitii!) corrupt by nature, 
so their children will be the same. Tha 
word fieak here is used lo denote cur 
Tvja, defiicd. tinful. The jtah in the 

posed to have their seat in the animal 
nature. ' ' The works of the flesh are 
manifest, wiiich are these : adultery, 
fornication, uncleonnesa, lascivious- 
neaa," &c. Gal. v. 19, 20. See also 
Eph. ii. 3. 1 Pel. iii. 31 ; ii. IS. 1 John 
ii. 16. - Rom. viii. 5. S It bom of the 
Spirii. Of the Spirii of God, or by the 
agency of the Holy Ghoal. 1 1t mrit. 
Is spiritual, liki the spirit, that is. holy, 
pure. Hereweleam: lal. That tJl 
men are by nature sinful. 2d. Thai 
none are renewed hut by the Spirit of 
God. If man did the work himbclf, tl 
would be elill desh, and impare. 3d. 
That Ihe effect of Ihe new birib is lo 
make men Ao/y. And, 4th. Thai no 
maa can have evidence thai he is born 
again who is not holy, and just in pro* 

'ill be the evidence thai he is iiorn of 
le Spirit. 

7. Marvd rtol. Wonder col. liii 
possible that Nicodemus in some way 
Btill expressed a doubt of the doctrine, 
and Jesus took occaaian in a very slrik- 

ng manner to iiluBlrale it. 

8. The Kind blowelh, &c. Nicode 
nus had eMecied to the doctrine b». 

-:ause ho did not understand hovt ii 
amid U. Jeaua abowt him thai be 
ought not to r^ecl il on that aceoant. 

UaLeth, and thou hearest the Boimd i 
thereof^ but canst not tell whence it 
eometh, and whither it goeth : so ■ ^ 
is every one that is bom of the 

for lie conaluilly beliered iMnga quiie 
■> difScnlt. It might appear incompre- 
hsniible, but it was to be judged of by 
ite iftctt. Ab in this due of the wind, 
Ihs cfwtf were ssen, the sound was 
heard, important ehaiaa were pro- 
duced by it, trees and clouds were 
moved, yet the wind is not leai, nor do 
we know when™ it comes, nor hv 
what laws it is governed. Soit is with 
the operations of the SpiHl, We see 
the changes produced. Men just now 
■infii], become holy: ibe Ihougfatless 
become serions ; the iicenrioua become 
pure; the vicious, moral; the moral, 
religioDB ; the pnyerleaB, prayerful ; 
the rebelliauB and obatinale, meek, and 
mild, and gentle. When we see auch 
chaneea. we ought no more lo doubt 
(hat ihcy are prodnc 
ligbty ag 

>e the I 

i by sotn. 
It, than ' 

■a of 
r feel the 

cooling effects of 

In those ceses we aiinouie n lo me 
Kind, though we see it not, and though 
we do QOt underBland ila operations. 
We may tearn hence: lei. Tbai ibe 
proper evidence of conversion ie the 
Bfecta on the life. 2d. That we ore not 
too curioualy to search for ibe caiue or 
suniKTof the change. 3d. That God 
naa power over the most hardened ein- 
ner to change him. as he hoe power 
over the loftiest oak to bring it down 
by a sweeping bUel. 4th. Thai there 
may be a great variiiy in the modes of 
theoperation of the Spirit. As the unnif 
■Dmetimes sweeps 'inih a tempest, and 


:ning t 

iih the operations ot 1 

ipirit. The ainner sometimes trem- i 

and ifl prostrate before the truth, I 

9 Nioodemas answered and mia 
unto him, How can these thinim 

10 Jeans answered and saidtinu 
faim. An thou a master of Israel 
and knoweat not these thingi 1 

fore that it doea exist and operate. 
Nicodemus' objection was, that be eosM 
not m this change, or penwire iam it 
" ' ' - - tells him (hot ha 
reject ei 

the tsind bi , _., 

well known, and no one doubted the 
euBlence of the power of the agent. 
Compare Eccl. li. 5. 

g. Haui can thae thi»gt It t Hum 
demuB was atill uawilhng to admit the 
doctrine unless he undervlood it. And 
we have here an inetance of a man <^ 
rank stumbUnf at one of the plainest 
doctrines of religion, and unwilling to 
admit a truth because he could doi nn- 
derstand Aoio it could be, when fae daily 
admitted the truth of facts in othA 
things which he coutd as little coinpre* 
hend. Add we may learn : Ist. That 
men will often admit facta on other sub- 
jecla, and be greatly perplexed by 
similar facta in religion. 2d. That n* 
small part of men's difficulttee are be 
cause they cannot underetand jbav or 
loAy a thing is. 3d. That men of rank 
anil office ere as likely lo be perplexed 
by these things as those in the obscurest 
and humblest walks of Ufe. 4th. That 
ibis is one reason why they so often re 
JBCI the truths of the gospel. And, 5th. 

cools and reireshi 
latiere little hoa il is. 
:ie oak, or lasiiea the si 
destroya my hoase « 
lat'ersbltleAoic it is d( 
If i 

;.".r,'.'.f1 r^ 

humbles my pride, subdues my aia 
and eomtbrts my soul, ii is a matter <tf 
little importance kaia it does all this 
Sufficient for us is it to know that it it 
done, and to laate the blesnngs which 
Sow from the renewing and nnctilying 
grace of God. 

,. ,, , 10. A mailer ef Iiraa. A tiaehtF ot 

the eflecia of the wind. You see Israel : the seme word that in the sec 
it not, you cannot discern its laws, bnl ond verse is translated Im/itr. As SDch 
roa see Hi tffietM, and you know there- < a (aoolcr, his ought to have undentond 

tl lutah. Where il ailli or pi, .. 

^ Soil ewry me, &c. Every one ihal 
>» bom of the Spirit is. in some respects. 

%jD.3e CHAPTER lU. S18 

II, Terily, 1 my aiilo dw«, ' 19 If I have (old yoa MitUy 
■ We spe»k that we do know, and thineSi ind ye believs not, hon 
testify that we have seen ; and ye shall ye believe if I tell T°a '^ 
feopive not our witness. heavenl j things 1 

thu doctrine. ItwasnotM 

e Old TsBtBinenl. 
ESee paniculBTl; Y». \i. >0, 16, 17. Eie. 
n. 19; uivL 36. It may >eem Bur- 
ptiaing thU a man whose buaineea it 
was lo leach the people ahould be a 
■traogei to «o plain and importaol a doc- 
trine. But when worldly-minded men 
ue placed la offices of religion, when 
tbey seek ihoee offices for tbe sake of 
naae or repuiaoon, it i> no wonder that 
^j are atningera to the plain Iruihs of 
Jw Bible. And there have been many. 
Uld there are atill, who are in the min- 
Ktry, to whom the plaiaest doclrinea of 
(he gospel are obscure. No man can 
understand the Bible fully unless he is 
■ humble Cbrialian. and the easiest 
way to comprehend the truths of reli- 
oion is to give ihe hearl to God, and 
uve lo his glory. A child thus may 
kave more mi knowledge of the way 
tf aalvalion than many who are pre- 
■Mided masters and leachare of Israel. 
John yii. 17. Matt. xi. 25. Pa. viii. 2, 
wnnpared with Malt. uL 16. T Of 
brad. Of the Jews; of ihe Jewish 

II. Wtipeak, JesuB here Bpeaks in 
the plural number, including hinuelf 
•nd those engaged with him in preach- 
ing the gospel. Nicodemos had said . things, 
(ver. E.I " at know that ihon art," Slc. '' 
inctivhw himself and those with whom 

which he ta communiealiiig to other*. 
3d. Every Sunday school tether diould 
be able to aay, ^ 1 know what 1 am oom- 
municaiing; I have eipeiienced what 
is meant by the new birth, and the love 
of Godt and the religion which I am 
leaching.' T Tuti/y. Bear wilnew to. 
1 Thai ve have leen. Jesus had seen 
by bia otnniscient eye all the operations 
of the Spirit on the heart, llis minis- 
ters have seen its e&ecls as we see the 
effects of the wind, and having ssen 
men changed Irom sin to hohness. they 
are quahfied to bear mtneas to the truth 
and reaiitv of the change. And ever; 
successful minister of the gospel thu* . 

of the gospel 1 Ye riceive rut. Ye 
Pharisees. Though we give evidence 
of truth. thODgh mtraclea are wrought, 
and proof is given that this doctrioa 
came from heaven, yet you reject it. 
% (htr toiinen,- Our testimony. The 
midmes which is furnished by miracle, 
and the aaving power of the gospeL 

reply n 

are engaged in spreading the new doc- 
trines about which you have come to 
irujuiTe, speak what we know. We do 
itot deliver doctrines which wa do not 
fraitiosIijF understand. This ia a posi- 
tive affirmatioa of Jesus, which he had 
a right to make about his nsw doctrine. 
St knew its truth ; and those who 
came into bis kingdom knew it also. 
We learn here : 1st. That the Phari- 
•eoa taught doctrinea which they did 
not practically understand. Theylaiighl 
mneh truth (Msit. iiiii. 2). but they 

tested by the strongest e 

'"lough a is constantly producing chang 

I in the hearts and lives of men. 
12. If Dave told y<m. Things whkdi 

cur on earth. Not $mnal or worldlti 
for Jesus had said notbnig lA 
iiieae. But he had told him c^ opera 
liota of tht Spirit which had occurred 
on tarth, whose effects were visibie, 
and which mtgAc bci therefore, be- 
lieved. These were the filaiiuff and 
moat obvious of the doctrines of nU- 
gk>n. 1 Hev liaB jw Mwn. How 

believe. Is there any proba- 
bility that yoii will tmdaratand them t 
1 Heavenly thinge. Things p 

lo the government of God, and h 
iigB m the heavens, which are remoired 
■ :w, and which a 

ieclcd to human 

sight. The nun 
itable things per- 

to be able to appeal lo (us owi 
(■ee. aad ns that he btnot tl 

laining to the redemption of n.. _ 

Learn hence, Ist. The heighland depth 

>f the doctrines of teligioiL There ii 

. much that we cannot yet underalaiML 

. 2d. The obscurities of our mmda ; tbs 

1 1 feebleness of lat wvleiwawliqp : lk» 


13 And * no u«in hath ascended 
□p to heaven, but he that came 
4own from heaven, ram the Son of 
man vhich is in heaven. 

-M doclrines of religion _. 
deraiood by ua. 3d, Thi 
)K> a last immensilyj tbera are pro- 
band ffondere of God's government, 
to be the Biady of the n^leoua, and 
lo b« aeeo and admired ibi ever and 

ascended into heaven and returned, so 
• □□ one is qualilied lo epeak of them but 
he who came down from heaven. Thia 
does not mean Ibal no one had gone to 
heaven, or been saved, for Enoch and 
Elijah had been boms there [Gen. v. 
34. Compare Heb. li. S. 2 Kings ii. 
II.]; and Abraham. Isaac, and Jacob, 
and otbere, were there. Bui it means 
chat no one had ascended and rtlumrd. 
Bo as to be qualilied to speak of the 
things there. T But he that eane dean, 
Sic. The Lord Jemia. He is repre- 
■enled aa coming dnwn, because, beine 
equal with God. he took upon himself 
our nature. John i. 14. Phil. ii. 6. 7. 
He it< represented as leni by the Fa- 
ther. John ui. 17, 34. Gal. iv. 4. 1 
John iv. 9, 10. ^ The Son i^ man. — | 
Called thns from hia being a man; 
from hia inlereat in man; imd aa en- ' 
preseive of hia regard for man. It is a ■ 
lavorife tlHe uhich the Lord Jesus gives 
lo himaelf. T Which is tn hanai. This 
is a very remarkable eipreasion. Je- 
•us, the Son of man, was then bodily 
on earth conversing with Nieodemjis. 
Yet he dechirea, thai he is at the tame 
Inns in heaven. This can be under- 
alood only aa referring lo the facl that 
he had two natures — 'Tbat hia dinine 
nature was iu heaven, and hia human 
nature on eanh. Our Saviour is fre- 
quantly spoken of in this manner. Com- 
pare John vl. 6a ; ivii. 5. 3 Cor. viii. 
9. Aa JesuB was in heaven ; as hia 
proper abode was there, be was fitted 
*> speak of heavenly tfcings, and de- 
dare the w II of God to man. And we 

14 And * as Moses lifted up the 
BoipeDt in the wildemcBs; even 
s* CDUSt the Son of man be lifted 



may learn, Ist. That the (ruth abont 
the deep thinga of God is not to ba 
learned of men.. No one baa ascended 
ibere ; and no inlidel, or mere man. or 
prophet, is qusliiicd of himself to speiW 
of them. Hi. That all the light whicb 
we are lo eipect on those subjecis is to 
sought in the scrtpturea. It ia oalf 


3d. It ii 

not wonderful that 
sciipluraa are mys- 
leiioue. They are about things which 

ihem on the (eilinwny of him who hat 
seen them — the Lord Jesus Chriat, 
4th. The Lord Jesus ia divine. Ha 
was in heaven while on earih. He bad, 
therefore, a nature far above the hu- 
man, and is equal with the Father. Ch, 

14. An^ at Mmei. Jeaua proceeds 
in this and the following verses to nale 
the reason why he came into (he world. 
And in order to this he illustrates h^ 
design, and the efficacy of his coming, 
by a reference lo the case of the btaisn 

. aerpent, recorded in Num. xxi, S, 9. 
The people were bitten by flying, fiery 

I serpents. There was no cure lor the 
bite. Moses was directed to make an 
image of (he serpent, end place it in 
sight of the people, that ihey might 
look on it and be healed. There ia no 
evidence that this waa intended to be a 
type of the Messiah ; but it is used by 
Jesus as strikingly Ulaitrating bis work. 
Men are sinnera. There ia no cure by 
human means for the maladies of the 
soul. And as the people who were 
m might look on the image of the 


IB Saviour, and be ctired of all 

ILifledup. Erected on a pole. Planed 
on hieb so that it might be seen by ibe 
people. ^ The eerpeitt. The iinagt <d 
a serpent made of brass. IT/n (Asnl- 
demai. Near the fuJnl of Edom. Id 
the desert and desotnio r'ountiy (n the 
south of mount Hor Num. ul i. 
1 Even ao. In a similar manner, and 
wuh a similar dteign. He liere rt(»f 


15 That whwoeTer" believethin 
aim should not perish, but have 
Btemal life. 

donbtleaa, to his death. Compare John 
liL 33 ; viii. SS. The piHnu of resem- 
biance between kit being lifted up, and 
tiiat of the brazen serpent, seem to be 
Asae: 1st. In both caaea, those who 
He to be benelilGd can be aided in no 
Uher way. The bite of tbe aerpenl 
waa deadly, and could be healed only 
by looking on ihs brazen serpent ; and 
an is de^ly in its niture, and can be 
removed only by looking on the cross. 
id. The mode of their beins lifted up. 
The brazen serpent was in the eight of 
, the people. So Jasus was aialted from 

The o 

■ life : I 

other tom eternal, dealh. 4Ui. The 
manner of ihe cure wa^ similar. The 
people of laraet were to look on the 
aerpeDl and be healed — and so sinners 
ore to look on Ihe Lord Jeans, that they 
may be saied. 1 Mutt. It is proper { 
necessary; indiepeDsable if men are 
saved. Compare Luke xxiv, 36 ; xxii. 
43. 1 Tht Stm of mas. I'he Messiah. 
15, Thai vthotoeneT. This shows the 
fulness and freeness of the goepel. All 
may come and be saved. T Believeth 
Bthin. Whosoever puts amjidence in 
him as able aad willing to save. Ail 
who feel that they aro sinners ; that 
they have no righteouaneBs of iheir 
own. and are wilhiis lo look to him as 
Heir only Saviour. i Should not perith. 
They are in duujer, by naiure, of per. 
Ming — ibal is, of sinking down lo the 
pains of hell l of " being; psniihed icilh 
ererlattmr d^lmciion from the pre* 
■ence of me Lord, and from the glory 
of his power." 2 Theas. i. 9. All who 
believe on Jeans, shall be saved from 
Ihia condemnation, snd be raised up to 
Blenial Ufe. And irom this we learn, 
lat. That there is salvation in no olhei. 
3d. That BsIvalJon is here full, and free 
(« aU who will come. 3d. That it ia 
Miy, What was more easy for a poor, 
•roiiaded, dying Israehte, bitten by a 
pasoDOiu serpent, than to look up to a 
bnieu serpent I So with the poor, 
lD*t| dying sinner. And what more _ 
ttahib, than lor auch a woimdedi dying c 

16 For * God M .oved ihe m grid, 
that be gave hiu onl<r -begotten Son, 
diat whosoever believeth in bim 

man lo rsfiut to look on a remedy so 
easy and eflecloal ? So oothinB >■ 
more foolish than for a lost and dying 
siimer, to rffutt lo look on God's ooij 
Son, eialied on a cross, lo die for the 
sins of men, and able lo save, to the 
uttermofll, nU who come to God by 

16, For Cod to lottd. This does no) 
mean that God approstd the conduct of 
men, bul had itneoident feelings to. 
wards Ibem; was to eamatly dtiiroat 
of their happineis. God hales wicked- 
ness, but still desires the happiness of 
those who are eintitl. A parent may 
love his cliild, and desire his welfare, 
and yet be airongl) tmiied to the con- 
duct of that child, >Vhen we approve 
the ^mdiKC of anoiher. this is [he lovs 
ofeDmpIacenfy/ when we desire simply 
their aappinett, this is the love of Acne 
volena, i The uorld. All mankind. 
It does not mean any particular pari of 

, but nan at m 

deserved to 
die. See John vL 33: xvii. 21, His 
love for the tcorld, or for all mankind, 
in giving his Son, was shown by theso 
cireumsianceB : 1st, All the world was 
in ruin, and exposed to the wrslh of 
God, 3d. They were in a hopeleu 
condition. 3d. God gtm bis Son. — 
Man had no elaiia on him. It was a 
gift — an undeserved gift. 4th. He gavB 
him up to extreme sufferings — even the 
bitter paina of death on Ihe cr" '"'" 

s for 

orld. He tasted 

'diedforalL" 2 Cor. v. 15. " He is 
he proniuation tor the sins of the whole 
world.'' 1 John h, 2. T Tlat he gave. 
[t was a free eift, unmerited. Man had 
io claim ; and when there was no eye 
pily, or arm to save, it pleased God 

S'» his Son into the hands of men 
a in their stead. GaL 1. 4. Rom. 
riii. 32. Luke iiii. 19. It was tba 
: of his love : the e 

is desire thai 


■fauold not p«ub, tntt han erer- 

17 For ' God seat not his Sod 
into the world to eondnmn the 
world ; but that the world through 
him mia^t be sired. 
' IB He * that believelh on him if 

•LuS.56. Sc.B.<),47. 

iti> hiaoDi)' son 10 die — if this coild. oi 
mighl, be done — would show highe: 
OTB limn could be miHiifcBled in any 
othu way. So it sliowa the daplh of 
die love of CM, that he ww wiUi 

17. To c 


Mot I 

God might have Bent him juaily 
for this. Man deserved eondemnalion, 
«nd it would have been rigtii then to 
have pronounced it- Bui Gud waa will- 
ing that there ahould be an offer of par- 
don, and ihe sentence of c<Hidemnation 
WBB delayed. Though Jesus did noi 
eome Men lo condemn mankind, yet the 
time is coining when he will reium ti 
jadjre the livine and the dead. Aclsxvii 
31. aCor.v.lO. Mati, XIV. 31— 46. 

18. He tl«a MiewM. He thai hat 
GOnlidence in him ; re Ilea on him; and 
trualB to his merits and promisee for aal- 
vaiion. To believe on him, is lo_feB 
and act according lo truth i that is, lo gc 
IS loit sinners, and act towards him as > 
Saviour from sine 
looking lo hir 
Notes on Ml 
deomed. Because believing on him, 
God pardons sin, and delivers us from 
deserved punishment. JesuB died in 
our stead. He suiiered for us. tmA 
bj bis sufferings God is satisfied 

IB ; relying o: 
»>ty for Balva 

B sufferings < 

1dm lo forgive. When s 
fcra, believes on Jneus. h 

made iii our stead, as being an equiva- 
lent for oar sufferings in hell, there is 
DOW no further cnndemnaiion. Kom. 
*)£. 1. 1 Betlathttievelhiuil. All who 
4a not believe, whether the gospel has 
■onie 10 liiem or not. All men b; na- 
toro. ^ It amdcmtifd already . By con- 
■oience ; by law ; and in the judgment 
•( God. God disapprov4a of their cha- 

not condenmed : baths that beliar- 
e& not is condemned alruadv, I 

raster ; and this feeUng of disapf roba 
lion, and the expression of il, is the 
condemnation. There is no condemna 
lion BO terrible as this, Ihat God dim- 
prmxt our conduct, and will apmi St 
disapprobation. He will judge accord- 
ing lo truth, and wo to Ihat man wfaoso 
conduct God cannot approve. 1£e 
cait>e. This word does not imply thai the 

lion is, thai they have not believed, or, 
thai they are condemned ieeinue they 
do not believe on him.'-for ibere are 
millions of unners who have nevet 
heard of him. But the meaning is this. 

be freed from condemnation. All men 
without the gospel are condemned. — 
They who do not beheve are still under 
this eondemnalion — not having embrac- 
ed the only may by which ihey can be 

vered fi 


ihuB paraphraaed : ., ... 

lure condemned. There ia bat one way 
of being free from this stale — by believ- 
ing on the Son of God. They who do 
Mo( believe — rsBaui in thai state — are 
Blill condemned, fob they have not em 
braced the only way in which they can 
be freed from tl.' Nevenheloss, llioea 
lo whom the goepel comes, greatly 
heighten their gu'll and condemnalioD 
''~ "iecling (he offers of mercy, and 
' fool the blood of tiw 
iBiii. 47. MalLii. 33. 
Prov.i,34— 30. And there 

.. da gobjg lo e( ' 

this ilouUe condemnation. 1 

by reeding (he off 
Son of God. Lukei 

1 Sd. For rejectjoa 

, leBpising the gospel 

This it ia which will make 

the doom of si 

19. ThiiietkeamdeBHtaiion. Thisil 

the eamt of condemnation; or this i> 
m are punished 
Light iWien da- 
shing, dGctrine, u 
I by which we see clearly the path 
'■■-'■ • tliBlG«M: 

at duty. v4JI the in 



ind men loved darkness rather iJian 
light, because, their deeds were 

, atj Ihua be called light. But 
liuB word IB lued peculurir to denote 
the MeBnnh, or the Chrirt, who b often 
spoken ol u U< I%U. See Isa. Iz. 1 ; 
'a.2. GompareHaU.iv. 16. AlsoNote 
ia Jabn L 4. It was doubtlew this lighi 

is the emblem of iiuqait7, error, soper- 

■thion : wliatever is opposite to truth 
and piety. Men are raid to lore dark- 
nen more than they do light, when the] 
BIS better pleased with error than truth , 
with ain tbim holineM ; with Belial than 
Christ, f Became their detdt are evii. 
Men - who commit crime, commonly 

eape detection. 

ed, prefer &In .. 

tmu. Thus the Pharisees cloaked their 

rrefer blse doctrine a 

Vbers that they had great leal for God. 
t Detdt. Works; actions. 

90. Thai dolk evd. Bveiy wicked 
man. f Hateth the ligla. This is true 
of all wicked men. The/ chooae to 
practise their deeds of wickednens in 
darkneas. They are afraid of the hght 
becaase they could be eaaly deiecWd. 
Hence most critnes are commilled in the 
Dkbl. So with the sinner against God. 
He bates the gospel, for it condemns his 
conduct, and his conscience would trou- 
ble him if il were enlightened. ^ Hit 
Aerff tAomld be reprmed. To reprove 
here meuu not only to ddtct, or ni^e 
manileBt, but also includes the idea of 
fwufemiuftn when thay are detected. 
The gospel would make nis wiekadDeas 
manifest, and his conadenoe woold con- 
demn him. We learn from this verse, 
laf. That one derign of the gospel is la 
i ^ m vt men. It coBincts them of bid in 
iraer that it may afford consolation. 2d. 
Thai man by nature kale the gouel. 
" ■ * ' r loves it. And 

isdisDoaed toc( 
an adulterer, m 

Ike light, le«t hja deeds shoiiid ' te 

31 But- he that doeth * \rath 
Cometh to the light, tiaX his deeda 
maybe made manifest that thejsx 
wrought ' in God, 

tUnn-I.e. e3Jno.ll 

Chnsl is hated 
because ein ia loved." 4th. The sin- 
ner mast be convicted. If it he not in 
this world, il wiil be in the next. There 
is no escape for him ; and the only way 
U) aiffld condemnation in the world Ki 
come, is to come humbly and acknow- 
ledge Bin here, and seek for pardon. 

at. He IMtdeeH truth. Hewhodoes 
right ; or, he that abeyi the truth. ZVsCl 
here la opposed to error and to evil. The 
sinner acts iram falsehood snd error. 
The good msn acts according to truth. 
The emner beheves a lie — that God will 
not punish ; or that (here is no God ; or 
that there is no eternity, or no hell. 
The Chriatian bebeves all these, and 
acts at if they were true. Thia ia the 
diSarence between a Christian and ■ 
sinner. ^ CemetkUthelight. Lovesthe 
truth and seeks il more snd more. By 
prarer, and searching ibe scriptures, he 
andeavors to ascertain the ttu Lb, and yield 
bis mind 10 it, V May be made manifett. 
May be made clear or plain ; or that il 
may be made plain that his deeds art 
wrought in God. He searches for (ruth 
and light that he may have evidence 
that bis actions ars ngbl. ^Wrougit 
... Gad. That they are performed ac- 
cording to the will of God ; or perh^ia 
by the assialance of God, and are such 
as God wiil approve. The actions of 
good man are performed by the inSu 

id aid of God. Phil. ii. 13. Ot 

if (hey are performed by bis aid. 

Ibey ere such as he will appro ve. Hgrs 
is pifisenlfld t be cbaiacler of a good man, 
and a sincere Christian. We learn re^ 
specting that cbaiacier, lal. He does 
truth. He lovee it ; seeks it ; follows 
3d. Ha comes to the light. Hsdoea 

attempt to deceive himself or others. 

3d. He ia willing to know himself, and 
I to do it. He deurea to know the 
statu of hia heart before God. ilh, 

BBpecial object of hia efforts is, ihsl 

tus d«Mii may he larMifM w Gad. lb 


S9 After thMe thiDgB male JesuB 
kikI hia disciples into the lana of 
Jndea ; and there he tairied with 
them, and ■ baptized. 

S3 And Jolin also was baptizing 

Afim to be a good man ; to receive 
oontinml ud from God, and lo pralbrm 

Tbia ia the close of our Lord's dia- 
Murae with Nicodemoa — a diacourae 
eoodennng the poape) ; giving the moet 
eiriking uhibiuan and illuatialioa of 
trulh ; and remeaentj 
fiindamenla] doctrine 
•od the evidence of the change. It . 
dear that the aaviour regarded this e 

reader, aa in the 

aa in the preaence of God, and 
of thejodnnenl-ieat of Chrigl, 
aideimilr te ask lumMlf whether he 
'mm eiperieiie«d tUa change I Whe- 
ther be knowa by experience whit il ia 
M be bora of ihal Spirit t If he doaa, 
be Hill be eared. If not, he ie in ihe 
gall of bittemeee; and in the bond of ini- 
qaify, and should give no sleep lo hia 
e;esiill be has made his peace with God. 
32. Landi^Judai. The region round 
■bout Jeromlem. ^ And hapliatd. Je- 
auB did Dol kimteff adminialer the ordi- 
nance of bqniam, but his diaciplee did 
k br bis direclian and authority. John 

IT. 3. 

23.. In Bnan. This plaee ia piobablv 
in the pl:^ of Jordan a little eouth of 
Bukihtan, End In the tribe* of Ephraim 
and Gad. It was nfuaied on the weal 
aide of the Jordan. 1 Near to Salim. 
Salim was a fow milee weal of Enon, 

' a htlle south of n 
le plaeea are ab( 
miles north of Bethabera, 
was baplized. ' Bicaiue there tm mud 
water then. John's preaching oliracled 
[nnltiluites. It sppesrs that ihey re- 
mained with him, probably many days 
In many pans of that country, pariicu 
Eaily in the hilly region near where 
loan preached, ii was difficult to find 
•vaier to accommodale the neeeaiily of 
(he people, and periiaps also of the 
tatnela, with which ihoae from a dis- 

m"itiM, a« well aa fbt the pnrpoM of 

in Enon, neai to Saliui, * been 
there was raocb water there ; ai 
the; came and were baptized : 

94 For John ' waa not yet c 
into priBOD. 

(Hatt^AB- <llBtt.l4.a 

baptizing, he selected a spot that vaa 
Weil- watered, probably wiih spring* 
and rivulets. Whether the ordinance 
of baptism was perfonnfd by immer 
aion, or in any other mode, the selec 
lion of B place well-watered was prope- 
and necesaary. The mention uf iba 
fact that there was much wsier there, 
and that John selected that as s conva 
nieni place to perform hia office aa a 
baptiier, proves nothing in regard ti 
ihe mode in which ihe ordinance wa# 
administered — sines he would nalniall> 
■elect auch a place whatever was thr 
mode. Where numbers of people cam* 
together to remain any lima, it was oe 
cessary to select such a place whaievei 
was their employment. An encamp 
meat of soldiers a made on the aama 
principlea, and in every csmp-meeting 
that I have ever seen, a place is select- 
ed where there is a good sapply of wa- 
ter — though not one person ahould b» 
auntried during the whole services 
Ab all ihe facta in the case are fully 
met by the suppotdiion that John mighl 
have baptiic^ in some oiher way be- 
sides immermon ; and as it ia easy la 
live anatter reason that is suSi- 
to account Ibi the fact that auch a 
place was eelected. Uii paaasge cer- 
tainly should not be adduced to prove 
that he performed baptism only in that 

24. For John miu not yet catt imu 
rinn. See Luke iii. 20. The men- 
m of this ahowg that John wsa nol 
iprisoned till aome lime after our Lord 
entered on his ministry. The design 
if John was lo caK men to repenlancfc 
.nd prepare them for the Measiah; and 
this he continued lo do after our Sa> 
■ lur commenced hit work. It showa 
.„.il a minister of religion ^ould be in- 
duBtiious to the day of hi* death. Joba 
still toiled in his work, not the las bo- 
cans* the Messiah had come. So aiia- 
laters should nol labor less vbep Chiitf 
appears hv his Spirit, and taikea the 
work into hia awn hands, aod tanf 
manr to biin*al£ 


37 John answered and Biud, A *'ofra 

Ligion OB Huch a diaposllion 
and to make proeelfiea to poriuiuiai 
modes of faith and of ndmiinBIaring tha 
ordinance of the ga^ie!. 

36. Came utito Jokn. Cune to him 
with their eomplainl — en»ioua and jB«l. 

with a 

t of 

' proselylism — with boaating of the 
perior escollonce of the sect with which 
m are connected, or with whom ih 
have been converted, and often with n 
deeire to pemmde others to join with 
us, 4th. That each a apiril is eminenily 
mproper on such occasions, Lovoshould 
characterize the feelings of young con- 
- '-■on to ifwi " —" 
lingnesB th 



ffS Hiien there wooe t. (question ; wbb witl-i thee beyond traAaa, to 
between wmu of John's dieciplea whona thou ■ ' 
and the Jews, about purifying. 

?6 And thej came unto John, 
and Slid unto him. Rabbi, he that 

25. A giteitwm. Rather a conlro- 
rersy. A dispute. IJoA^t'i discipUi. 
Those who had been baptized by him, 
and who attached great efficacy and im- 
portance to the leaching of then- Master. 
^ And tht Jrm. Many manuscriple, 
and Borne of the fathers, and the ancient 
Syriac vermon, read this in the singular 
number, "with a ins," one who, it is 
commonly supposed, had been baptized ^ 
by the disciples of Jesus. 1 Abtmt pu- ' 
nfyint. What the predse subiecl of 
this dispute was. we do not Know. 
From what follows, it wouU seem it 

efficacy of the baptism performed by 
John, and by the disciples of Jesus. 
The word purifying may be applied to 
baptism, as it was an emblem of re- 
pentance and parilF, and thus used by 
the Jews, by John, and by Jesus. 
About this subject it seems that a dis- 

Cate arose, and was carried to such a 
inglh that complaint was made to 
John. From this we may learn, !at. 
That e»en in the time of Jesus, when 
the gospel began to be preached, there 
.was witness^, what haa been ever 

ject ol religion. Even yoanff converts 
may, by over- heated zeal ind Igno- 
rance, (all into an^ry discussion. 2d. 
That such disciisBions are commonly 
about some unimportant matter of le- 

yet be qualified to undenland, and 
which does not materially alTect them 
if they could. 3d. That -'- ''--- 

of Jesus, and • 

led from the discusaon, 

popularity. ^ Sabbi, Master. Ac- 
knowledging him as their mOBler and 
teacher. 1 Tiait mu viik tin. Who 
was baptized by thee." Ttoa ioretl 
uilnat. See ch. 1. 29—35. 1^0 
mat come m him. This was the source 
of their difficulty. It was, that Jesua 
was gainins popularity; that the peo- 
ple flocked to him -. and they feared 
that John would be forsaken, and hia 
ibllowers be diminished in nnmbera and 
influence. Thus many love their teel 
more rfian they do Cbrtst, and would be 
more rejoiced that a man becamea Pres- 
byterian, a Methodist, a Bapdat. than 
that he became a sincere and humble 
nhnaibnn. This la not the spirit of the 
ielv leaches us la rejoice 
10 Chris- ■ ' 

True I 


holy, whether they follow a 
Let Jesus be exalted, and let men mm 
to kim, is the language of religioil, 
whatever denomination they may feel 
it their duty to follow. 

27. Jain aafuered. kc. John did 
not enter into their feelings, or side with 

He r. 

i began to teach them to rmoice m it 
1. 1 A man ea» Ttaivt iuUhu , ke. 
. success is Irom heaven. All mf 
cess was from God. All the suc- 
s of Jesus is from God. As success 
nea from the lame source, wo ought 
to be envious. Il is designed to 
iwer the same en 1, and by whsmsa- 
a accomplished, the band of God ia 
t. and we should rejoice. If JoMW 
1 his diseiDles are niecei^l. it all 

1 ' reeelTe uoAing, except 
'im him trom heaven, 
e jonraelTSH bani me wit- 
nets, that I said, * I am not the 
Chriat, but lliat * I am sent before 

39 He that hath t*ie bride ■ i 
bridegroom : but the Mend ' of the 
> or, taki nmN UwitiV- tt.lS»X7. * Ln. 
I'lSJO. Hlil.3Si SCnral.a. Ep.5.SS3l! 

ber thai it firet I told fo\ 

Meatash. Matt. iii. John i. Ai he had 

been uritnctt to JeeuB, as he 

Do other end but to point him 

Jews, thev ought not lo suppoee that 

Jobn was bis euperior. And it was ' 



peculiar aeci, but to prepare 
that \e might be more snccestfal, and 
thai the people might be ready for his 
coming, and fitied &r the buccgbs which 
be haa actually met with. You should 
n^oice, therefore, at that Buccesa, and 
not envy it, for hit taceai ia the beat 
proof of the greatneaa of my word, and 
of I'ti iuatH aleo.' 
S9. Hi thai luiih tht bridt, &c. This 


The bride belonga to her huaband. ^So 
(he church, the bride of the Mesmah, 
belonga to him. It is Id Ae txpected, 
therefore, and dairtd that the people 
shonld flock to him. t But llie/nend of 

Oahridc^,— "--■- '^--'-- ■- 

attetii^ ^■"■ 

attetid huD OD the marriage occaaion, 
'"^■- only the neareil friend, 

high 1 

self highly 


frtatly, Eatet 

^ The bridrfTKm' 

sommanda, requeaie, or converBaaon. 
* ThU my joy. &.C. • I auBloia to the 
HessiBh the relsdon which agroom'e- 
man does to the groom. TTie chief 
honor and the chief joy is not mine, but 
iUB. Ii is to be ejected, therefore, 
that the people will come to him, and 
Brat his success will be great.' The 
letation of Chriat lo the church Is often 
oompared with' the marriage relation, 
denoting [he letidemeas oTthe unioD, 
tad hia great love for his people. Ccid- 

3N. LA.D.M 

bridegroom, which standetb and 
heareifa him, lejoiceth gready be- 
cause of the bridegroom's voice. 
This my joy therefore is fulfilled. 

30 He must inciease, but 1 mutt 

31 He that comedi Irom above, * 
is above ell: be'lhstiaof theearth, 

lte.31.9. iCa.S.1. icS.Sa. &33. EaS. 
90ai. / 

pare laa. liiL 9. Rev. xii. S, 9 ; "■' 
17. Eph. v. 26, 27, 32. 2 Cor. li. 2. 

30. Ht muMt incrrate. His authority 
and influence among the people must 
grow. Nil docirine shall continue to 
spread till it eitends through a 
earth. ^ / must dareage. The pi 
of mv ministry is lo point me 
When that isdone. my work m 
I came not to ibrm a part; of my own, 
tHir to eet upa religionof myown. And 
my teaching must eeate when lie ia fully 
eBtablished, as [be hgbt of the morning 
E[ar liidee.away and is los[ in the besmi 
of the rising aun.' Thii 

humility and willingnosi 

aa nothing if he could honor Chriat. I 
showB ua also that it is Buffident bono: 
for man, ifbe may bepennittedlopain. 
sinners to the Lord JeB" '"-^-- ■"- 

ced John's 

IS Christ. 

lorable and joyful ai 
a gospel, Biid oone so 
hiahly honored as ihoae who are per- 
Z?...j .„ — _j „..- .... o.. ^ God, to 

:ry of the gospel, i 
' honored as iho"" 

J lo stand near th_ ._ . . _, 

hear his voice, and to lead perishing m 
to his croes. Comp. Dan. lii. 3. 

31. Ht that eomtlh from atnt. The 
MesaiBh, represented aa coming down 
from heaven. Soever. 13; eh. vi. 33; 
viii. 23. Ic has been doubted whether 
the remainder of this chapter contaios 
the words of John the Baplut, or of It* 
enaagelitl. The former ia the mora 
[ax>bable opinion, but it b difficult to de- 
cide ic, and it is of very hllle Conae 
quence. T/ioboiKaU. Innature, rank 
and anthority. Is nperior to i^vrvpk- 
e<i(Heb. i. 1,2); U>aUa*g^ (Heb. i 
4— U) , aiuJ if ontr oU Ue HtMTK « tia 
nreereign Lord, Rom. iz. S. Eph. i. 
21,22. Col.i.l*— 19. lCor.xv.25. 
1 Ht thai it >4 the earth. He who haa 
DO higher nature than the human nature. 
The prophels, apostles, and Jdin were 

like otherB, bom in the same way, 

dnking hke others to the dual. Ja- 
lad a natore superior to man, aoil 

A D.30.] 

b oardily, and Bpeakedi of the eaift ; 
he that cometh firom heaven, ie 
■bove all. 

33 And what he hath seen and 
heard, that he testifieth ; snd no • 
man Tscelveth his testimonT. 

33 He that hftth Teceived his les- 
tunonv hath * set to hie seal that 
God U true. 

• cl.ll. tlJno^lO. I 
U.T. Ii.II.l. S&Hl. C.L16. t 

MWM therefore to be ei&lted above all. 
T if earMy. Is homui. Is tn/enor to 
bim who comes from heaven. PartakeH 
of his origin, which is Interior and cor- 
rupt. ^ Spoiktth if Ihe earth. His teach- 
ing a inferior to that of him who comes 
from heaven. It ia comparalively ob- 
KEure snd imperfect.' not lull and clear, 
hke the leacliing of iiiin who ie from 
■hove. This vras the case with all the 
prophets, and even with John the B^- 

32. .dndiehit AeiatAHcn, &.C. See 
»«r. 11. TMo nan nceivtth hU tati- 
•Hiy. The worda no man are here to 
be understood in th 
Though his docliine 
Buiihme, yet /ew compaiatiirely reeeivi 

' it m faith. Though muldtudes came w 
him. drawn by various motiveB (John 
vi. 36), yel/sB became his real disciplea. 
Mail. xivi. S6 : vii. 22. 1 if t> tettiau- 
ny. His doctrine. The tnith to which 
he bears uilneti as having teen and 
launmil (ver. 11). Often many persona 
apprup for a dme to become the fotlow- 
ere of Chrial. who in the end are aeco 
to have known noll^ng of religion, 

33. He IjbM hath recavtdka tatimony. 
Haih received and fully believed his 
doctrine. Hath yielded his heart (a its 
influence. 1 Hath irt te hu ttal. To 

aeknowle<%e ii aa «r> ,- and to p1«lge 
our verainty that it ia true and binding, 
aa when s man ee^ a bond, a deed, or 
awill.. Believing adoclnne, therefore, 
in the heart, 19 expressed by leotifif it, 
or by believing it we eipreae mir trm 

who has spoken it ie true. We vonoh for 
the veracity of God. and assume at oar 
nen llie propoeilion thai it ia the truth of 
God. ^Oadiitrut. Is faithful, ia the au- 
thor nt th> system of doctrines, and will 
falfil all thai he haa promised. We leain 


34 For • he wkom God hath 
Bent, speaketh tiie words of God 
for God giveth not the Spirit l^ 

35 The Father loveth the Son, • 
and hath given all diinga into U* 

36 HelthatbelieTethontheSoi 
hath eveiiasting life : and he that 

HattiX.lS. /Ha.a.4. v 


lat. That to be a beUevor k 
something more than to liold a mere 
speculative behef of the truth. 2d. Thai 
to be a believer is to pltdge mtridva lot 
the (ruth, to eeal it as our own, to adopi 
it, and choose it, and BOlemoly assent to 

wiiiine that is to convey his property, or 

' ~ ia to dispose of it when he dies. 

Every Christian ia a witneae far 

God, and it is his business to show by 

le believes that God is 
lings and to his pi 


) hie threati . . . 

ue Notes on lea. xliii, ID, 4th. Il 
: a solemn act to became a Chrietian. 
: ie a surrender of all to God, or givinc 

J body, soul, and B[ririt to Uiu, vrith 
ef that he iafnw, and alone liable 
) save. 5th. The man that does not 
do this, that is not wilUng to pled^ his 
belief that God ia true, sets Id hu seal 
that God ia a Har and unworthy of con 
'''---3. 1 Johnv. 10. 

__. Whom God haOiiaU. ThaMe». 
siah. ^ SnealKlhiheaordtofGcJ. The 
truth, or rammf-'- -'■ '^-^ - "" 
Spirit. The Spi 

Jesus was God sl , j — _ 

Medialar God anointed him, or endow, 
ed him with the influence of his Spirit, 
ily qualilied for his 
great work. ^ By m """ 

eages. The M^asiah wascmlTniiaavfiU- 
edwithihs Spirit of God. ''The Spirit 
dwelt ui h.m not as a vessel, but as in a 
founti^n, aa m a boltomleaa ocean."— 

35. LotKth the Son. Loves him etni- 
lenliy. above all the prophets and other 
neasengers of God. 1 Hath eivtn all 

thing! See Note, Malt, uviii. IS. 

36. Hath enrloXtne aU. Hu or ii 
session of that which is a recovoi* 

b^teveth not tha Srai ■hall not aeel that Jemia made and b^tized'tnon 
life ; but the wialh * of God abideth digriplm than John, 

2 (.Though Jesos himself bap 



a Ko.I.lB. 

Irotn Biriiitvuil death, uid which b)AI1 
reault in elemal Ufe in heaven. Piety 
here 13 the Bame that it will bo there. 
ezeepl it will be expanded, matured, 
puritied, made mare glorioua. It iehere 
life begun — the fitsi brealhingB and 

. bough at first leebli 
which ia eiernel in iiB nature, and whiii 
shall be matured in the full and perfect 
bliw of heaTen. The Christian here 
has a bretuie of the world of glury. 
and enjoyi the same hnd of felieiiy, 
though not the same degrte, Ifaal he will 
there. 1 5*011 not «e life. Shall nei- 
ther enjoy true lift or bappinese here 

interheaven. Ml-tarathi^GBd. The 
(iiger of God tor mn. His oppooition lo 
■in, and its lerrible effecle in this world 
md the next, ^AbidetAim him. This 
mpliea that he ia now under ibe wrath 
*f God, or under condemnation. It im- 
plies also, that it will ccffl/iniu to remaiTi 
on him. It will abide or dtcell there as 
Ua appropriate habitation, Ae there it 
no way of escaping the wrath of God 
but b}; the Lonl Jeaus Christ, so those 
beiieTe must go to eternity 

oi they art. and bear aloni 
all that God may choose to inflict aa the 
eipreseioa of Au senae of ain. Such is 
the miserable condilion of the sinner 1 
Yet tbousandB choose 10 remain m tMa 

terrible in the wrath of Atmigbiy God, 
rather ttisn lo come to Jesus, who has 
borne their ana in his own body on the 
■Tee, and who is wiiUng to bless them 
tritb the peace, and purity, and joy of 

1. The Lard knet. When Jesus 
knew. 1 Haw the Phantea had hmrd. 
The Pharuta here seem to denote 
Mther Ibe members of the sanhedrim, 
or those who wore in authority. They 
«Uunsd the au ^inrily to reoulate the 

tized not, but his diaeiples,) 

3 He left Judea, and departed 
again into GaUlee. 

4 And he must needs 'go thiouf^ 

of rehnoo. and 

hence thef suppoaed ihey hu a rktu 
to inquire mio the conduct of both John 
and our Lord. They had on a Ibrmei 
occasion sent to iiuguire of John to 
know by what pulhoril; he had iniro 
duced such a nie into the religion of the 
people. See Note, ch. i. 25. 1 Mart 
diici^ei Ihan JoAn. Though m*n^ of 
tbe Pbanseee came to bis baptisiD, 
(Mall, ill.), yet those who were In au- 
iboriiy were displeased with ihe success 
of John. John L 25. The reasons of 
this were probably the aeverilj^ and . 
justness of his renrools (Malt, ui, 7), 
and the &et that he drew many after 
him, and i hue weakened ibeir authority 
and influence. As 'hey were dtenleaa- 
ed wilh /d*ji so ibey were wilb JcnM, 
ho waa doing the same thing o 


3. Though JeMua tiimaelf b^ttiMed tutt 
The reason why Jesus did not baptize 
was, probably because if lie had bapiixed 
it might have tnade unhappy divisioni 
amonE bis foUowera : those might have 
conaidered themselves most wonby oi 
honored who had been baptized by kim. 
Compare 1 Cor. i. 17. 

3. He left Judta, The envy and 
malice of the Pharisees he mieht have 
known were growing so rapidly as lo 
endanger his life. As his Time to die 
hiuJ not yet come, he retired to Gslilee. 
a country farLher from Jerusalem and 
much le^ ut.der iheir control than Ju- 
dea. See Matk a. 112. Luke iii. 1, 
Though JeeuB feared not deatii. and 
did not ehrintt from sufT 
did not nadletily throw 

rtrew himself fi 
4. Aiidiun 


iig, vet he 



herefore with- 

imediMe da.iger. 





5 'nwn ( ometh he to a city of 

nbich is called STchar, 
3 the parcel of nomid that 
lacoh gave ■ to his aon Joseph. 

6 Now Jaoob's well waa t) 
leeuB Iheiefoie, being wearied with 
Ui jouinej. Bat thus od ^e well 
trui it was about the aisiti houi . 

mOeJB.i». leas. joa.sf.aa. 

} posa through Ssmaris. Some- 
dtnea, however, the Jews look ■ cir- 
euttoiu route on the east idde of the 
Jordan. See Note, Mall. ii. 22. 

5, Syehar. This diy stood about fif- 
teen mileB south of the ciiv cHlled Sa- 
maria, between mouni Ebal and mount 
Oeriiim. Ii was one of the oldeai citiea 
of Palestine, and was formerly known 
by the name of Shtchem, or Sichem. 
Cien. Diiii. 18 ; Jtii. 6. The ciiy was 
in the tribe of Ephraim. Josh. iii. 21. 
Il was at this place that Joshua aasetn- 
bted the people before his deaih, and 
here they renewed their covonani wiih 
the Lord, Joah. uiv. After the death 
of Gideon it became a place of idok- 
Irous worship, the people worshipping 
BimBKrUh. Judges ii. 46. Ii vras de- 
llroyed by Abimelech. who beat down 
"■" ' sowed it with ™Il. Judges 

I. 43. It * 

I afterwards rebuilt, and 
of Jer< 

met of around ; or ll 
That Jaak gave, Slc. . 

TupEsd by the 

Ira jnio ivapumt, Lts present name. 

I still a considerable place, and it's 

is remarkably pleSBaiil and produc- 

1 The pored o/ grimad. The 

r 1, „^ ,1;^ j,^ 4^g , 

laeob bought one 
^ iind near to Shalem. a dly 
of Shcchem, of the children of Hamor, 
the &ther of Shecham, for an hundred 
nieces of silver. Gen.iuiii. 19. In 
this place the bones of Joseph were 
laried when they were brouahi up from 
Egypt. Josh. niv. 3S. He also gave 
■T) Joseph an additional piece of ground 
which he took from the hand of the 
Amorite by bis own valor, ' with his 
iword and his bow,' as a portion above 
that which waa given to his brethren. 
Gen. tiiiii. 3-:. Toanbly these pieces 
[rf' ipound Isy near together, and were a 
f«t of the htmeitiad of Ja:ob. The 

7 There oometb a womnn of'Si^ 
maris to draw water. Jeaua itaitb 
unto hei. Give me to drink. 

8 (For his disciples wore gona 
away unto the citf to buj meaL) 

9 Then saith the woman of Sa- 
maria auto liim, How ia it that 
thou, being a Jew, askeet drink of 

welt was " Dear" to this. There it 
DOW, the Rev. E. Smitb mentioned to 
mn m converea^on, a place near Ihia 
well called Shabm. 

e. Jaeab-i veil. This is not men- 
tioned in ibe Old Testament. It waa 
called Jaecb't vtU probably either be- 
ise it vaa handed down by tradiiiiHi 
I be dug it, or because it waa near to 
land which he gave to Joseph. 
ero is Btili a well a few miles to the 
1 of Naplous, which is said by the 
iple there to be the same. TheReV. 
Smith, missionary to Syria, staled 
ne that he bad visited ihts well. Il 
iboui one hundred feel deep, ft is 
Ibnmgh solid rock of limestoife. Il . 
~ ~ dry, probably from having been 
filled w 

partly filled 

because the water has been diverted by 
'ered wiUl 

admit a man. It 
.. Geiiiim, and ba« 
n the east. 1 Sat tkut. JeeTia 
ry, and being tAiu weary, sat 
down on the well. Ihe word tianalntod 
here may denote also by. He eat 
n iy the well, or near it. 1 7^ 
lixlh tour. About twelve o'clock. 
This was the common time of the 
Jewish meal, and this waa Ihe reaaon 
whv his discipiea were g<HM away to 
'luy food. Ver. 8. 

?. 0/ Samaria. Not 
Samana. for this was al 
fifteen miles, but a woman wno waa a 
ibtless from the city 
ofSychar. ^ Gist me to irimk. This 

— •'-■• heal of the day. aiid when 

I weary with hii journey. 

with rubbish, or perhaps 
_.. ._. yaler has been dive""" ""- 
earthQuakes. The well is coven 

- ' stone, which •— - >-' 

LTge enough K 

if the eilif of 

.Coot^Ic ^ 

BB, wfaieh am a woman of Sa> 
maiial — foT the Jews have no 
dealinea ■ with the SamaritauB. 

10 Jesue anBwered and said unto 
her. If thou knewest the gift * of 
God, and who it is that sailh to 
thee, Give roe to drink ; thou woold- 
Mt luve asked of him, and he would 
tmre giTOn thee living ' water, 
a » Ep.S.a. 

9. No dtaiingt mtA thi Samarilaiu. 
For Bii ucount of the SanmritaiiK, and 
of ihe diflerenc«a between them and the 
Jews, see Note, Mut. i. 5. 

10. 7^ gift if God. The word gifi 
here denoies favor, l! mav refer lo 
Jewu hwu^ u the gift of God lo the 
world, given lo save men from, doaih 
(ch. ill. 16), or it may refer to the op- 
pariunily then afforded her of aeeking 
■alTatioD. If Ihou kQewest how faior- 

' able an opportunity God oow gives thee 
lo gain ■ knowledge of h^nuelf, &c. 
1 And uAo it it, &.C. If Ihou kneweai 
that Che Messiah was speaking.. 1 Ltu- 
iag water. The Jews used the expres- 
""□ lining valer 10 denote seringa, or 
>r running ureama, in oppo- 

_j __j -water. Je- 

■iw nere means to QoiKile b^ II his doc- 
trine, or hia grace and religion, in op- 
po«tion to the impure Bnd dead notians 
of the Jewg and ihe Samarilana. See 
ver. 14. This was one of the many in- 
alancea in which Jeaua look occasion 
from common topics of eotiveraaiion lo 
introduce religious diacourae. None 
ever did it so happily aa lie did. But 
by studying hia example and manner, 
we may l^m always lo do it. Oae 
way (o acquire the an is to have Ihe 
mind fnll of the snbjecl, to make reli- 
^n our firal and main thing, to carry 
It wi^ OB into all employmenlB and into 
all Bociely, to look upon every thing in 
a reUgious light, and out of the abun- 
dance of llw heart the mouth wijl 

11. Halt nothing la dra^ leith. It 
•eema that there were no meaiia of 
drawing water ajixed to the well hb with 
aa. Pnbably each one took a pail or 
pttcber and a cord for the purpoee. In 
tnrelUiig Ihia was indiapenaable. The 

of drawing, water, and not vel under- 
atan^ng nis design^ naturally inquired 

IN. LA-D.30 

II The woman taith nnto him, 
Sir, thou hast nothing 1} draw with, 
and the well is deep : from whence 
then hast thou that livine water 1 

13 Art thon erealer than our fe 
ther Jacob, whidi gare us the well, 
and drank thereof oimielf, and hi* 
children, and his cattle ! 

13 Jeeus answered and aaid anM 
( U.n.3. 4I.IT.1B. Je.a.13. ZseJlLL R 

>w, ii was about an hundred 

12. Art lluu grealer. Art ihou wiser 
or belter able to lind water than Jacob 
waa. It seems ihat she auppoaed ha 
meant Ibai he could direct her to some 
hving spring, or to some better well in 
that region, and that thi^ implied more 
knowledge or skill Ihui Jacob had. To 
had water, and to furnish a-good ivelL 
was doubtless o""-'— ' ' 

1 skill oi 


iect of great importi 

mistmderaisnd ibe words of Christ, and 
10 pervert ilie doclrinee ui religion. If 
she bad had any proper anxiety aboal 
her eoul, ehe would al least have nu- 
pedtd ihal he meant to direct her 
thougbia 10 epirinial objecis. ' (ha 
father Jaaib. The Samorilans wen 
compoeed partly of the remnant of the 
ten tribes, and oarily of people sent from 
Chaldea. Still they considered them- 
selves descendants of Jaeob. t WhiA 
ntw M. Thie waa doubtless the tra- 
it was true. 1 And dnaik thereof. Inc. 
Thie waa added in commendation of ihe 
water of the well. A well from which 
Jacob and his sons and caltie had drunk 
must be pure, and wholeaome, and bo- 
norod, and quite as valuable as any 
thai Jesus could furnish. Men hke to 
commend that whieh their anceetora 
used, as superior to any thing else. 
The world over, people love lo speak 
of ihat which tXeir anceatore have liane, 
become fond of tillea and lienors thai 
have bfen handed down, even if i< ia 
nothing better than eijeted here, be- 
cause Jacob's catilt had drunk of tha 

A.D.30.] CHAPTER TV. i 

hat, WhoftoeTor drinketh of thie well of water spiinging np ii 
water ehall thirat again : j everlastiitg life. 

14 But "whoBoever drinketh of I 15 The woman saith u " ' ' 

the water that 1 ahal! p^ 

shall never thirst ; but the watei that 

I shall give him ehall be in him ' a 


dial he WW greattr than Jacob, 1: 
|Svu her an answer by which she 
nfer that he was. He did nol d<— 
or undervalue Jacob or his gifis. But 
however great might be the value of 
that well, the water could DOlallogelher 

14. The water thai I ihall ene Ann. 
Jesus here refen without doubt to hia 
teaddng, his graa, his ipirit, and the 
benefits which come into the soul that 
embraces his gospel. It is a striking 
hnage, and especially In eastern coun- 
tries where llrare are vast deserts and 
often a greal wool of water. The soul 
by nature is like such a desert, or like 
a traveller wandering through such a 
desert. It is thirsting for hwpineeii. 
and seeking it every where, and finds it 
not. It looks in all directions, tries all 
objects, but in vain. Nothing meets its 
desires. Though a sinner seeks for 
joy in wealth and pleasures, yet he is 
nol satisfied. He still thirsts for more, 
and seeks still for happiness in some 
new enioyment. To such a wear' ind 
unoalisfied sinner the grace of Ch.tal is 
— aMvater,taal\ir,ty,iml. ^ ShaU 
■ffier thint. He shall be salinfied with 
this ; and will not have a sense of want, 
a distressing feeling that it is not sdapt- 
Ed to him. He who drinks this will not 
wish to seek for happiness in other 
objects. Saliifed with the grace ~bf 
Christ, he will nol desire the pleasnres 
al>d amusemenlB of this world. And 
this will be for evei — in this world and 
the world to come. WAaiontr drink- 
eth of this; all who partake af the goe. 
pel shall be for tvtt BatisRed with ''- 

:.^_i: ISAoH 6e in ■ 

Christ shall be ii 

Sir, give me this water, that I thirat 
not, neither come hither to draw. 

16 JesuB saith unto her. Go, cdl 
thy husband, and come hither. 

deep well, but like an ever-living IboD- 
tain that plavg at all seasons of iha 
yea^, in heat and cold, and in aU ex- 
terna! circumstances of weather, whe- 
ther foul or fur, wet or dry. So reUgitH: 
always lives ; and amidst all changes ol 

It i^"ol' 

. , md refreshes and 
lul. f/nla«KrIrutt'wIi>. 
xfnroTj like the supply ol 
vanlH. It is not changing 

It 19 not hks a natural 

fountain or spring of water, to play 
awhile and then d;e away, as all natural 
springs will at the end of the world. I( 
' ■ ■■ * ' ipply, B ' 

a fore 


will continue to 
may learn here : 

has a neror-faihog source oi consola- 
tion adapted to all times and circun 
stances. 2d. That religion has its sent 
in the heart, aud that it should con- 
siontly livt there. 3d. That it sheds 
its blessings on a world of sin. and is 
manifest by a continual life of piety, 

of ihit ihaB He 
sliaU he m his 

r tAirtI 

18 piety 

heart a pure fountain 
-.„--„ -^ terlaating life. 

15. Tha tnaHn laid, &,c. It may 
seem etrange that the woman did nol 
yet understand hun ; But it shows how 
slow sinners are to understand the doc 
trinea of religion. 

16. Go, call thy h^ahand. We may 
admire the manner which our Saviour 

■ lad her to perceive that ' 

e Chris 

HLi i 

I she 

did not understand. He therefore pro- 
ceeded to show her that he was ac 
quanted with her life, ond with her sins. 

consider her own stale and sinfulness — 
a delicate snd yet pungent way of lead- 
ing her to see that sliu was a sinnei. 
By showing her, alao, that he knew 

17 The woman aiiHwered and 
•aiJ, I hare do hoaband. Jesus 
•aid unto her, Thoa hast well mid, 
1 have no husband : 

18 Pot thou hast bad five bno- 
bands ; and he whom thou nnw ~ 

bar life, ihoogh a stnuiger (o her, be 
tonvincsd her Ilial he ws* qualified 
tsach ber ihe way lo heaven, and th 
^pared her to sdmit ibat be was t 

tnere wiia ine man liuh biu? uthu wilu, 
Ihe truth luight be expOBed. Il la doI 
improbable ihiu b; ihia lime she began 
lo Buapect ibsi Jeeus was a prophet. 
T Hatt ihU taid. Hast said the Irutli. 
18. Halt lad fin hiubaniU. Who 
baveeiiher died; or who, an account of 
four improper conduct, have diyorced 
foui or whom vou have left improperly, 
witlioul legal divorce. Either of these 
might have been the ease. ' /» iwf tiy 
Imiband. You are not lawfully married 




thus ber marriage with this man was 
snlawfiil, or she was living with him 
without the form of mairiage, in open 

19. AfTvflul. One sent from God, 
and wboundeMoodher Ufe. The word 
here does not denote one who foretelli 
fklurt evtJKl; but one who Inem her 
litart and tile, and who must there- 
fore be bom &om God. She did not 
yet suppose ium to be the Messiah. 
(Ver. 36.) Believitie him now to l)e s 
man sent from God, she proposed to 
bim a question respecting the proper 

Clace of worship. Thia question had 
sen long disputed between the Sama- 
ritans and the Jews. She submitted it 
lo him because she ifaoughl he could 
settle the qneslion, and perhaps be- 
eause she wished lo divert the conver- 

ting her husbands. The c. 
-■ - ' nnerofUfew 

IS. IA.0.3D 

ia not Ihj husband : in diat saldal 
thou truly. 

19 "Hie woman satth unto him, 
Sir, I perceire ■ that tbon an a pn>- 

SO Our fathera worshipped in 

■ e.l .48,49. 

gins to bear too hsnt upon their con- 
sciences ; and no way of doing it is 

■pecuIoltH inquiry having ■«■»< tort ^ 
amKx'wn mth rtligum, as if to show 
thai they are willing to talk oloiit refi- 
gion, and do not wieh to appear lo be 
opposed lo it. Sinners do noi love di 

Yel Ihey chooe 

3uiry about a preacher, or about some 
ocTrine, or about building or repairing 
a place of worship, or about a. sabbalG 
school, in order lo leon lo talk lAoat 
religion, and yel to evade close and 

20. Our falhert. The Saoiarilana; 
perhaps also meaning lo intimate ibil 
ibe patriarchs bad done it also. Sea 
Gen. ni. 6 ; uiiii. 20. T WiiriHifptd. 
Had a place of worsliip. 1 1n f Ais eunim 
lain. Mount (ieriitst,'but a Uttle way 
from Sychar. On this mountain they 
bad built a temple somewhal umilar to 
Ihe one in Jerusalem. This was ons 
of the main subjects of controversy be- 
tween them and the Jews. The old 
Samaritan Pentateuch, or five boohs of 
Moses, has the word Geri»im instead 
ofEbal, in Deul. ixvii. 4. On this ac- 
., as well as becsuse the patriarchs 
lenlLoned aa having worshipped in 
Shechem, they supposed that inat vas 
the proper place on which lo erect the 
temple. 1 Ti soy. Ys Jews. 1 /■ 
JeruiaUm. The place where the tem- 
ple was built. This was built in ac 
cordance with the promisi> and com 
mand of God. Dent. lii, 5, 11. In 
building this, David and Solomon were 
under the divine direction. 2 Sam. viL 
3, 3, 13. 1 Kings v. 5, 12 ; nii. 19—23. 
As it was conlemplaled in iba law^ojf 
Mosea that Ibere sbooU be bat *m 


-this muiintBin ; ' mnd ye mti UiU in 
Jertisalem * is the place wbere men 

LU. HaiLiaao. 

^■ce to oHer (icriflce end lo bold ihe 
tTBBl fsBBla. SO il fbllowed [hat ibe Sa- 
marilans were in error in mppodns that 
>iaT lemplc was tba pioce. Accoroing- 
tv, ooi Ssiiour decided in &vour of tbe 
Jews, fet in eiicb a maimer *a to ahow 
the woman that the queaikm waa of 
miicb lea caiuequence Iban (Acjr aup- 
posed it to be. 

21 . BfHae me. Aa she had profeaa- 
ed 10 believe that be was 

ahowa ihe imporunce of what hi 
■tb'> ^t to aaT. 1 Tke lumr comtth. The 
!»» is coming, or is near. T IP1„ 
iwiJier in rti* mwofatn, dtc. Milherlo 
the puiilic solemn worahip of God baa 
been confined lo one place. It has 
been a mailer of dispute whether tbat 
place ahould be Jerusalem or mount 
Gerizim. That conlrarers; ia to be of 
much less iiDporlsnce than jou have 

nor yet at J«TiiBml«B, woiM* Ac 

SS Ye worship ' ye know not . 
what : we know what we worahip ; 
for ' aalvBtion ii of the Jew*. 

83 But die hour Cometh, and now 

nor ofTecinf the worahip which he h_ 

commanded or wonld approve. Jeatu 
thtia indirotlif settled the queadon which 
sfas bad pTimoaed to him, yet in such a 
way aa to ahow her that it was of modi 


about lo pass away. The pamii— 

of the Jews are to oeasa. The wonhip 
of God. BO long confined to a aingle 
" " 'a obeerred erery 

where, and with as n 


Ood in that place, or m Jemaalim, but 
that the worship of God would itot bs 
^ tmfiiud 1h<rre. He would be worship- 
|ied in other plaoes as well as there. 

32. Ye uiankip ye htoB net ithat. 
This probably refers (o ihe comparative 
ignorance and corruption of the Sama^ 
ntan wonhip. Though they received 
ihe five books of Moaea, yet they re- 
jected (he prophets, and of course all 
Ihat the prophets hod said respecdng 
the trtie God. Originally, also, they 
"lad JiHned Ihe worship of idols to that 
if tna mie God. See 3 Kings ivii. 26 

-34. 1'hey had, mtnvOTBr 
K) for builiUng their templi 
J—: ^.. u.^ Ijj 

iblic wonhip by sacrifices 
~ all these accounts ihey 

We Jews. This they 
Knew oecaoss God had oommanded it; 
beciuisa they worahqiped in a ^ace 
commanded by Ood ; and baoaose (bey 
did il in aocoidance with tba direetkm 
and teaching of the prophets. VSalea- 
•■ - 1 ^ d* Jem. They have Ihe 
iligion and the true fortn of wot- 
— -,- . and the Mttiialt, who will bring 
salvBIion. is to proceed from them. See 
Luke ii. 30 ; iii. 6, Jesus thus affirms 
that the Jews had the true form of tbe 
worship of God. At the same time be 
was senable how much they had cat 
ntpled it, and on variooa occaaiona re- 
proved them for il. 
23. AfJ aen is. The old dispenaa- 
Dn ia about to paaa away, and the ne* 
le commence. Alremdy there ia ac 
mnch U^l thai God may be worahip- 
ped acceptably in any place. ITVtnM 
mnJk^iptrs. All who truly aikd sin- 
cerely worship God. Tbey who do it 
vrith ihe isart, tmd not merely u* fera. 
T/« (pin'f. Tbs word ipirtl, nsra, 
s opposBd to rilee and eer^uoniea, 
o ihe pomp of external wonbip. 
It refers to the mind, Ihe nwi, the ilaarf. 
They shall worship God with a aineere 
siind ,' with the simple ofTering of gra- 
titude and prayer ; wiih a rfesi™ to glo- 
[iiy him, and without eitemal pony 
~~d Bpiendot. Spirilii^ wenhip n 
It where the htari ia oAfed lo God 
_d where we do not depend OB ezter. 
nal forms ibr acceptance. 1 /a tratk. 
Not through tbe mediua* of ahadowa 
and ivpes ; not by laeana ot aaoifieea 
and bloody o^ringa [ but in the man* 
tier represented or lynfied by all these. 
Heb. ix. 9, S4. In the tnw way ofS- 
reel aoeess to God Ihroo^ Jems ChriM. 
f Far Os FoOw saatM*. ko. J«b4| 

aas so 

fa, when the tnia woiriiippan iball 
worship the Faiuer in spirit * and 
, in truth: for the Father seeLeOi 
•uch to worship him. 

24 God 'uaapirit: and they that 
wonhip him muat worahip Aim in 
spirit and tn truth. 
S>5 The woroan sfuth nato him, I 

aPlL3.S. »eCor.3.1T. 


. .._^ kind of WOT- 

should lake place. Oae is, thai 
taught il, or desired it. He had 
Died the old mode, but he did it 
ue he eoughi lo lead ibe mind to 
-" —en Ay Htm, and to prepare 
for the purer syatem of the 
.ud «DD he BOughl or dtiind 
'ho worahipped 

ihip him 

He 11 

■Dated Ilia ^1 by Jeani Christ. 

ai. (Jod u n qnrit. Thia is the tt- 
etnd reason why inea should worship 
him ID BiHiit and in tTulh. Bt this n 
meant thai God n without a body j that 
be is not mateiial, or eonipaeed of parts ; 
that he is inrisible, in every place, pure 
•ndholy. Thiaiaoiieofthefirstiruths 
of teligioD, and one of the aubUmeBt 
tmtha ever presented to the miitd of 
men. Almost all nations have had 
■ome idea of God as giosa or material, 
but the Bible declares that he is a pure 
qiirit. As he is such a apiril, he dwells 
not in temples made with hauda (Acia 
vii. 48). neither is worshipped with 
men's bands as ihoogh he needed anr 
thing, seeing he nvelh la all life, and 
breath, and all things. Acta ivii. 35. 
A pure, a holy, a apiritual worship, 
therefore, is auch as he seeks — the of- 
laiing of the huI rather than (be for- 
mal otfering of iht body — lhe homage 
of the ieart rather ihao that of (jle lipt. 

2S. lAmH. As the Samaritans ac- 
kDowledged the five books of Mohb, 
M (bey aipeeted also the coming of the 
Messiah. 1 Whidi it mlUd Chrut. 
Theae are probably the words of the 
evBogeliat, as it ia not likely ihat the 
woQwu would eiplain the name on auch 
- Vi« uUtu aU thingi 

Jesva had decided ibeq 

The V 

n tve: 

been satiafied wiih his answer, and said 
Aat tlu Maaaiah would tell them all 
about this question. Probably she wia 
•Kpecting that he would soon appear. 


know that Hem^ie oometli, whiob 
is called Ctiiat ; when he it come, 
he will lell ua all things. 

36 Jeaua sajth unio her, ■ I that 
apeak anio thee am it. 

37 And npoB this came his di»- 
ciples, and marvelled that he talkad 
with ^e woman : yet no man nid. 

26. /— ma he. I am the Hewah 
Thia was the first lime that be openly 

professed it. He did not do it yet to 
the Jews, for it woald have excited en 
Vf and t^poaition. But nothing ooald 
be apprehended m Samaria ; and as Ibe 
woman seemed reluctant lo Ualen to 
him as a prophet, and profeseed her 
willinenaes to listen to tiim aa the Mea. 
aiah, he openly declared that he was 
the ChiisI, that by some means be 
might save her soul. From thia we 

y ieaj . 
the Lord Jes 


along to the aubieci of praclical peralni^ 
religion. 2d. Hia knowledge of ibe 
heart and of the life. He must be, 
therefore, divine. 3d. He gave evi- 
dence here that he was the Mesaiab. 
Thia was the deaign of John in writins 
thia goepel. He lus, therelbre, tecortT 
ed tluB narralive, which was omitted bj 
the other evsngeUsts. 4th. We see »tr 
-duty. It is to seize on all occsKona to 
lead anneta to the beUef that Jesus is 
the Christ, and to make use of all to- 
pics of canversatioii to teach them the 
nature of religion. There never waa a 
model of BO mucb wisdom in (his as the 
Saviour; and We shall be aucce^ul 
only as we diligently sti:dy his cbarao 
ter. Sth. We see the nature of reUgion. 
Il doea not consist merely in aitemal 
forms. It ia pure, spiritual, active — an 
ever-bubbling foumaui. It is the wor- 
ahip of a pure and holy God, where the 
htati ia offered, and where the dewvi 
of an humble aoul are biealhed out Sat 

37. Upoa ikit. At this tinie. 1 ilfsr- 
vtUed. Wondered. They i 

because the Jevia had no in 

with the Samaritans, and they v 
surprised that Jesus was engaged Whh 
berinconversatian. ^Yetnsmnmii. 
No one of the diMsiples. Thcvhula 
respecl and reverence for him «w' ibl 
not dare lo ask biin the reaw ' of bia 
conduct, or even to appear tt a^anit 


Wlwt ntekMM tboo 1 or, Wh^ telk- 
act thou witii hetl 

38 The woman then leA hei wa- 
tei-pot, and went ber way 
city, and saith to the men, 

29 Come, see a nwn, which told 
me all tilings that ever I did : Is not 
Ifaia the Christ t 

30 Then they went out of the 
tin, and came unto him. 

31 In the meatKwhile his disci- 

• Job«3.ia. e.6.38. 

tiia.~'Vfe ibould be confidant that Jo- 
Mii is right, even if we cannot fully 
■ndertund all that be does. 

28. i^ ier teater-ait. Her mind 
WM greatlr excited. She wsj disturbed, 
•nd hastened to the city in great Dgiu- 
bon to nake this known. She Beema 
lo have been convinced that he was the 
M«s)uh, and went itmaediaiely to make 
it known to olbws. — Ourfiral buamesa, 
whenwe have Wild the Saviour, sbould 
be to make bim known also to otheia. 

39. JmuI Ut( the Ciritt t Though 
■1* pnri>ablf believed ii, yet abe pro- 
posed it modestly, lest she shouM ap- 
pear to dictate ia a case which was so 
which dBTnanded ac 
ce on which 

..._ .19 ihe Mes- 

•iali was, that he had told her a!l things 
that she nad done— iierhnM much more 
than ia here recorded. The question 
which she submitted to them was, whe- 
ther this waa not Batig&clory proof that 
he was the Messiah ? 

30. Ties icml out of Ou dly. The 
nen of the uty left it and went to Jesus, 
lo bear and examine for thenDselves. 

31. Frtsytdhim. Aaked bim, 

3S. / Aoee mmt to eat. See ver. 34. 

33. Hatk any man brougia him? kc. 
Tina ia one oilbe many uiBtancea in 
which the disciples were slow to under- 


fiea praysd him, sayinf;, ] 

:. My ! 

pUoB what he said m ver. 32. Hia 
(Teat object — the great design of his life 
-^*as to do Ihe will of GodT He came 
(0 lltat place weary and tldrat^, and at 
As usual time of meals, proiablj an 
•uDsered. Yet an opportonitrofdoin^ 
food presented itself and he forgot hia 
Hwns and hunger, and found comfort 
and^joy in doing ^e will of God — in 
iaam cood -in seeking to save a soul. 

32 But he said unto them, I haTS 
meat to eat that ye koow not of. 

33 Therefore said the disciples 
one to anothei, Hath any man 

brought him aughi to eat 1 

34 Jesus sai& unto them, My' 
meat is to do the- will of htm that 
sent me, and to finish ' his work. 

35 Say not ye, There are yet font 

This one great object absorbed all his 
powers, and made him forget hia wea- 
riness and the warns of nature. The 
absorbed in doing (be 

will of God aa to forget all other thmsi. 
Intent on this, we may rise above Ta- 
tigiie, and hardship, and want, and bear 
sU with pleasure in seeing the w ' * 

may leam, also, that the main buainesa 
of life ia not to avoid &tigue. or to eeeh 
the auppl; of our temporal wants, but 
to do the will of God. The mere gup 
ply of our temporal necesBities, thou^jh 
most men make it an object of their 
chief sohdiude, is a small consideration 
in the aight of him who baa just viewa 
of thegreal design of human Ufe. ^ Tin 
tnUi if him that «»frf me. The will of 
God m regard (0 the salvation of men. 
See John vi. 38. T To finish hii aork. 
To complete or fiilly lo do the work 
which be has commanded in regard to 
tbe salvation of men. It is hit work to 
provide salvation, and his to redeem, 
and bis to apply the salvation lo the 
heart. Jesua came to do it by teaching, 
by hia example, and by dyitigto redeem. 
And he shows us that m shoidd be 
dihgent If As was eo diligent for <»> 
welmre ; if he bore fatigue and want to 
inefit m, then ice ahould be diligeDl 
. .10 in regard to our mm salvation, and 
also in seeking the salvation of olhen. 

.. This ._ _ 

Ye say — that is, i 


f Four mmUit and, &c. ' The 
ion time from sowing the seed to 
arveet, in Judea, was about font 
It. The meaning of this paasan 
jethuaeipresaed: ' ThehiiBban3- 
when be bows hia seed, is ctnn- 

99U Jo: 

Dontht, bbA Aen (ometh harreMl 
behold, I Bay unio you. Lift up jonr 
e jes, and liiok on the fielda, nii;thej 
we whiw already to " harvest. 
"* 36 And he that reapelh reeuvedi 
irages, and g:itheretn fruit ' unto 

ibrs it produces a crop. He ie encau- 
nged in sowing it ; he expects fruit ; 
Idb labor ia lightened by that expecta- 
lion. But it Lb not immeiiiale. It is re- 
note. Bill it is t>ol so with mji preach' 
ii%. The seed haa already sprung up. 
Scarce was il aown before it produced 
ao abundant harvest. The goapel waa 
lu^t preached to a woman, and Bee how 
many of the Samariians come to hear 
il also. There is, therefore, more eti- 
.Xniragement to labor in thia Held than 
(lie bamec has to snw hia grain.' H Lift 
•ip ymr tvei. See the Samaritana 
coming to near the gospel. 1 They are 
■*!(*. Grain, when ripe. lums fron a 
green to a yellow, or light color, indi- 
cating (hat it ia time lo reap il. So here 
were indicationa that the goapel waa 
eSectual, end that the harveal waa to 

larmer has lo raise a crop. Sd, Thai 
the gospel ia Utted to make an mmtdi- 
ate impresBJon on the minds of men. 
We are to expect (hat it will. We are 

we could not expect imtne^te reaulta. 
This wicked and igjnoranl people — little 
likely, apparently, to be enecied — turn- 
ed to God, heard the voice of the Sa- 
" ■ Jes to bin 
of) of rel 

„— - — -- jofilundt. 

the Saviour's own preaching; mnlti- 
ludes were excited, moved, and came 
lo learn the way of life. 4lh. We know 
not how much good may be done by 
converaBtion with even a aingle jndi- 
vid'ial. Thiaconvsraationwiihawoman 
resulted in a deci inlt-eal felt through- 
many of them to God. So a aingle in. 
dividual may often be the means, in the 
hand of God. of leaditie many to the 
croaa of Jesus. 5ih. What evils may 
follow from tugletting to do our duty '. 
How eaavly mighi Jeeua have alleged, if 
be liad been like maiiy of hia pnmaaed 

IN [A. D. 3t 

lifeolennl; that both 'be that aow' 

etli and he ^at teapeUi tuay rejinM 


i- 37 And herein is that BBjinf trwt. 

One ' aoweth, and another rsap- 


! I Cor J.5-(l. 

d Mi.S-ia. 

disciples, that he waa weary, that b« 
was hungry, that it was esteemed im. 
proper to conveme with a woman alone^ 
that she was an abandoned chiraoter, 
and there could be little hope of doing 
her good I How many eonaciencea of 
ministers and Cfarisliaiu would hare 
been saiislied with reasoning like this ! 
Yet JeauB. in spite of his Tstieue and 
thirat. and all the dUfieulties of tlie caae, 
seriously set sboul seeking the conver- 
sion of this woman. And behold wittt 
a glorious reault '. The city was moved. 
and a great harvest was found ready to 
be gathered in! Lrtvi not he weary in 
HwU doing, far in dvt ttatm ve ttafl 
reap if ve faint not- 

36. He that reapelh. He that gathers 
the harvest, or he who soprenchea (hat 
souls are converted to ChrisL 1 Rt- 
eeiveih v^". The laborer in the har- 
vest receives his hire. Jesus aays'ii 
shall be thus with those who labor in 
the ministry : He will not sutler them 
to go unrewarded. See Dan. xH. 3. 
Matt. nx. 2B. Gathtrelh fruit MtOoiifr 
etenud. Converts souls, who ahalt in- 
herit eternal life. The harvest is noi 
temporary, hke gaihering the grain, bm 
ahall reault in eternal lile. ^TUt bolk 
he Ikat taetlh, &.C. It is a united work. 
It mattera little whether we sow (be 
seed, or whether we reap the harveel. 
It ia part of the same work ; and whet < . 
ever part we may do, we should rO' 
joice. God gives the increase, whik 
Paul may plant, and Apollos water. 
The teacher in the Sunday school whi 
sows the seed in early life, shall rejcrioc 
with the minister of the goapel who may 
gather in the harveal, and both jom i« 
giving alt the praise to God. 

37. That saying. That proverb. 
TUs proverb is found in some nf Iht 
Greek writers. — Gratitu. Similar pro- 
verbs were in use among the Jews. 
See laa. Uv. 21. 83; Lev. iitvi. 16; 
Micah vi. 15. 1 OntioiBrtli, fee. One 
man may preach the goapel, and with 
little apparent ef!ect - viodieT, neeaed 

4. D. 3«.J 


38 I sent yon tc reap that whert- 
Mi ye beetowM no labour ; other ■ 
men laboured, and fe are entered 
into their labuuTS. 

3t> And many (f the Suneritans 
□f that city believed on him for the 
s^ng '' of the woman, which tes- 
tified, He told me all that &■ ' 

40 So when the Samaritane 
Dame unto him, they beeought him 
that he would lany with them : and 
lie abode there two days. 

be crowned with e: 
e Beed, long buries 
in abundani Darveel 

Bpfing up in 

38. / lent you. In the 

given you to preach ihe gospel. You 
have not labored or Toiled in preparing 
Ibe way for the grent harveBt which la 
now to be gathsrsd id. 1 Olicr mm 
labortd, (1.) The prophsla, who long 
labored lo prepare the way for the 
coming of the MeBaiah. (2.) The tead 

B b^iered b» 

41 And many n 
cause of his own word ; 

43 And said unto Uie woman. 
Now we heliere, not because of ^y 
saying ; for * we have heard him 
ouisetveB, and know that ^is it in- 
deed the Christ, the Saviour of the 

^ 43 Now after two days he depart 
ed thence, and went into Galilee. 

44 For JesuB himself testified, 
tiiat ' a prophet hath no honour in 
hie owQ country. 

cc.n.B. JlaoAM. 4MaU.I3JT. MU. 
S.4. LaA.H. ■ 

i knowni 


, this or that. And 

> go tonb bearing precioua 
gh w>eepiHf. knowing [hat r- 
e again rejoicing, bearing oi 

Eccl. I 


the Jews who hare 


, . . . .,. And, (4.) The 
. SaviouT himielf, who, by bis personal 
nintstry, tausht the people, and pre- 
pared them for the success which wss 
to attend tbe preaching of th^Bpoetiee. 
Eapedaliy did Jeans lay the foundation 
lor the tanid and eitensive spread of 
the gospel. He saw comparatively Ui- 
'le trail of his ministry. Se confined 
ilia labors to Judea ; and even there he 
was occupied in sowing seed which 
elwHy sprang up after bis death. From 
this we may learn, let. That tbe man 
•rho is crowned with eminent success 
has no cause of hooMting over others, 
■ay more than the man who reap a 
Geld of grain should boatt over the man 
vho Bowed it. The labor of both is 
equally neceeaary; and the labor of 
both would be useless if God did not 

K' 'e the increase. 2d. We should not 
discouraged if we do not meet with 
immediate success. The msnfbaKDiBt, 
is not disheartened because he does not 
- iBe the hurvest n«malia<t(y spring up. 

and ib iIm evening we are not to with- 

6. 3d. Every part oi 

miniatry. and of teaching; men,'isneed- 

iul, and we sboidd rejoice that we are 

Cermitted (o bear any part, however 
limbic, in bringing emners to the 
knowledge of our uird and Saviour, 
JeeuB Christ, 1 Cor, xii. 31—24, 

39 — 12. Many of the Samaritans be- 
lieved. There is seldom an mitance 
of BO remarkable success as ibis. From 

in a place, and with an individual, Uttle 
likely to be attended with such resnlts, 

believed on the testimony of the wo- 
man ; many more came to hear, and 
bebeved because tbey heard him them- 
selves. Ws should never despsir of 
doing good in the most unpromising 
circumstances ; and we should seize 
upon every opportunity lo converse 
with wnnera on the great subject ol 
their Bouls' salvation. 

43, Into GalUce. -Into some of the 
pans of Gahlee, though evidently not 
mlo Nszarsih, but probably direct to- 

^da verse with the preceding may be 
thus explained : ' Jesus went to Galilee, 

ttc. Or, 'Jesus went ti 
Umwi he had said that a 
10 EunoT ii 


W Then, when he nu eomi 
into Galileet the Galileans receivet 
him, haTing seen ' all the thioffi 
thai be did at Jerusalem, at tE< 
feut : fot * they also went unto thi 

46 So Jeans came affain inu 
Cana of Galilee, where fie made 
the water wine. And there was i 
certain ' nobleman, whose son wai 
■ick at Capemaum. 

47 When he heard that Jesus 
It of Judea into Galilee, 

, and besought 

45. Seeeittd 

iDR. Received him 

kindly, or as a 

meagenger of God. 

They had aeen 

his miracl8B, and be- 

46. A certain 
waa of the royal lamily, i 
oiith with Herod Amipea , 
ifae ofiicers of ibo court, whether by 

birlh allied » hf '" 

ibat hia ordinary 

day s jouruey fro: 
then was. 

47. Ht icertt unta hoi. Though high 
io office, yel he lid not refuse to " 
Hrsonoiiy to Jesua to aak hia aid. L__ 
felt aa a lalher ; and behevine, after all 

1, he Ir 

relied U 


a of Chrial, they 


rich and ihe poor, the high and the low, 
must come nerBonally aa humble eup- 
plianlB ; and muat be willing to bear all 
■he reproach that may be caai on them 
Tor thus coming to him. This man 
' ■ ong toh in being willing 

go U 

•uppoeing that Jes 
oy hia being preae 
W»uld CBOU doan. 
aclea of Ji 

the I 

w could heeronly 
t with bis aon. T 
It is probable that 
. . BUS herelofore had 
neon performed only on those who 
were prtieni with him. And this no- 
oieman seema lo have thought that this 
waa nccesaary. One design of Jeaua in 
■TO'kiiig this miracle waa lo show him 
Jmi tbu was not ueceaaary. Hence be . 

IN. [A.D.30 

bim that be wot Id come down, and 
heal his ain : for he was at the pcnnl 
of death. 

48 Then said Jesus unto bim, 
Except ;e aee signs ' and wonders, 
ye will not believe, 
V'4d Tlie nobleman saith unto hiia, 
Sir, come down ere my child die. 

GO Jeaua saith unto him, Go ■ thy 
wajr; thysonliretb. Andtbamaa 
believed the word that Jesus had 
spoken unto him, and he went hia 

si' And I 

he was n 
I HBti.e.ix 

did not go down to Capemaum, btl 
healed him where he was. 

4B. Except ye ite ligrtl, &.C. This 
was spoken not to tlie nobleman only, 
but to Ibc Gahleana generally. Tfae 
Samorilane hod believed without any 
miracle. The Golileane he said were 
lees diapoeed to believe him than even 
"■"""were. And though he had wrouffhl 

idea eneagh to convince them, yel 

tinleSB ihey continually eaw. ihctn, Itiey 
would not believe. 

'.et of the nobleman evinces the deep 
id tender anxiety of a father. So 
tiiouB was he for his son that he was 
>t wilhng that Joaus shotild delay a ' 
oment — tiot even to addreaa the pee- 
e. Il^still aecma lo have supposed 
at Jesia had no power to heal hia sCRi 
:cept he wasprunil with him. 
50. Go Ihn may. This was a kind 
id lender address. It was designed- 
convince him that he could work a 
miracle though not personally present 
t Thy ton liveth. Thy son shall re 
;over. Or he shall be restored to health 
iccording lo thy request. * 7%e miHI 
idimed. The manner in which Jesns 
ipoke il, and the aaaurance he gave, 
convinced the man that he could heal 
lim there aa well as lo go lo Cap^ 

he power of Jesus to convince Ihe 
nind; lo soolbe doubts; lo conRrm 
aiih ; and lo meet our desires. Ht 
>lcasea not always in the mamur Ir 
vhich we ask, but he grsnls us ouf 
nam wish. The foihei wished his aot 
lealed by Jusub gamf ittm lo Cafm 
uam. Steal healed V"^ but not i 



4awD, hie serrants met him, and 

vold him, saying. Thy Bon liyeth. 

69 Then inquired ne of ihem the 
bouT when he began to amand. 
And the; aaid unto him. Yesterday 
at the seventh hour the fever len 

63 So the father knew that ti 

U the same ■ hoar, in the which 

jMue aaid unto him. Thy Hon liveth 

a ra.imSO. i Ac.U.34. 16.8. 


54 This M again the tectnid mii^ 
acle liat Jeeus did, when he wm 
come out of Judea into Galilee. 

AFTER Oils there was a feast ' 
of the Jews ; and Jesus wMit 
up to Jerusalem. 
2 Now there is at Jerusalem, hj,ta- ta. 13. 

bulolten noc in thepn 

, jn wBfch wo uk it. It 

/ ka 1o judge oftETe best wa; of doing i 


S3. 7^ leventk lour. About or 
o'clock in the afternoon. 
. 53. Tht $ame imtr. The very tin 
when Jesus spoka. 't Tht ftwr left 
Un. Il seems that it left him suddenly 
andencirelr ; eomuch so, that the y went 
toinform the fmheT, and to comfort him; 
and also, doubtless to appriie him that 
it was not necessary to ask aid from Je- 
■DB. Fronf this miracle we may learn, 
lu. Thai Jesua had an intimate know- 
ledge of all thin^T'lffrltnew the case 
«r mis Bon'-^^e ^S£nt of his disease 
—where he waa— land thus had power 
lo heal him. Sd. That Jeeus had Al- 
nighiv power. Nothin e el se could have 
heaisd this child. Wor could it be pre- 
tended that he ftit i r by any natural 
means. He was ftCAway from him: 
and the child know not lie source of 
(he power that heeled liim. It could 
not be pretended that there was any 
colluKon or juggiery. The iaiher came 
In deep anxiety. The Berranti saw the 
cure. JesoB was at a distance. And 
all bears the marks of being the simple 
•nergy of God — put forth with equal 
ease to heal whether &r or near. Thus 
he cnn save the sinner. 3d. We see the 
tim'VBltiict of Jesus. Ever reedy lo aid, 
to heal, Ul tu wive, he ma y be called on 
■t all times, and witOSThe called on in 
vwn. f HautV bdirvti. This mira- 
ale removed all^ his double, and he be- 
came a real disf^ple and friend of Jesus. 
1 Hit vhole hoate. His whole family. 
We may learn from this, let. That 
■lekneas. or de ep affliction, is often the 
■MSu olgraaT^^ODd. Here the aick- 
■ew of the son resolted in t) e faith of 

version toHJBHBt. 3d. There is ereat 
beauty and propriety when BJcEneaa 
' ■ piely. For ^l, it is Bent. 

_ _Jd" 

perfect joy and ceaseless praise. 4th. 
There is a pacnUar charm when jnely 
thus comes mto ibe &milieB of the rich, 
and the noble. It is so unuBuaJ ; their 
example and influence go bo far^ it 

atfords opportuniliea of doing so much 
good, that there is no wonder that tlis 
evangeliei selected this instance as one 
of the etiecCB of the power, and preach 
■ ig of the Lord Jaaus Christ. 

1. A f tail. Probably the passover, 
though It is Dol certain. There were 
two other feasts — the Pentecost, and lt>a 
feasl of tabernacles, ac which all the 
males were required to be present ; and 

might have been one of ihero. It is 
' no conserjuence. however, which ol 
lem is intended. 

3. 3He»*mpmor*rt. This might have 
been rendered ihe iheejt-gatr, or tht 
gate through which the sheep were la- 
ken into the city for sacrifice. The 

irginol rendering is, gale; and the 

ird 'marts!' is not in the original; 

r isn ' theep-market' mentioned in I ho 
scriptures, or in any of the Jewish writ 
ings. A theep-goti is repeatedly mon- 
tioned by Nedcmiah (ch. iii. 1.3J. .lii, 
39.), being ihni by which slicepaiid ox. 
en were brough' intoihoriiy. As ihesa 
were brought maii'ly Snt: iscri&oei tin 

Aaplieep ' markel, a pool, which ia 
ealled in tb« Hebrew tongue B«tbes- 
ih, having Gre porches. 

3 In these laj a great mgltitade 
of impotent folk, of bliod, ha't, 

It.ttU. R 

gate was doubtlese near (he temple, and 
near ibe present place which ia shown 
la the pool of Belhesda. ^Apooi. TiuB 
word mar either mean a hiiibII IhIg 

rl in which one can Bwim ; or a pla . 
Rxb; or any waietB collecled lor 
battling, or washing. It refera hers to 
a collection of watera having medicinal 
propeniee. ' Hebran tongue. Hebrew 
language. The linguoge then spoken 
which did not ditiler eseenlially friun the 
andenl Hebrew. ^ Btthada. T' 
boose of mercy. Ii wai so called _._ 
account of its atnmg healing properliea 
•*^heproperty of reBloring hoftllh t" "*"" 
.^L -„j :„£-_ m CI: - £— 

lick and infiri 
word portk commonly meani a ci 
place surrounding a buildiiu in 
people can walk or sit in hot i 
weather. Here it probably meaj 
ibere were live covered places, or 
msnti in which the sick could ri 
from each one of which they cool 

Bt of the moeque of Omai — the 
ite of the temple. This place is 
wn. It is covered, and the de- 
it is by steps. There is at pre- 
yaler m ic, hi " 

. . It that this i 

where the pool of Beihesda was 

time of the Saviour. It is ono hundred 
utd twenty fee) long, forts' broad, and 
eight deep ; and at one end there are 
the nimams of three or four arches 
which may be the ruins of the porches. 
In the time of Sandys ()61]| the spring 

tities ; in the lime of Maundrell [1697) 
Ibe stream did not run. Probably in 
his time, as now, the water which had 
rormerly hitered through the rockawas 
dammed up by the rubbish. 
3. ImpalaU fnOs. Sick people ; or 
iple who were weoit and feeble by 
ong diaeBse. The word means those 
who were fttkU rather ihan those who 
wereaflliciedwitharKlediBease. f HoU. 
Lame, t Wiilund. Those who were 
atHlcled wiih one form of the pnlsy thai 
milkrrrd Or dried fp the psti sflbcled. 
Rea Note. Matt. ii. 34. \ Slomtg ^ 


bN. LA. H. U. 

withered, waiting for the moviaj 
of the water. 

4 For an angel went down at a 
certain season tuio the pool, and 
ttoubM the water : whoauever then 

tilt Teeter. It appears that ibis pool had 
medicinal propeniea only when it was 
agitated, or moved. Il is probable that 
at regular times or uKervals the fbuntaiii 
put lorth an unusual quantity of water, 
or water of peculiar properties, and that 
sb«( these times the people assembled 
in multiludea who were lo be healed. 

4. An angel. It is not affirmed thai 
the angel did this viitUy, or that they 
ta<c bini do il. They judged by the ^- 
/rd, and when they saw the waters 
agitated, (bey concluded that they bad 
heahng properties, and descended to 
them. The Jews and the sacred wri- 
ters were ui the habit of atthbuiing all 
fsTon to the ministry of the angels of 
God. Gen. xii. 15. Heb. i. M. Matt. 
iv. 11; iTiii. 10. Lukeivi.22. ActsviL 
53. Gal. iu. 19. Acts liL H. Thit 
fbumain, it seems, had strong medicinal 
properties. Like man^ iflber waten, 
it had the property of heahng certain 
tiiseaaea that were incurable by any other 
means. Thus the waters of Bath, of 
Saratoga, &.C., are found to be highly 
medicinal, and to heel diseases that sia 
otlierwise incurable. In the case of Iha 
valers of Bellieeda, there does nola|»- 
■ear to have been any thing ninmiloiu; 

dued with strong medicinal properties, 
especially after a periodical ogitatton. 
All ibal is pecuhor about them in the 
record is, thai thia was produced by the 
''an angel. This was in ao- 
Lih the common sentiment 
of the Jews ; the common doctrine gf 
llie Bible ; aiid the belief of ibe sacred 
niters. Nor can it be shown to be 
ibsurd or improbable that such blassingi 
ihould be imparted lo man by (he mui- 
iairy oi an angel. There is no mcM« 
absurdity in the beUef that a pure spirit, 
r hol^ ciiigel, sbonld aid man, thso thai 
physician or parent should ; and AO 
lore absurdity in supposing thai ibe 
'ng properties of sucl 
obe produced by hia i 
ly other blessing qhould uc. n 
:. Who caii prove thai all Im U 
1 blesiingsdo not come to him thi 



Irel • alter Ihe trouWin^ of the wa- 
ter stepped in, was made whole ' 
of whatsoever disease he had. 

5 And a certain man waa there, 
which had an infi mity • thirty and 


w him lie, 

(he medium of utherB — of parenis, _.._ 
teachere, and friends, nnd angiU T And 
who can pioi'e ihai it is uiiworihy the 
Itnetiolciue of angels (o minister to ifao 
wani^ of the poor, and needy, and af- 
flicted, when Man does it, and Jesus 
Christ did it. and God himself does it 
daily I t Went dotoH, Descended to 
Ih? pool, SAtaurtaintaxKt. A' - 
" iriodically. They km 

enefita. Many medicinal springs 
■ic more slTonglf impregnated at some 
aeasonB of the year than others. 12>o«(. 
UedtluiBalen. Stiiri^d, OT(^i(a((d the 
water. There was either an increase, 
or a bubbling and agitation produced by 
IheadmiaBiSnofafreshquinlity. IWIm- 
Mncr IhenJlrMt. This does not mean 
that but one was healed, end that Ihe 
liril one ; but that those who first de- 
scended into the pool were healed. The 
strong medicinal properties of the wa- 
ters soon subsided, and those who could 
not at Gral enter into Ibeni were obliged 
to wait for the return of the agitaiion. 
^Stepped in. Went in. ^ Wan made 
lehale Waa healed. It is not implied 
that this was done nitonlanernuiy, or 
Sj a mirade. The water had such pro- 

Eerties that he was healed, though pro- 
ably gradually. It is not less the gih 
of God to suppose that this fountain re- 
stored gradually, and in accordance with 
what commonly occurs, than to sup- 
pose, what is not affirmed in this text, 
that it waa done at once, and iit a min- 

In regard to this passage, it should be 
rsmsrked, thai the account of the engei 
in Ihe 4rh verse is wanting in many 
manuBcripiB, and has been by many 
•opposed to be apurious. There i« not 
conclusive e\ idence however, (hat il ia 
not a part of the genuine text ; and the 
beit critics auppose thai it should not 
b( rejected. One difficulty has been 
that DA such place ■■ thu qiiing is 

knew that ho had been now a loig- 

time in thai etat, he saith uitto him. 
Wilt ^oD be made whole } 

7 The impolent man answered 
hiot, Sir, 1 have * no man, when 
the water is troubled, to put me 
into the pool ; hut while I am com- iDe.S-ts. Pi.7a.ia. i«,4 

mentioned b^ Joaephus. But John ii 
as good a bialorian, and as wanh]t to 
be believed as Joeephus. Be^des, it ii 
known that many important places and 
events have not been mentioned by the 
Jewieb bistoiian, and it is no evidence 
that there waa no such place as this, 


lis ibuniam was discovered, 
>ng Its healing properties continued tc 
e kDOwn, is nowhere mentioned. All 
ml we know of it, is what ia mention. 
ed herejand conjecture would be use. 


smark, h 

. . _ place ia an evidence of the giteal 
{oodneaa of God. Springs tff fountains 
laving healing propeniea abound OD 
lartb, and nowhere more than in out 
own country. Dieeasee are often heal- 
ed in such places that no human skill 
eould remove. The Jews regarded 
such a provision aa proof of Ihe mercy 
ofGod. Tbeygave this heahng sprina 
the -name of a " house of mercy. 
They regarded it aa under the care of 
— angel. And there is iko place where 
.. jn should be more sensible of the 
goodness of God, or be more disposed 
'- render him praise than when at such 
healing tbuniain. And yet how la- 
mentable IB it, that auch places — wa- 
tering places — should be mere places at 
gaiety, and thoughtlessness; of balls, 
and card-playing, and amusement 1 
How melancholy that amidst the very 
places where tbere ia most evidence of 
the goodness of God, and of the miaeiy 
poor, the sick, (be afflicted, men 
[ forget all the ^oodneaa of their 
Maker, and spend their time in scenes 
of diaaipation, and lolly, and vicel 
- - - - ■ weakness. Wo 

walking, and that it was of very long 
standing. It was doubtless regarded 

va iw am, obc, 1 0B 
maa unpUed that ha eUd 

'iag, Bnother stepped) down berore 

8 Jesna 'saith unto him. Rise, 
take up thy bed, and walk. 

9 And immediately the man vas 
made whole, and took up his bol, 
and walked : and on ' the same day 
was thu sabbath. 

■ Hatl.SA Mu.S.11. Lu.: 

wish it, but in addition to all hia oiher 
tnals. he bad no friend to aid him. 
This \ti in additional circumBtance that 
heightened hie afHiction. 
8. Riie. talie up, &.C. Jesus not onl^ 

restored him to health, but he gav 

dence to those aroond him (hat Ih 
B leal miracle, and Ihal he was really 
healed. For almost forty years, he had 
been ifilicled. He was not even -^''- 

10 walk. JesuB commanded him 

onlv to Daft, bnl to take up his hed also 
and cariy that as proof that he wbb truly 
made whale. In r^ord to this ws may 
obBerve, 1st. That il Was a remarkable 
oommaiid. The pOor man had been 
long intirm, and it does not appeai'lbal 
he expected to be healed except by be- 
ing put into Ihe waters. Yet Jeaua, 
when he gives a commandment can 
give strength to obey it. 2d. It is our 
bo^ess to obey the commands of Je- 
ms, however feeble we feel ouiBelves to 
be. Hia grace will be suificient for us, 
and his burden will be Ughl. 3d. The 
weak and helpless mnner shi^uld put 
forlb hia efibrts in obedience to the 
command of Jeaua. Never was a sin- 
iler more hdplai than was this man. 
If God gave *m strength to do his will, 
■o he can all others ; and the plea that 
we can do nothing, could have been 
Orgfld with far more propriety by this 
man than it can be by any impeniienc 
sinner. 4th. This narrative should not 
be ohued. Il ehould not be euppoaed 
as intended to teach that a sinner should 
delay repentance, as if wsiliwfgr Gad. 
The narrative leaches, and implies no 

irf in regar 

ird t. 

self, a 

o had I 

..3 obUgation to heal himself. 

There ia no reference in the narrative 
to the diffieultiea of a sinner; no uili- 
iiiation that it was intended to refer to 
his condition; and lo make this exam- 
pU an ezcuBo for ddai/, or an argnment 

!1N. t.A.D.30. 

10 The JewB therefore said unto 
him that was cured. It is the sab- 
bath-day ; ■ it ia not lawful for thet 
lo carnr liy bed. 

11 He answered them, He thai 
made me whole, the same said 
onto me. Take up thy bed, and 

(Js.17.Sl.tu:. Matl.iaJAc 

for tntftng, ia to abuse and pervert liic 
Bible. Seldom is more mischief done, 
than by attempting to draw from the 
Bible what il was'noi intended to leach, 
and by an etforl lo make that convey 
spiriluiU instruction which God has not 
declared designed for that purpose 
V Thy btd. Thy couch; or the mat 
tress, or clothes on which he lay. 

S. The MobbaUi. To carry burdens 
on the sabbath was forbidden m the 
Old Testament. Jar. ivii. 21. Neb. 
liu. 15. El. u. 8— ID. Hit be asked 
then why Jesus commanded a man to 
do on the sabbath whal was understood 
lo be a violation of the day, it may be 
answered, Ist. That the Son of man 
was Lord of the Sabbatbr and had a 
right to daclare what siufAf be done, 
and even to dispense with a pmitiga 
law of the Jews. Matt. xii. 8. John 
V. IT. 2d. This was a poor man, and 
Jeaus directed lum to secure his pro- 
perty. 3d. The Jews extended the 
obligation of the sabbath beyond what 
was imended by the sppointmeat. They 
observed it superatiuously, and Jeaos 
took every opportutuiy to 

if thei 

|e day i^ 

[Halt, lii. fr^ll. 
, iv. 5. This me. 
ihod he look to show them what the 
law of God really permitted on that 
day, and that works of neceasity and j 

~Brcy were lawhjl. ( 

10. Not law/at. It was forbidden, 
ey supposed, in Ihe Old TesIamenL 

The Jews were very strenuous in the 
obeervatioQ of the external duties ol 

11. He that made mi wAoU. Tba 
lan reasoned correctly. If Jesus hed 
)wer to work so signal a miracle, he a ri^ht to explain the law. If hs i 

bad conferred so great a fevor on him, 
' ' right to expect obedience, 

' iarn, that the mercy ef j 

a pardom 



13 Then Mked th«^ him, What 
man i i that which said unto diee, 
Take ap thy bed, and walk t 

13 And he that was healed wist 

"not who it was- for Jesus had con- 

• e.l4.e, »Lu.1^. 

alowin^ any signal bleaune, imposcB 
the oblisalion to obey Lim. We Bhould 
yield obedience to him according to 
wEk^ we know to be hia will, w1ial«ver 
nuy be the opinions of men, or what- 
ever interpretatioQ they raay put on tbe 
law or God, Our buaineae ia a simple, 
heaitr, child-like obediance — let the 
men of ihe world say or think of wsva 
they cbtmse. 

12. What man u he, Slc. In this 

the perBerteneii of oien ; of iheir want 
of candor; and of the mannerin which 
they often louk at a subiecL Instead 

If lo 


I of them 

only at 

he was healed, they 

they thought to be _ 

law. They assumed it aa cei 
notJiing could make hia conduc 
and they mfditatcd vengeance, 


m also who bad told fii 

e prope 

when anyone differs from' ilietn'they 
took only at thu differeiKe, but not at 
Ae Tfaiofu for it. One great source of 
iispute among men is that they look 
>nly at the points in which they differ, 
inu are unwilling to listen to tbe rea- 
sotu why others do not believe as they 
da. It la always enough to condemn 
ana in the eyes of a bigot that another 
difiers irom him, and ha looks upon 
Uoi who holds a different opinion, as 
the Jews did at this man, ai teriamlg 
iBrang ; and sucb a bigot looks at the 
reasons why others difler from him just 
■a the Jews did at the reaaon why ibis 
man bore bis bed on the Sabbath — as 
not worth regarding, or bearing, or as 
if they could not possibly be right. 

13. WUt Ml. Knew not, T Had 
ipnMjwI himtilf avay. Wai lost in 
lbs crowd. He had silemly mingled 
with the multiladej and the man bad 
been ao rejoiced at bis cure, that he had 
not even uiquired the «ttai» ol his bene- 

vejred * himself awaj, ' a mnltituda 

being in thai place. 

14> Afterward Jesus findedi him 
in the temple, and said unto hintt 
Behold, thou art made whole: sin* 
1 or. ,;>«i lAi mMllHuJ4 Hat wu. ecd.ll 

or saw him. 1 1n (Ae (e«pl«. The man 

tuary — perhaps a privilege of which be 
bad been lotig deprived. They who 
are healed from sicknesa should seek 
the aanctuary of God and give bim 
thanks for his meicy. There is nothing 
more improper when we are raised up 
from a bed of pain than to forgel God, 
our benefactor, and tieglect to praise 
Him for bis mercies. ^Thou art suuls 
uihale. JesuB calls to his remembrance 
lbs Ska that he was healed, in order 
■hat be might admonish him not to ein 
again. H Sin tw more. By this ex . 
preauoo it was implied that the inhrmiiy 
of this man was caused by aln — per- 
haps by vice in his youth. His crime 
or dissipation, bad brought on bim this 
long and diatiessinK dtltction. Jesus 
shows him ibst be Knew the caiae of 
his uckness, and takes occasion to wan) 
him not to repeat it. No man who in- 
dulges in vice can tell what raay be its 
conaetiuences. It mual always end in 
evil : and not unfrequenlly it results in 
loss of healih, and in lone and painful 
disease. This ia always ibe case with 
intemperance, and all gross pteasurea. 
Sooner or later, sin w31 always resull 



restored from tbe effects of sin, hs 
should learn to avoid the very appeal 
ance of evil He should ahnn the place 
of temptation; he should touch not, 
taste not, handle not, God visita with 
heavier judgment those who have been 
once restored from tbe ways of sin, 
and who return again to it. Tbednmk- 
ard that has been reformed, and that re- 
turns to bis habitsof drinking, becomes 
more beastly ; the man that professes tf> 
have eiperieneedachaiige of heart, and 

14. I 

Fell i 

pollution, and ia seldom restored The 
only way of aaiety in all auch casea ia 
' ri'it fu a»ra — not to be in the way of 
temptation ' not to expose ourselves , 
with bim. ', not to toocb, or ifipiMch that whkk 


^ more, lest a irone thing come 
unto thee. 

15 Ths man departed, and-told 
At Jews that it was Jeaus which 
had made him whole. 

16 And therefore did the Jews 
persecute Jeaus, and Bought to slaj 

came near to working ___ ._.. 

man who has been iniemperale. and ia 
^formed, if be taslea the poison a' " 
Bay eipecl lo nnk deeper ihan 

mto drunkenness and pollution. 
•BfnelliiHg. A more grieiouB disease, 
or the pains of helL " The doom of 
■poeiales is a wore ' ' 
Mghi yeans' lamene 

16. Pcrieailed Jem. They'opposed 
him ; altempted to ruin his chatacter ; 
lo destroy hia populuiiy ; and probably 
held him up b?lbre the people as a vio- 
lator of ihe law of God. Instead of 
making inquiry whether he had not 
pven proof that ha was (he Messitih, 

and oi^t 10 be punished. Thus eve 
bigot and persecutor does in reeard . _ 
(hose whodifierfromihem. 1 Totlay. 
To put (o death. This Ibey sllenipied 
to do because il was ditecled in the law 
of Moses. El. mi. 15 ; xi»t. S. See 
Luke vi. 7, 11: liii. H. Weseeiiere, 
let. How fall of enmity, and how 
bloody, was (he pnrpOBe of the Jewe 
All that Jesus had done was lo reston. 
an infirm man to health — a thin^ which 
lAeSf would have done for their caltls 
,...,__ ..= „. . ... ,^^ jjjg 


lee he had dom 
man. 2a. Men mreoflen eMremelyen- 
Tious because good is done by others, 
especially if it is not done according lo 
the way of their denomination or party. 
3d. Here was an instance of the com- 
mon feelings of a bypotriie. He often 
corers his enmity against the pomer of 
religion by great leal for the form of it. 
He hales and persecutes those who do 
good ; who seek (he conversion of wn- 
ners; who love revivalsof religion, and 
^e spread of the gi^spel, because it is 
not according to some matter of form 
which has fiien established, and on 
which he Biipi<oses the whole safety of 
<hs church to hang. Thi 

UN lA.Di3» 

him, herauie be bad done tbM* 
things on the «abbath-ddT> 

17 ButJesnsanswered tO«iii,MT 
■ Father workelh hitherto, and 1 

18 Therefore the Jews aou^ 
the mora to kill * h. m, beceuae h« 

ore Bgainat than ihoaa fte 

._,, .. ..gaodne»sioconsisimfi™», 
and all piety in the StOMdAi (rf ■ 

17.' Jtfy Fotter. God. f WarttM 
<liEAen«. Worketh unlU mm. or till 
this lims. God has not ceased lowork 
isbbalh. He makes the sun to 

-DW. He has 


not suspended hia operations . 
Sabbath ; and the obligation <o rett on 
the sabbath does not extend io him. He 
ereatui the world in sii days, and ceased 
he work of ereaticni but he has not 
eased to gnem it, and to carry for- 
lord, by his Providence, his e™at 
>lans on the sabbath. 1 And I twk. 
As God does good on that-day ; as ha 
i not bound by the law which requires 
lis creatures to rest on that day ; ao 7 
do Ihe same. The law on thai aubjed 
ipensed with also in my case, 
for the Son of man is Lord of the S*b> 
h,'— In this reply it is implied dial 
wBB equal with God h-om two cir- 
--.nstsncea, Isl. BecauseheealledOod 
his Father. Ver. 18. 2d. Becaiue be 
:laimed the same extmptiaii ihwn latir 
jvhich God did ; ssserting thai the law 
of the sabbath did not bind him or hi> 
Father — thus showing that he bad a 
right to impose and repeal laws in the 
same manner as God. He that hai a 
right to do this, must be God. 

IB. The more to till him. The an- 
wer of Jesus was litted greatly to irri- 
lie them. He did not deny what he 
ad done ; but he added to that what ha 
rell knew would highly ofiend them. 
That he should claim the right i 
peHiing vrith the law, and atfirn 
" -igard to its observance, he was in 
same condition with God, wsseini- 
nently litted to enrage them, and he 
' ibiless' knew that it might eiidange'' 
tile. We may learn from bis im- 

of dw- 


■ot pnW had broken ue s'ltbbalh, 
but said a] bo that God was his Fa- 
ther, laakiDg ' himBelf eqoal with 
~*— 19 Then answered Je«us and 
' Mid onto theiD, Verily, verily, Isaj 
^Ao you, ' The Son can do nothing 
• Zea.ta.T. bUI.}IUD.F)iAB. t ni 

U. I'tnl we De not to keep back Iruth 
beoaose ii will imtele \aA enitigs 
Ben. The fault U DOl iu the truth, bul 
3d. Thai when one 

will be enraged 
I Had bnAat Ua loUoU, They __ 
ftttd he had broken it. 1 Makinghi 
»^ftqual wilk Oed. This ahor - ' 
io the view of the Jews, the name son 
•f God, or calling God his Father, im- 
plied equJiiy with God. The Jewi 

■e of their o' 

1 Language, ' 

id aa Jesua 

Tery natural and jual one. He'not only 
tmid that God waa hi» Father, but he 
nid that be had the same right lo work 
on the Babbalb that God h(3 ; that by 
±1 aame authority, snd in the same 
nunneTt he could cUapenaa witli the 
obligation of the day. They had now 
Im preiencea for seeking to kill him ; 
one tor making bimaelf equal with God. 
irhich tiler conaidered blaaphemy ; and 
the otlier lor violating tlie sabbaih. For 
•■cb of these the Uw denounced death. 
Num. XV. 3S. Lev. niv. 11—14. 

19. TU Sm cemda aaUiiig o/ Aim- 
»dif, Jsiua having aniled Ike ataU of 
hia aolhorit)', proceeds here to ahow ita 
■Mm and nature, and tapretwioitiem 
that what he had aaid was trite. The 
fim eiplanalion which he gives a in 
ihaae words— 7^( Son— whom he had 
insiimphadly affirmed to be equal with 
Ood— (hdntHbofl^laiusj/: That is, 
nothing wilhoat Ue appoinlmsnc of the 
FaAsr; noduagcontrarriotheFathei, 
as he immediately explains it. When 
K ia said that Iw cah da nalhing of 

anion inhMtinr between the Father 
*nd the Son, that he 

la nalurs of ihii union. 

of himaelr, vnt what he leeth the 
Father do : for wtiat thiun aoerei 
he doeth, diese also doetR the Son 

20 For ' the Father loreth tlw 
Son, and sheweth him all thiain 
that himaelf doeth : and be wul 
( MatU-ir C3X. nx. 

that ba can do notlung which has not 

the concuitence of the Father, and 
which he does not coannand. In all 
tilings he must, Groni the necessity of 
itia nature, act in accordajice with the 
nature and will of God. Such ia tho 
intimacy of the union, that ihe fact thai 
ii doea any tiling IB proof that it is by 
the concurring agency of God. Tliera 

n being and in 

n the 

the Father. Comp. John i. 30 ; ivii. 31. 
t Wlat ki leeA lAe Father do. In tlis 
works of [creation and Providence ; in 
makbig laws, and in the guveniment of 

impliea that the Son sees him act, as 
we see our fellow-tnen act; and that 
he has a knowledge of him, therefore, 
which no mere mortal could poasesa. 
1 What tkijm timer. In the works 
of creation. Providence, and in the eo- 
vernment of the worlds. The word ia 
without hioit— AU. that the Father doea, 
the Son hkewise does. This ia aa high 
an assertion as poaaible of his being 
efwii with God. If one does aU that 
another doea or can do, tlien there ia 
proof of equality. IflheSondoeaalllhat 
the Father does, then like him, he must 
be Almighty, Omniscieni, AU-proseo:, 
and in&iite in every perfection ; or in 
other worda, he must be God. If hs 
had tia power, then he had authority, 
also, to do on tlie sabbath-duy wluU 
(Sod did. 

SO. Tit Father loeeUi Ihe Son. Thil 
julhoriiy ha traces to the love which 
the Father has for him— iliat pocuHar, 
inefiable, infiniiG love, which Uod has 
for his only-begotten Son, teehly and 
dimly illuatrated by the love which an 
earthly parent has for an only child. 
1 Sh^BCth him. Makes him acquainted 
with. Conceals nolhins from him 
From w. and from aposue*, iiravbMk 

riiew hlfi grealt&T wofke dun th«M, 
Ihat ye may marrel. 

31 For as the Father laiaeth up 
the dead, and quickeneth iAeitt ,- 
even ' BO the Son quiofcenetb whom 
he will. 

Foi the Fadiei iudmh i 
itted * Sa jad, 

the Sop : 

mau, but hath 

ment unto the 

33 That all 

Mill philosoptietB, no small part of lh( 
doioge of (ioi ue concealed. Froir 
Ihe Sm no^ng IB. And aa God ahowi 
him all Ihal he does, he - ■- 

d of OniJ 

. For 10 

offlWlhB works of^God. ^ Wm ... 
Itn. ' Will appoint and diiecl him to 
da greater \iorks thnn these.' t Grtalei 
mrjkt than tktie. Than healing the 
impolent man, and commanding hioi to 
cnrry his bod on the sabbath-dar. The 

Sealer works to which he Tefers are 
Dse which he proceeds to specify. He 


wonder, oi 

two instances by the prophet Elijah, ir 
the case of tho son or the widow of Sa- 
repta, (I Kings ivii. 22); and by iht 
prophet Elisha in the case of the Shu- 

lews did notiloubt that God had power 
to raise the dead. Jesus hero eipresely 
■iSrmsit, and says thai he has the same 
power, 1 QKukentUi (ian. Gives 
them life. This is the sense of [he 
word aaickenelk throughout the Bible. 
1£h»»>. In the same manner. By 
the same authoriiy and power. The 
power of raising the dead must be one 
of Ihe highest aitribules of the divinity. 
As Jesue affirms that he has the power 
n ike lime manner as the Father, so it 
follows that he must be eoual wi:h God. 
* JTle Sm yvicketteth. tfives hfe to. 
This may either refer to his raising the 
dead from ihtir graves, or giving epirii- 
nal life to those who are dead in tres- 
passes and sine. The former he did in 
'' ' " d the widow' 

ahoald hononi 
tbej honour the 
Father. He that honoureth not the 
»Mall.I1.37. Ac.lTJl. XCor.S.ia 

depended on his will whether Lazama 
and the widow's aon should come to 
hfe. So i[ depends on his will whether 
siiinera shall live. He has power to 
renew ihem, and the renewing <^ the 
heart is as much the result of Ids w^ 
as the raixing of the dead, 

2% Judgeti na mts. Jesus is in 
these verses showiag his tftuHty mth 
God. He affirmed (ver. 17.), thu he 
had the same power over the sabbath 
that his Father had; in ver. 19, that he 
did the same things as (he Father ; in 
parucularly that he had the 
ver to raise the dead. He now 
God has gi'en him the aatfao- 
i rity Koindge men. The Father prononn* 
ces judgment on no one. Thisoflicehe 
has committed to the Son. The jpoww 
of judging the world implies ability lo 
search the heart, and OmniscieDce to 
understand the motives of all acliona. 
This is a work which none but a diTin* 
being can do, and it shows, therefore, 
that the Son ie equal to the Father, 
f Hii\ CMKinttled, tLc. Hath appointsd 
him to be the judge of the world. In 
the previouB verae he had said that be 
had power la raitt tie dead ; he her« 
adds that it will be his also to judwa 
■ -^e'Kt 


,1 Nain. Joh 


»ii ]4, 15. The latter he did 
case of 1^1 those who were converted 
by h^B po«-er, and atill does it m any 
, case of conversion, » IFiom jle »iH. 
It was in the power of Jcsua to raise up 
•nrofthadsadaawellas Luarai. It 

3V. Act 

23, T%at all ■ 

vu. 31. 

raised. SeeAi 
tiktmld lion, 


to. We honor o»> 

o him in our hesita. 

and words, and actions, the praiss oM 

honor God when 

worship him aright. We honor tt> 

Son when we este 

em him (o be as hi 

IS ; when we have 

rigbt view's and foal 

mga towards him 

As he is declared 

to he God (John 

1.), aBhehereean 

that he has power 

and authoHtv equd 
lonor him when wa 

vidth God, 80 we 

remud him as such. The primiiiie 
CbriBtiana are described b^ Puny, in a 
letter to the emperor Trajan, as meal. 





we regard him as possened of wisdom, 

joodnem, powar, eternil]- "" 

— equ»l with God. ' j 

Since ihs Son i> to I 
Ibe Fnher, it foHoi 
Mual with the Filber. To honor U 
.Hulrr mutt denote rdigwai homagi 
or the rendering of that honor which _ 
doe to Gad ; bo to honor the Son must 
•Jao denote rdi/ruui homage. If o 
Savionr here did not intend to tea 
that he ought to be aoriliipptd., and 
be esteemed as tqual wilQ God, 
would be difficult to leach it bv >dt 
bogoage which we could uw. i He 
Oat Aaiuirtth nal Ou Sm. He that does 

equal ol 

1 Honm'eli not the Fa 

lot worship and obey the 
Father — ihe litsi person of the TRnif 
Ibat is. does Dot worship Ocd. t 
mar imagine he woishipB God, hi 
tiure it no God but the God subsisting 
M the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoal. 
He thai •rithholds proper homage from 
«i,e, withhold* it from all. He that 
Aonld refuse to honor tht Father, coutd 
not be said to honor God; and 
like manner, he that honoreth n 
Son, honoreth not (he Father. This 
appears further from the following con- 
siderations i Isl. The Father wilG that 
the Son sbonld be honored. He that 
nliisea to do i(, disobeys the Father. 
3d. The; are equal. He thai denies 
the one, denies also the other. 3d. The 
*ame feelinz thai leads ua to honor the 
FmtitT, will also lead us to honor the 
Son, for he is " the brightness of his 
flory, and the eipress image of his per- 
son.'' Heb. i. 3. 4lh. The evidence 
«f the etistence of die Son is (he same 
H that of the Father. He haa (he 
■sine wiadom, goodoeas, omnip-eaence, 

' And from these vema we may leam, 
IsL That Iboae who do not render pro- 
per homage lo Jasns Chiist, do not 
worship (he true Ood, 3d. There is 
no snch God as the infidel profetsn to 
Mlieve in. There can ha hut -Hit 'Jod, 

w,L. ir,— 2' 

lierMh on him tiist sent me, hath 
erarlasting life, and shall not oom« 
into condMnnation ; but is pwaed * 
from dpBth unto life. 

i 1 )bo.X14. 

and if the God of ihe Bible be the trab 
God, then all other gode are blae godt> 
and can[io( save. 3d. Those who with- 
hold proper homage from Jesos Christ, 
who do not honor him iten as thejr 
honor the Father, cannot be ChriaUans. 
4tli. One evidence of piety is when ws 
are willing >o render proper praise and 
homage lo Jeaoa Christ — lo love him, 
and serve, ^nd obey him, with ait out 
hearts. Stb. Ai a mailer of /act, it may 
be added, that ihey who do not honor 
the Son, do not worship God at all. 
The inlidel haa no form of worship. 
He has no place of aecrei piayer: no 
temple of worsliip; do bimly altar. 
Who ever vet beard of an iniidel (hat 

E rayed I Where do such tnwi build 
ouses of worship T Where do they 
meet to praise God f Nowhere. As 
certainly aa we hear the name in^fM, 
we are certaiil at once that ws hear (be 
name of a man who has no form of re 
ligion in his family; who never praya 
in secret ; and who will do nolhing lo 
maintain the public worship of God 
Account for it ss men may, it is a £ut 
that no one can dispute, (hH( it ia only 
they who do honor to (he Liml Jesua 
that have any form of the worship of 
" - ' that honor him ; ofi^ thnr 

Ihtir love for 
tieif honor him. 

24. H( that htaretk 

hear, in this place evid 
the outwartl act ' of hi 

lo make its primer impression on (he 
mind; to obey. The word Aeor ia ofien 
used in this sense. Matt. xi. ]5. Ji^ 
viii. 47. Ac(s iii. 23, Many persons 
outwardly hear the gospel, who neithei 
understand nor obey it. 1 Jkfy wand. 
My doctrine, my teaching. All thai 
Jesus tau^t about jbmte^, as well M 
•bou( the Father. 1 On Ami iiat nal 
■u. On the Fatber, who, in the plan 
•f redemption, is nprssented aa «md- 
ng hia Son to save men. See John 
Ji. 17. Faith in God who sent hia Son, 
is hers represented as bung ooDiiactM 
' (life. Batuimiaab* 

Sa Verily, verily, I say nnto you, 

^e bom 18 comins, and now is, 

when the dead * shau- hqar the voice 

aver ,59. Ep.S.J. 

(to fnith in *<<!" who lent his Son, mlh- 
ont Mlh itso in bim who is itnt. The 
behef of ofu of ihe tnie docrnnes of re- 
Efion is connccled with, and will lead 
10, the belief of all. ^ Hath everbulBig 
I^e. The stnu of man by nature is 
leptesenUd us death in hId. Eph. ii. 1. 
Religion is Ihe opponte of this, or ia 
life. The dead resard not anf thing. 

They are nnaflected by the ci 

or the Son of God ; uid they that 

hear shall lire. 

^3G For as the Father hath life in 

the life (John i. 4) ; and u he lua d 
toayi eiiited. and is the Bource oT dJ 
hfe, he is called the eternal life, i 
John Y. 20. 

25. The hour. The time. TJiei» 
fn^. Under Ihe preaching of the go^ 
pet, sa well ss in the resuTrectioQ ofthe 

world, they 


moved with the things of religion. 
They krar not the voice of God ; they 
■ee not hia lovelinesa ; they ckto not 
for hia threateninga. Bnl rehgion ia 
life. The Chriatian Iihj with God, 
and feela and acta as if there waa a 
God. Religion, and ite blessings, here 
and hereafler, are one and the aame. 
The happineaa oi heaTetf is living tmto 
God — being aetteible o( hia presence, 
and glory, and power, end rejoicing in 
that. There shall be no more deati, 
toere. Rev. oi. 4. This li/e, or this 
Helicon, whether on earth or m heaven, 
is Iho same — the same joya extended 
Ind expand^ for ever. Hence, when 
a man is convened, it is said that he 
tat everiesling life ; not merely tAoII 
iave, but ia already in peuetiiim oi, 
that life or hapinneaa wtiich ahall be 
everlasting. It ia life begun, expand- 
ing, ripening for the ekiea. He haa 
already entered on the inheritance -~ 
that inheritance which ia everiaating. 
f Shan itet come into amdemnation. He 
was by naluro under condemnation. 
See John iit. 18. Here it ia dedared 
that he shall not return to that sute, or 
he vrill not be again condemned. This 
promise is sure ; it is made by the Son 
of Gal ; and there is no one that can 

Stucit theni out of his hand. John i. 
i. T But u patted from death nnte 
hfe. Has palled aver from b stale of 
spiritual death to the life of the Chris- 
ban. The word tranalated u paeied, 
would be better eipreased bj ha* pati- 
td. It impUes that 

I comDsll 

1M« if. It is L_ 

Cce. Sinners were converted under 
ministry, and brought to sniritaal 
life. 1 The drad. Bither the dead iD 
sins, or those that are in their graves. 
The worda of the Saviour will apply (a 
either. Language, in the scripturea, is 
often so useaas to describe two (tn^st 
events. Thus the dealtuclian of Jeru- 
salem and the end of the world are de- 
scribed by Jeaua in the same langusge. 
Matt. XJQV., ixv. The return of flie 
Jews from Babylon, and the coming ol 
the Messiah, and the spread of his goa- 

Rl, are described in the eame language 
laaiah. IsB. il. — Ixi. Comp. Notes 
oil Isa. viL 14. The renewal of the 
heart, and the raising ofthe dead at the 
judgment, are here also described in 
aimUar language — because they ao fat 
resemble each other, that the aaine Ibd 
guage will apply to both. * Tie voiri 
^theSmof God. The voice is that bj 
which we give command. Jesus raised 
up the dead by his command, or by his . 
authority. When he did it he spoke, 
or commanded it to be done. Mark T. 
«1 1 "He took the damsel by the hand, 
and laid, Talitha-cumi." Luke vii. 14 i 
' ' And ho came and touched the biei — 
and mill, Young roan, I say unto thee, 
arise." John li. 43 ; " He criad with 
a loud voice, .Lazarus, come forth." 
So it is b}' his commaad thsl ihoae who 
are dead m sins are quickened, or mode 
■Uve. Ter. 21. And so at the dav sf 
judgment the dead will be raisod bf 
his command or voice, though there n 
no reason to think that his voice will bo 
audibly heard. Ver. 38. 1 ShaU lim 
ShaU be restored to life. 

26. At the Father hath life. God is 
the aaurce of all life. He is tbenoe 
called the lieiiig God, in oppiHitian to 
idols, which have no lib. Avia Jiv. IS. 


•terusung lo eYerlastir 
He n unchanaeBbly thi 
IT. Il cannot be BBid lu 
itttnt , because ihai is u 
beiae C3an originaw or 
Bm he is nal denendei 
br li/e. 

** We preach niilo jtm (hat ye shouti) 
tarn from (heae vsmiies (idolaj wila Ur 
UviiuGed." J<wh.iu.lO. ] Sam.^im 
•6. Jer. I. 10. 8es also Ibb. xl. IB— 31. 
f /■ Idnudf, This meana, ihal life in 
God, or exialence, is not derived from 
■DT other being. Our life is derived 
Irom Gid. Gsn. it, 7i God " bree ' 
into hia noalhls the breath of Ufe, 

IDUI became a living soul." — i. e.i 

lug' being. All oilwr creatures derive 
this liTo fram him. Pa. tav. 20, 29 :— 
" Thou uindesl forth thy spirit, Ihey 
are created ; thou takeat away their 
. breath, they die, and relum to their 
dust." But God is undarivad. He al- 
wavs existsd as he is. Ps. ic. 2 : " From 
eYerlaatirui thou^arl God." 
,e. Jamee L 
la is «(/-™- 
aurditv. No 
ate himself. 
in any other 

I ; and of course, also, 
a being can take away hia happineii. 
I. L — .'^ kinael/ infinite sotircea of 
9B ; and no other being, no 

jn bis universe, t^an destroy tbat 

happineaa. f So, In a manner like his. 
It oorreapoDda to ihefiiat "as," imply 
iru: that one is the same bb the other . 
lin in the one ta the aona, and possess, 
•d in the aune maimer, as in the other. 
f RaiM ke givm. This shows that the 
power or aalhority here spoken of wee 
fnMB, or committed to the Lard Jesus. 
Thia Bvidentlj' doea not refer to the 
manner in which the second pereon of 
the Trinity eiiats; for lbs power and 
■alhority of which Christ here speaks 
■■ that which be eiercisea as Mediator. 
. It is the power of ratling (he dead, and 

J'adpng the world. In regard to hii 
ivmt nattire, it is not affirmed here 
that it is in any manner derived. Nor 
does the lact that God is aaid lo have 
f iut t him thia power prore thai he was 
nferior in his nature, or that his exiat- 
•ncflwBs derived. For, lat. It haa refer- 
ence merelr ta a^i«. As Medialor. be 
may be said to have been appointed by 
tbo Father. Sd. Appwntment to office 
iooa DM prove that tlie one who is ap- 

97 And hsui /iTen Lim authority 
lo execute judgment bIbo, becauM 
e is the Son of man. 

pointed, is inferior in nature to him who 
appoints him. A son may be appointed 
lo a psrticular work by a parent, and 
yet, in regard to talents and every othel 
qualification, may be equal or auperioi 
to the father. He austains the rcUtioi 
of a son, and in this relation there ia u 
official inferiority. General Washing 


a nattire and U 

him. He simply derived auUaril;/ frow 
them to do what he was otherwise fully 
(Me lo do. So the Son, at Medialor, 
is subject to the Father ; yet (hieprovM 
nolhine about hit tufare. 1 To hm 
li/e. That is, the right or authoritv of 
imparting lite lo others, whether f-' 


if. There is mucli that is remark- 

N Gvd, t{3 lias the control of it, 
»ui e j'dee it as he will. The 
lets t.' .'aposlles are never repre 
d ar living such power in them 
selves. Tbey were dependent ; (hej 
performed miracles in the name of God, 
and of JeauB Chriat. Acts iii. 6. iv. 30 ; 
16. But JesiiB did it by his own 
le, authority, and power. He had 
to speak and it was done. Mark v. 
Luke vii. 14. John jd. 13. This 
iderful commieeion be bore from 
I to raise up the dead ss he pleased, 
onvert sinners when and where he 
sed. and finally to raiae up oU tha 
dead, and pronounce on them an eter- 
nal doom according lo the deeds doiw 
in the body. None could do this but 
he who had the power of creation, 
equal In power 10 the father ; and the 
power of^searching aZI hearts, equal ID 
- nniaeience to G<^. 

27. Hath giten him auUvrity. Hath 
appointed him to do this. Haa made 
him to be judge of all. This is repre- 
sented as being the appoinlment of tha 
Father. ActsiviLai. . The word a»- 
lAoHly. here, (commonly rendered pom- 
«■), implies all that ia neceBau7 to ez- 
ute jiulAment ; all the phymcal power 
raise the dead, and to investigste tha 
lions and thoughts of the life ; and aL 
9 tioral rigU or authority to sit in 
judgment OD the cinatu.'estifGncI tai 

SB Marrelnolstdlh: forthehour 
IB coining, in the which all tiiat 
in the gravee shall hear his voio 


judge. He hiiB nppoinlment to do 
tiutice, and to >ee lluil the universe 
■ufierB no wrong, etltier by the eacspe 
rt tbe guilty, or by the punishment of 
the innocent. T Bahuii lie ii the Son 
^Box. The phr«se,^0nD/ nan. here, 
Eeems to be used in ihe sense of " be- 
cause he is a man," or because tie has 
human nature. The term is one which 
Jeeuf often givee to himself, to show 

man. See Note, Wt. viii. 19, SO. It 
Lb remaiked, here, that the word son 
has not the sr^cle before it in theorigi- 
nal. > Because he is a San of msn' — 
L e., because he is a man. It would 
1, Etoiji (his, thai there is a propriety 

that o 

(ainly know. 1 
it is proper that 

e should judge i 
^'isl? 1 

who has eipenenc- 

our nature, maybe supposed by those 
tcho are jiidgtd to be belter qualified 
than one m a different nslure. 2d. Be- 
caose it is to decide between man and 
Ood, and it is proper that oar feelings, 
and nature, and views, should be repre- 
sented in the Judge, es well as those of 
God. 3d. Becatise Jesus has all the 
feelings of compassion we could ask ; 
ill the love we could desire in a judge : 
because he has ihoicn his disposition to 
defend us bv giving his life, and it can 
never be alleged by those who are con- 
demned that their judge was a distant, 
Gotd, and unfriendly being. Some have 
supposed that the eipression, pSehi of 
■an, here, means the same aaMetiah 
(see Dap. vii. 13, 14) ; and that the 
meaning is, that God hath made him 
judge because he was the Messiah. 
Some of the ancient versions and fa- 
thers connected this with the following 
TSise, thus : ' Marvel not because I am 
> man, or because this great work is 
committed to a man apparently in hum- 
ble life. You shall see greater things 
tlian these.' Thus the Syriac version 
reads it: and Chiysostom, Thooph}'- 
bcl, and some others among the fa- 

4. [A. D SO. 

29 And Bhall come fbrtfi; ftey" 

that hare done gaad,'unto the ie8ii> 

rection of life ; and they tliat have 

■ Da.iss. 

88. Mama net. Do not wtMtder ot 
be astoniBhed at llua. 1 The homr ts 
eaming. The lane is approediisg, m 
vrill be. ^Aathat art in tie gravf. 
All the dead, of every age bj ' ' 

view, yel God » . . 
gather their remains and raise them np 
to life. The phrase, aU Ihal are in du 
graeei, does not prove that the same 
particles of matter shall be raised np ; 
but it is equivalent to saying oil tile dead. 
8ee Notes on 1 Cor. XV. 35-^8. ^SkalL 
hear hit take. He will restore them to 
life, and command them to appear be 
fore him: This is a most sublime de 
scription ; and this will be a wonderfnl 
display of slmighty power. None bni 
God can lee ^fthe dead ; norw but he 
could remould thdr framea; aitd none 
else could command Ihem to return to 

29, Shall eomt forth. Shall come out 

of their graves. This was the language 

which he used when he nused up Laia- 

rus. John li. 43, 44. ^ They that hnt 

done good. That is, they who are 

--^hteous: or they wlio have, by thei/ 

id works, thovin that they vrere the 

indsofChrist. See Matt. uv. 34— 36. 

temrrection i/life. Religion [a often 

called life, and everlasting life. See 

Note, ver. 34. In the resurrection, the 

righteous shall be raised up to the foil 

rymeot and perpetual security of that 
It is also called the resurrection 
of Ufe, because there shall be no mora 
dtaih. Rev. iii. 4. The enjoyment 
of God himself and of his works ; of the 
society of the angels and of the re- 
deemed ; and a freedom from sickneM, 

tTTeefien ^ dsmnaiian. 

tnotuM means the senu 

one by a iudge—iudgmf 

demnatton. The word, as wa u 

applies oniytothe judgment pronoi 

by God on the wickoii. But tUa 

,6. \Tiii, 
The ward 

nee paaed 


e evil, anto die 


30 I * can of miaa own self do 
nothing : as I hear I judge : and 
my judgment ia just, bMause I 

■ Man,as.M. » nr.ID. 

its meuiiag always in the Bible. Here 
it hsa, however, tbat meaning. Those 
who have done evil ahali be raided up 
la be amdtmiiid or darnntd. Thia shall 
be the object tn raisiog them Dp ; (his 
the sole design. It is elsewhere eaid 
thai they Bhall then be condemned to 
BTerlaating putushmenl (Halt uv. 46), 
and thai they ^ all be punished with 
evBrlasluig deslructiin. 2 Thess. L S, 
9. Andit is said of the unjust that ther 
are reserved unto the dny of judgment 
lo be punished. 2 Peter ii. 9. That 
this refers to the future judgmeoti to 
the resurrecuon then, and not to aaj 
thing thai takes pla^ in this Ufe^ iB 
dear irom the foUowing con^erations : 
1st, Jesus had juat spoken of what would 
be done in thia liie— of the power of the 
gospel Ver. 25. He adds here that 
something still more wonderful — some- 
thing bc^tid thia-'should take place. 

AU that are m the „ 

voice. 3d. He speaks of those who 

in Iheir graves, ^denlly referring 

o ibose who are 

deceased. 3d. Thelangi__„ 

of (he rTgUeaiw cannot tM applied to any 
thing in this life. When God converts 
men, it is not becauas tliey havt been 
go«d' 4th. Nor is the language em- 

Cloycd of the evil ^phcable to any thing 
ere. Id what condition among men 
can it be Said, with any appearance of 
Dense, that they are brought forth from 
their graves to ihs resurrection of dam- 
nation f — The doctrine of those Univer- 
nhsis who hold that all men will ba 
■aved immediately U death, cannot be 
true. Thia passage proves that at the 
day of judgment the wicked will be 
condemned. Let it be added, that if 
Ken condemned, they will be lost for 
Bver. Thus [Mstt. xiv. 4S), it is said 
to be eBsrlaslMg punishment. 2TheBs. 
I 8, 9, it is call^ everbuliitg destruc- 
tion. There is no account of redemp- 
licn in bell— no Saviour, do Holy Spinl, 
■0 oSer of awrcy there- 

31 ir 1 bear witness ' of myBel^ 

y witness is not true. 

e Pa«I.T.e. Mitl.Sa.3B. cU4. 0.38. VPi 

30. Of mine <n™ sdf. See ver. 19 
The Messiah, the Mediator, does uu 
thing wiiboul the concurrerice and ih* 
authority of God. Snch is the natal* 
of the union subsiBting between them, 
that he does nothing ittdependaUly of 
God. Whatever he does, he does ac- 
cording lo the will of God. 7 Ai Hear 
j judge. To hear, expresses the condi- 
%anof one who is commissioned, or in- 
structed. Thus (John viii. 26); "I 
speak to the world those thii^ which 
I have heard of him." viii. 28 : " Aa 
the Fadier hath taught me, I »peak 
those things." Jesus here representa 
himself as commissioned, taught, or 
sent (rf God. When he says, ■' aa T 
Aatr," he relers lo those things whtcb 
the Father had ihjraed him. Ver. 20. 
Thai is, he came to commuiiicBte the 
will of God,- to show lo man what God 
wished man to kntiw. ^ I judge. I 
determine, or decide. This wss true 
respecting the institutions and doctrines 
of rehgion. and it will be true respecting 
the sentence he will pass on all mankmd 
at the day of judgment. Ha will dedde 
on dieir destiny according to what the 
Father wills and wishes — that ia, ac- 
cordine to iiisuce. ' BMoase I eedr, 
Slc. This does not imply that hia own 

edgment would be wrong if he sought 
I own wilL but that he bad uDjmnUa 
ends, no selnsh views, no improper biaa. 
He came not lo aggrandize mmself, oi 

be according to truth. See Luke 

42, where he gave a memorable m- 
stance, in the agony of the garden, of % 
his submission to his Father's will. 

31. Iflbtar ailueu ef myli^. If 1 
have no other evidence tban m^ owi 
leBtimony about myself 1 My tmltit**. 
My testimony { my evidence ) ihe proof 
would not b« deciaive. IJi tut true. 
The wftd IriH, here, means wonliy ot 
belief, or established by suitable evi 
deuce. See Matt, ziii, 16 i " We k-vni 
that thoa ut lrm4,"-4. o., wottfar ol 

39 Then UBiioiKer*thiitbeaTeth 
tritnees of me ; aBd I know that the 
tritnesB which be witneaaeth of me 

33 Ye Bent unto . 

34 But 1 receive 

not adznir b man lo testify In bis own 
cue. The law of Mosee required (im 
witnesBes. Deul, uli. 6. Though wh«l 
Jemu Baid was true [ch, liii. 13, 17), ye^ 
he admilled it was not roflicient ibbIi- 
mouyiiianflo clajmlheir belief. They 
fand a right lo expect thai his stalemcut 
would be confirmed by other evidence 
that he come from God. This evidence 
he gave m the miracleB which he 
wrought as proof that God had sent liim. 

32. Tkett u another. Thai ia, God. 
See ver. 36. 

33. Te imt tinlo John. See ch, i. 19. 
IHi bare viiinai, &.c. See ch. i. 26, 
SS, 36. This testimony of John ought 
to have aalisiied Ibem. John was an 
Eminent man ; many of the PhariBees 
beLcved on bun ; he wbb candid, un- 
ambitious, sincere, and his evidence was 
unpaitia! and satistactory. On this Je- 
aus might have rested the proof *liat he 
was the Meesiah, but he was willing 
also to adduce evidence of a higher 

31, / rrceate not latanonv frtm oua. 
I do not depend for proof of my Messi- 
ahehm, ontheiestimonyofmen ; nordo 
1 pride myself on the commendations or 
flattery of men. 1 flaf thae thinsi, &c. 
• This leetimony of Jobo I adduce that 

Su might be convinced. Il was evi- 
nce of your own seeking. It wsi 
clear, fiill, exphcit. You >en( to make 
inquiry, and he gave you a candid and 
■atistactory answer. Had you believed 
that, you would have heheved in Ibe 
HRSsudi, and been saved.' — Men are of- 
ten dissatisfied with the very evidence 
of the truth of reUgion which they 
■ought, and on which they professed 
themselves withijg lo rely. 

35. He BOS. It is probable that John 


Hence his public minislry had 

and our Saviour says he mu such a ligbti 

V L^ht. The word hi the original pnt- 

IN. lA. D. W 

from man: bat* AeM^nga I tmy 
that ye might be saved. 

35 He was a buming and a shirt- 
ing Ught: and ye weie witling'fot 
a season to rejoitn in Ma light, 

36 But I have graaler witueva 
than that of John ; for the works ■ 

ccaiUI. R(t,3.3- tfHattJI.SS. Main 

ao. uat Acssa. _ 

perly meann a lamp, and is not the same 
word which io JoEui i. i, 5, is tranalated 
I{gA(, That is a word commoidy applied 
10 the sun, the fountain of light ; thia 
meana ■ lamp, or a light that is hi np oi 
kindled artificially, from oii or tallow. 
A teacher is often colled a light, becauaa 
he guides or Qluminales the miods of 
others. Rom. ii. 19. " Thou art oonfi 
dent that thou art a guide lo the bhnd, 
a light to them that sil in darlcneaa.'' 
John viii. IS J lii. 46. Matt.v.U. 1.J 
burning. A lamp ht up, that burns with 
a sleady lustre. ^Shining. Not dim, 
not indistinct. The eipresnon means 
that he was an eminent teacher; that 
his doctrines were clear, distinct, con- 
sistent. H ¥twrtv,iaing. You willed, 
or you chose. You went ont volunta- 
rily. This shows that some of those 
whom Jesus was now addressingwera 
among the great mffllitudes of Phari- 
sees that came unto John in the wilder- 
ness. Matt. iii. 7. As they had at one 
time admitted John to be a prophet, so 
Jesus might with great propriety adduce 
his testimony in his &vor. tJ^or ■ 
(uuoii. In the ori^al, for en hour- 
denoting only a abort lime. They did 
it, as many others do, while he waa 
popular, and it was tiie faihion lo fol 
low him. ^Torefoiainhiilight. To 
rejoice in his doctrines, and in admilling 
that he was a distinguished prophet — 
perhaps, also to rejoice tliat he profess- 
ed to be sent lo introduce iho MessiBh, 
until ihey found thai he bore leslimonj 

. ^ of Nazareth. 

36. Greater toitnai. Stranger 
ecieive evidence. ' The worits. 
miracles — healing the sick, 
1 Hath givm 

HaS ■ 

un things he ei 
ramplish. To 
rm, until ibe ._. 
The word is applied lo 

d in his hanifs 


s completed. 

e say a Uak is tuJed, 

& D SOlJ 


wbieh the Father hadi gtrea me to 
finish, ■ the same woTks that I do, 
bear witnesB of me, that the Father 
hath Bent me. 
37 And the Father ' himaelf, 

acUA. »H>UJ.n. nA 

■vhenheexpired,itiB "j(ruKbI." John 
xii. 30. From this u appears that 
Jeaoa nine to finiik ti certun work ; 
and hence we see the reaaon why he so 
oAen guarded hia life, and Bought his 
safety, until the taak waa ftillj accom- 
oEiabed, Tbeae.workg or miracles bore 
wilnesa of him ) that is. ahowed ihal he 
was aent from God, becajise none but 
God could perform them, and becauae 
God would not give ibe power lo any 
whose life and docirinea he did Dot ap- 
prove. They were more deeisive proof 
(ban the teatimony of John. becaOae, 
lit. John worked no miracles. John 
z. 11. 2d. This waa a direct and unde- 
niable teaiimony from God. \i was pos- 
sible thai a man might be deceived or be 
an impostor. It was mrt poedble for 
Ood 10 deceive. 3d. The miracles 
wEiich Jesus wrougtil were euch as no 
■ton could work, and no angel. He ihal 
Could raise the dead mnat have all paw. 
er; and he who commiaaoned Jesus, 
therefore, must be God. 

37. Tim Father Mmielf—halh borne 
ailsai of me. This God had done, 
iBl, Bv the miracles which Jesus had 
wrought, and of which he waa convers- 

S2d. At the baptism of Jesus, 
ere he s^d, " This is my beloved 
Son." Matl.iii.l7. 3d. In the proph- 
ecies of the Old Teetament. Il is not 
easy la aay here lo which of these he 
refers. Perhaps he has reference lo ail. 
1 Yc Moe mitlier lieard hii voice. This 
difficult paasage haa been interpreted in 
vanous ways. The main design of it 
seems to be clear, lo reprove the Jews 
for not believing the evidence that he 
was the Meaarah. In doing this, he 
■ays thai they were indisposed to listen 
to the lealimony of God. He aflirmed 
thai God had given aufficii 

-.1, but ihey had dis- 
ra^rnea it. ine Jlrif thing that he 
nolicea ia, that they had not heard his 
roice. The word il«u", - 
■a be understood in the 
•iaien lo. Sea Note o 
roire of God meaiis h . .., . 

Ub declarativna, however made ; and 

. aatrh 

whiiA halh sent me, hath bom* 
witnesB of me. Ye ' have neitliei 
heard his voice at any time, noi 
seen his shape. 

38 Ani ye have not hia word * 

( De.4.13. lTi.6.16. J^JaoAU. 

the Saviour said that it had been the 
characteriitic of the Jews, that they had 
not listened lo the voice or commsnd 
of God. As this had been their inurol 
characteristic, il was not wonderiul that 
ihey diaiegarded now bis leatimony that 
be was the Messiah. The voice of God, 
had been lilerally heard on ihe mount 
See Deut. iv. 13 ; " Ye heard the voice 
of ihe words." l.H(onyiuM. Thia 
has been the uniform chaiacietistic of 
the nation, thai they have disregarded 
and perverted the testimony oT God. 
and it was as true of that generation as of 
theu fathers. ^ Nor leen hi* tkape. Na 
man bath seen God at any lime. John 
i. IS, Bui the word ahuv, here, does 
not mean Gcd himietf. It rofers to the 
visible mamfettation of himself; to the 
apvearfmce which he asaumed, ll is ap 
plied in the Septuagint to bis manifesting 
himaelf to Mosea, Num. jii. 8: "WitE 
hiin will I apeak mouth to' mouth. eE« 

Zoreniijr. — in Greek, ut a form, or 
pe — tlie word used here, Il ie ap- 
plied 10 ihe visible symbol of God that 
appeared in the cloud, and that reeled 
on the tabernacle. Hum. ii. 15. 16. 
It is the same word that is apphed to 
the Holy Spirit appearing in bodily ihape 
like a dove. Luke ill, 22. Jesus does 
not here deny that God bad apptared in 

Been. i. e., had not paid aitemtion to, or 
regarded, iha appearance of God. He 
b^ manifested himself, but they disre- 
garded it. and in particular they had dia- 

01 the Mes^ah. Aa the word iiear 
means to obey, to listen to. ao the word 

; 1 John 

throws light on J< 

- 6): « 

"He that 

bath seen the Father." 

'I am a manifetlatim of God — God 
appearing in human flesh as he appear- 
ed formerly in the symbol of the cloud ; 
and he that regardi mc, or attends to me, 
regards the lalber.' 

38, Hi^ <Bord abijiag in yen. Hia 
law does not ab Je in you itSat i> — 
do not regard oi »bay it t"^ — 



•biding in jov : fin whom hs hath 
MDt, him ;e believa not, 

39 Search ' the scriptoieBi for 
ii, them je think ye have eternal 
life : and Uibj aro * they which teB- 
tifj of me. 

Hard thins ihal he charged Ihem wilh. 
M. They bud nalobey^lhacamnuuid 
af Gud. 2d. Tbe^ hsd not regarded 
hii manileaUCioiiii either in the limee of 
the old dispenulion, ur now through 'be 
Meuiah. 3d. They did doi yield u> 
what be had said in the revelalion of ihe 
Old TeBiuoent. % For taham Ac hilh 
lau. God had foretold that the Meniah 
would come. He had giTon endence 
that Jbbus waa he. But now they re- 
jected him, and this was proof that they 
did not regard the word of God. 

39. Starditlititripltirtt. The word 
translated teartk here means to itarti 
aiigtntli/ or anxiouely. It ia applied to 
minera, who search for preciom metals ; 
who look anikniHly for the bed of the 
ore, with an intensity or anxielv pro- 
portionate in Heir imie of the value of 
the DiBlil. It is applied by Homer to a 
lioness robbed of her whelps, and who 
ttartktt the plain to tract out the fooi- 
atepa of the man who has robbed her. 
It a aba applied by him to di^s tracing 
their game by jearching them out by 
Ihe scent of the foot, ft meana a diU- 

¥nt, bithful, anxious investigation. 
be word ma<i be either in the mdiea- 
tivo M imperative mood. In our trans- 
Iniion it ie in the imperative, aa if Jesus 
commanded them lo search the scriptures. 
But il is probable that he meant merely 
lo say that they did search the scrip- 
lures, eipecting to find in them eternal 
Ufe. There is abunds:nt evidence that 
the Jews did search the boohs of ihe 
Old Testament. 1 TheSeripturtt. The 
writinn or books of the Old Testa- 
ment, for those were all the hooka of 
revelation that they then possessed. 
^ In them ye think je hart eternal life. 
The meaning of this is 1 'Yelhinkthat 

teach ihe way to hittire biesBedness, and 
I hat br diligently studying them yoii 
V ill attainit? We see by tfi», (1 .) Thai 
the Jews in the time of Jesus were ex- 
pecting a fiilDTe state. (2.) The scrip- 

40 And ye will not come* tonus 
tiiat ye might have lift. 

41 I receive not honour fiook 

a child to have " known the holy scrip- 
tures, which are able to make tis wise 
unto salvation." 2 Tim. iii. 15. Earl^ 
liJe is the proper time to search the Bi- 
ble : lor they who seek the Ixird early 
diall find hifai. 1 They are they, Slo. 
They bear witness to the Mesnah. 
They predict his coming, and the man- 
ner of his life and death. Isa- hii. Dan. 
ii. 26, ST, &.C See Nate, Luke uiv. 

40. .AoiyoDffifMrnns, &.C. Though 
the Old Testament bcurs nyidence t^ 
I am the Messiah ; thaugb you {Kuteas- 
edly search it to h am the way to life ; 
and ihou^ my works prove it, yet yon 
will not come lo mc lo obtain hie. From 
this ws may learn : 1st. That hie is to 
ba obtained in Chiist. He is the way, 
the truth, and the life, and he only can 
save uB. Sd. Thai m order lo do tW, 

the way appointed, as lost sinners, and 
be vrilling to be saved by him alone. 
3d. That the reason why smuera are not 
saved lies in the will. " The only rea- 
son why ainneta die is becaose Ihiy m'U 
jut came to Chtisi for Ufe and happmesa; 
it is not because they canniH, but be- 
ill Ml.'<- (Henry.) 4th. 
a particular oppoidtion to 
ng to Jtnu Chritl for elemal-life. 
ey would prefer any other way, and 

tried that they are willing to submit 

e they u 

:. Ire 


aae I am d. 

count for the hot that you do not believe 
on me, which is ihat you have not tbs 
love of God in you,' In this paasan 
we see : lat. That we ahould not seu 
for human applause. It ia of very Ultk 
value, and i' often keeps men from ifai 
^iprobatior of God Ver. it. 3d. The* 



43 I am eome in my Pailier'i 
BBme, and m reerin me not : if 
another shall come in bia own name 
him je will receiTO. 

44 How can ye believe, which 
MceiTe honaut one of BDOther, and 
Mek * DM the honoui tbBt eomtlh 
Crom God only T 

■ c.13.11 IR(i.9.IO. 

whD wi!. not believe on Jeana Chrisl 

C'videnco th»[ ihey have no lovo for 
. 3d. TbsreHBODwhyiheTdo 
believe on bim in because Ihey bavt 
regard £br bis cbaraclei, wiehes, oi I 
yitfw</G«/. Loi - - - - 



You do 1 

t lore I 

•athoiily of God ; or ^vin^ 
I am sent bv him. 17h hu aum name. 
A false teacher setting up himself, and 
not evoD pretending to have a divine 
eommieaion. I'be Jews were mucb 

45 Do not think that I will aeeuae 
yoD to the Father: there ta ■ aw 
that accnseth yoa, emn Moua, ia 
whom ye trust, 

46 For had ye believed Mows. 
ye would have believed me : fot ha 
wrote ' of me. 

eRolLlH. dae3.lS.ia.lS. Be.ia.aM 

tians by pride and mabitioD. I^bably 

Ibere a no single thing timi prevents so 
many young men from becoming Chris- 
tians OS tbia passion. The proud and 

of the gospel. (3.) 
- is under it" - 

Thoiigb wMe 1 

rning principle ha en 

« belies 

is ability to 

le of Chr 

eular teachers. In the I 
they were creally divided between the 
schools of^Hillel and Shammai, two 
femouB teachers. ' Ye aiil reeeivt. You 
will follow, or obey as a teacher. 

44. Whidi receive honor one of anoSar. 
Who are eludioiu of praise, and live for 
pride, ambition, and vain glory. This 

e Jes 

wby tbey would not believe 

Tbey were unwilling to reno 

worldly botiors and seek one bo humble 

eipecleda Messiah of pompand splen- 
dor, and would not gubmit to one ho 
despised, and of so lowly a rank. Htid 
the Messiah come, as they expected, 
with pomp and power, it would have 
Been an honor in their view lo follow 
him; as il was, they despised and re- 
jected him. The great reason why 
multitudes do not believe, is their at- 
tachment to bunian honors, their pride, 
and vanity, and ambition. That is so 
strong that while it continues they can- 
not and will not believe. They might, 
-,owsver, retioance that, and then the 
Astazle being removed, they would 
believe. Learn (l.Jamencannal bebeve 
(he gospel while he is wholly under the 
influence of ambition. The two are 
Dol compatible. The reUgion of the 
(0^1 is humility ; and a man who his 
MKlhUoMioitbcaChrialian. (2.) Great 

lay lliat aside, and to yield 
lo irum. jAfli is another question. A 
child Ciwm open a trunk whan h« 
gels on the lid and attempts to rain hii 
own weight and the cover of the tranh 
too : but that settlei nothing about lb« 
inquiry whether he might not get off 
and then open it. The true question is, 
whether a man can, or cannot, lay aside 
his ambition and pride — and about that 
there ought not to bs any dispute. No 
one doubts that it may be done ; and if 
that can be done, be can become a 
Chtislian. ^ SeA rwl the honer. The 
praise, the glory, the approbation of 
God. The hooor which comes from 
men is their praise, flattery, commen- 
dation ; the honor that eomelh from GSoj 

heaven, tbo reward of bavii ^ _ 
duty here. That we should seek, and 
if we seek that, we shall come to Christ, 
who is the way and the life. 

'5, 46, Thai 1 mil atxute uw. De 
suppose that I intend to Ibllaw yout 

mple and accuse you. Tbey hao 

accused Jesus of breaking the law of 
" ■ Ver. 16. Jesus .avs that he will 

niiate their example, though ho 
...-r- is that he nvW accuse thomr tlTi 
tht Father. To God, 1 Thert « nu 

eatieOi yon. Moses might be said ' 

juse or reprove them. He wrote 

of the Measisb; clearlv foretold bii 

ig ; and commanded them to heat 
iiuu. As they did not doit, it might be 
said that ihay had disrenntwl hi* mm 

U3l.z.llt,,COOglC .— ^ I 

47 Dot If ye ■ beli«Ta not his 
vritinra, bow Bhall ye beliere n; 


AFTER * these things Jesus wen. 
oTer the sea of C^ilee, which 
■a 1A« MO of Tiberias. 

S And a |;Teat multitudt; followed 
bin, because they saw his miiacles 
which he did on them that weie 

S And JesuB went up into a mcnui- 
tain, and there he aat with his dis- 

4 And the passoTei, a feast of the 

Jews, was nigh. 

• Lu.lUl. » Mllt.l4.I5Ac- Mtr-^M, 

i |A.U.3k 

6 When Jsana then lift np Am 
eyee, and saw ft gnat company COBM 
unto bin, he saith unu Philip, 
Whence riiall we buy broad, thai 
these may eat I 

6 (And thisbe said toproveldm: 
for he ymself knew what be would 

T Philip anen'ered him. Two ■ 
hundred pennywordi of bread ia 
not sufficient Kit them, that ereiy 
one of them may take a little. 

B One of bis disciples, Andrew, 
Simon Peter'e brother, saith unto 

9 There ia a lad here, which bath 

d had a rigbl 
■o his commuid reproved them : they 
were diaobedioDl ana rebellioiui. ^ lie 
mrote of vu. He wrote of the Mesaiah, 
and I am the Messiah. Gen. iii. 19; 
oL S. Compare John viii. 56. Gen. 
xJii. 10. Deut. iviii. IS. 

il. J(f ye teiietxtiM hit icriliMgi. If 
you do Dol credit what be has written 
which you j/rofeet to believe, it is not 
to bo ejpecled that you will believe my 
decleratioDB. And &ci[i] this we may 
learn: Ist. That many men wh' pro- 
/ett to believe the Bible have really no 
regard for it when it croasea their own 
fieWB and inclinatiooa. 2d. It ia our 
duty to study the Bible, that we may 
be eerabtiahed io tiie belief that Jesus 
IB ibe Messiah. 3d. Tbe propbecies 
of the Old Teatoment are conclusive 
proofs of the truth of the Chtiatian re- 
ligioQ. 4tb. He that rejccta one part 
of tbe Bible, will for the same reason 
reject all. 5th. The Saviour acknow- 
ledged the truth of the writings of Mo- 
ses) built his religion upon cbemj ^- 
pealed to tbem to prove that he was the 
Messiah; and commanded men to 
tearch them. We have tbe authority 
of JeeuB, therelbre, that the Old Tea- 
■ tamenl is a revelation &om God. He 
that rejects bis authority on thii subject, 
ni^hl lejecc bim altogether ; arfd i( is 
vatn for any man to profess to believe 
(I the New Tefltamenl, or in the Lord 
leant, wilboiii also acknowledging the 

authority of the Old Testament and of 

We have m this chapter an instance 
r the profound and masterly manner in 
'hich Jesus could meet aod silence his 
aemiea. There is not any where a 
lOTB conclusive argument, or a more 
iumphant meeting of the charges which 
ley bad brought agajnat him. No otie 
m read this without being struck with 
his prt.MUDd wisdom ; BjiiTit is scarcely 
possible to conceive that tbere could be 
a more distinct declaration and proof 
that be was equal with God. 

1. JeXMUJenfmer. WenttotbeeaH 
nde of tbe sea. The place to which he 
went was Bethsaids. Luke ii. 10. The 

ccount of this miracle of feeding the 
Lve thonaand is recorded also in Matt, 
iv. 13—21. Mark vi, 32—14. Luks 
t. 10—17. John has added a lew cir- 
Dmstances omitted by the other evan- 

2. Becaaee they aan Ike mirach, iie. 
They saw thai he had the power to sup- 

S their wants, and they therefore fd- 
red him. 86e ver. 26. See alM 
Matt. liv. H. 

4. The panimeT. See Note, Malt. 
Iivi.2,t7. SA/eaiCqftheJeMii. 7biM 
is one of the drcumstances <^ plplana 
lion thrown in by John which show 
that ho wrote for ihose who were imac- 
qaainted with Jewish cufltoma. 

6. TV pme kiM. To try hin to ace 


4. D. ^I.J 



tve bailey-ltaTes and 

■uh^ : but what are they among so 

10 And Josus said, Make the 

■it down. Now thete waa much 
ffrasB in the place. So the men sal 
down, in number about five thoD- 

11 And Jeaus took the loares ; 
■nd when he bad giTen thanks, he 
dietributed to tlie disciples, and t^" 
disciples to them that were i 
down ; Biti likewise of tlie &Bbe« 
niDch ae Ibey would. 

13 When they were filled, * 
•aid unto his disciples, Gather up 

' be lost. 

that I 



13 Therefoie thej gathered tAem 

toother, and filled twelve baskets 

with the fiagiuenis of the five bar- 

• N&ejis. 

if he had fahh, or if be would show thai 
he behevcd that Jesiu had paver 
supply them, 

12. Gather ifp the fragmimlt. TUa 
commimd ia omitted by the other evaa- 
eeliatB. It sbowB the care of Jean 
(hat there shoiild be no waste. Though 
bs had power to provide any quantity 
of food, yei he taught ua tliat the boun- 
ties of PravidencB are not to bs squan- 
dered. In all ihinga tbe Savioat eel us 

1, thongh.he w 

wae himself 1 

Lord of all. If fa wi 
Oecomea tu dependent creaiures not la 
waste the bounties of a beneficent Pro- 
ridonce. And it especially becomee 
the rich not to aguander [be bonnties of 
Providence. They often /«(( that they 
are rich. They have enough. They 
have no fear of want ; and they do not 
feel the necessity of atudying economy. 
Yei let the:a remetnbtr that what (hey 
lave is the gift of Giod— just la certunly 
aa the loaves and fiahes created by (he 
Saviour were bis gift. , It is not given 
Ihem to wnale ; nor to spend in riot ; 
nor to be the means of injuring their 
health, oTof aborlening life. It is given 


» of Ood . Bverv 

3 they 

ley-loaves, which temained over an 
above unto them that had eaten. 

14 Then those men, wl 
had Been the miracle that Ji 
said. This is of a truth that * Pro^ 
phet tbat should come into the 

15 When JeBus therefore per- 
ceived that they would come and 
take him by force, to make him a 
king, he departed again into a 
mountain himself alone. 

16 And ' when even was now 
come, his disciples went down unto 
the sea, 

17 And entered into a ship, and 
went over the sea toward Caper- 
naum. And it was now dark,, and 
JeauB was not come to them. 

of B great wind that blew. 
iGeAI.JO. De.lR.15-lS. JMaU.MJS. > Pi.itn.u. 
thing should b 

U. That fnphu, tie. The Messiah. 

he fwiaer to work the miracle, and the 

benevolence manifealed in it, showed 

, They 

- .-ilisfied by tbe miracle, that he 
tbe Mesaiah. They supposed Ihat 
Messiah was to be a temporal 
....ce. They aaw that Jestia was re- 
iring, unambtdoua, and indiaposed to 
saume the enaigns of ofBce. They 
thought, therefore, that they would pro. 
claim tum as the long-eKpected king, 

Men are 

Kiitght te'lirerneni,anrl evinced ^profound 
humility. Tbaugfa be had dnau to the 
honor and gmiitude of the nation: yet 

■._ ■---■ not in this way T nor did it 

)pei spirit in his ft' 


16—21. See this 

splendor and regal aq- 

u3i.z.iit>,Coogle — ^ 

19 So when they h»d rowed 
aljont five and twentj or tiiirty ftir- 
loQgs, they see Jesus walking on 
iie Bea, and diawing lugh unto the 
ehip : and tbey were a&aid. 

90 Bnt he saitfa unto them, It ii 
* I ; be not airsid. 

31 Then the; willingl; recsTed 
him into the Bhip : and imned lately 
lbs ship was at the land whither 
they went. 

33 The day following', when the 
people which stood on the other 
Bide of the sea saw tltat there was 
none other boat there, sare that 
one wheieinto hia disciples were 
entered, and that Jesus went not 
with his di^iples Into the boat, bnt 

a Moct. : 


'. 23—33. Markvi 

21. Immeiuiidy. Quickly. Berore i 
long time. How fkr the; were from the 
[luid, we know not, but there is do evi- 
dence that there was a mimde in the 
case. The word tranelHted immtdiatdy 
does nol of nr.cem.ty imply thu there 
was DO interval o[ time, but that there 
w«fl not a long mtcrval. Thus in Mall, 
liiii. 5, in the parable of the eower : 
"and forlMnlh [lbs Mme word in 
Greek) Ibey spmne up," Jlc Mark 
IT. 17. Matt. uiv. 29. 3 John 14. 

22. Thepa^tckuAiloadBnlitoOier 
liit of tie Mea. That is, on the tait 
side, or oa the aame aide witb Jesua. 
The country was called the region U- 
jFanJ or an ike olAer lide of the bbb, be- 
cause the writer and (he people lived 
on the west side, t /mm aeni tut loith 
ha diacifUt. He bad gonr 
Iain to pray alone. Ver. 1 
Mark vi. 46. 

23. Then came UherhoaU. Afier the 
disciples had departed. Thii ta added 
because from what tbliowa It spears 
that they supposed he bad entered one 
of those boats and gone to Capernaum 
idler his disciples had departed. 1 From 
TitriaM. This town Blood oo tbo weat 
■10 borders of the lake, not far from 
whore Che miracle bad been wrought. 
It was so called in honor of the emperor 
1 1berina. It was built by Uerod An- 
lina, and was aoAa by bim the capital 
tt Gitilee. The dly atteru r.rda becune 



IN. Ik. D. St 

Out his diseijrieB were gone awaj 

S3 (Howbeit there camB otiwf 
boats from Tiberias, nigh unto th« 
* place wheie Ihey did eat bread, 
after that the Lord had gi«ea 
thanks ;) 

34 When the people therefore 
saw that Jesus was not there, nei- 
ther his disciples, they also took 
shipping, and came to Cap 
seeking for Jesus. 

35 And when they had fomd 
him on the other side of the sea, 
they said unto bun. Rabbi, when 
caraesi thou hither 1 

36 Jesus answered them and 
said. Verily, rerily, I say unto you, 

celebrated seat of Jewifb leamuig. 
1 i» now called Tolnria, and is a con- 
siderable place. It is occupied chieSy 
by Turks, and is very hot and un- 
healthy. Mr. Fisk. an American mis- 
sionarv, waa at Tiberias (Tsbaria) m 
1823. The old town is surrounded by 
a wall, but within it is very ruinous, 
and the plain for a mile or two south 
is strewed with ruioa. The Jordan, 
where it issues Irom the lake, was as 
shallow that cattle and asaea iarded it 
easily. Mr. F. was shown a house 
called the house of Peter, which is used 
as the Greek Cathohc church, and is 
[be only church in ihe place. The 
number of Christian famibes is thiny 
forty, all Greek Calhohcs. There 
re two sects of Jews, each of whom 
1 a synagogue. Tbe Jewish popa 
on was estimated at about KWO. 
On the iBt of January, 1837, Tiberias 
" destroyed by an earthquake. 

I, TixA ihipping. Went mto ihs 
boats, t Clone to Capeniiiicii. This 
waa the ordinary place of the reradence 
of Jesus, and mey therefore expeoced 
'~ lijid him Ihersi 

26. Yeietkine,nolheeau>e,Stc. The 

iroc^ which Jesus wrought were 

proofs that be came from God. To 

' ' ' ' luse they had seen them 

tinced by them that he 


a fallow him 

■mply b 

h. U.3I. 


Ve leak me, not because ye saw the 
mimcleH, but because ;e did 
dio loaTGB, and were filled. 

S7 Labour ' not for the meat 
which perisheth, but for that ■ meat 
which endareth unto everiaetitiff 
life, which the Sod of man ahall 
ffire unLo you : for him ' hath God 
iHTFiilhei sealed. 

w »rlsM. sJeMSlS. K 
'A t VtAl. W.7. lMM.t. ce.ia J 

nmr •e«k religion from no better ... 
in than diis. They suppose it will 
•dd to their esnhlf hapiHoeM, or ihey 
nek ^jr to escape from lufTehng, ~ ~ 

tbcf seek toi heaven cHiiji as a place of 
hmrineas, and regard relieion as tain, 
able tuts for this. All ihis is mere 
■elliihoesa. Religion does i 
oar regarding in some degref 
h^^HDess. or seeking it in ui]' proper 
way, but when this is the only or the 
pntailing moliTe, il is eridenl ihst we 
hare never yet sought God arigbt. We 
■re siming at the loaves and iiMiea, aod 
DOttSt the honor of God, and the good 
-of his kingdom — and if ihia is the only 
or the main motive of our entering ilu 
chnrch, we amtut be Cbrisiisiu. 

37. Labor lut. This does not mean 
that we are to make no efart for the 
■apply of OUT wants (compare 1 Tim. v. 
I. 2 These, iii. 10); but thai we are 
not to manifest aniJBty, wo are not to 
. Duike this the main or auprsme object 
of our desire. See Note, Malt. vi. 25. 
1 ne attat t/uU perUhtdi. The food for 
the supply of your natural wants. It 
pieriahes. The strenalh youdertTefrom 
It is soon eihausled, and your wasted 
powersneedtobe roinvigorated, 1 !IW 
wital nAiek eitdaretli. The supply of 
foor spiritual wants ; that which sup- 
and nourishes, and slreaglhens 

needful fbod is , , 

mg body. T TV nertmting Ufa. Tim 
alrmglh derived from the doctrinea of 
die gospel is not eihsu^ted, Ilissatis- 
fietoVy, and endures without wasting 
away. It nouriebes the aoul to ever, 
lasting HCe. "They ibal wail on the 
Lord sbnil renew their strength i tbav 
■ImU ran and not be weary, and shsll 
wdk and not &mi." Isa.zl.3t. ^ Him 
Voi, 11.-22 

38 Then said tbej nnro him. 
What ahall we do, that we mi^ 
woit the works of God 1 

a9 Jeans answer«d and said nnta 
them, 'fhis ' is the wotk of God, 
that ye beliere on him whom ha 
hath aenU 

30 They said therefore unto biro, 
What sign * shewest thou then, that 
sa. SPql.lT. clJno.3.33. <Mall.ia.3& 

done . . 

pact, or deed, or teslBiAent, by wbidi 
we ratify it aa mr act. So God the Fa- 
ther, by the miracles wbich'had been 
wrought by Jems, bad shown that ha 
Bent bim, that he approved bis docirinf^. 
and ratified his works. The mirar!. > 
were to bis doctrine what a sail is in a 
written inUtuiDeDt. See Note, John 
iii. 33. 

28. MigU mork lAs mrii ^ 0«d. 
That is, such things as God will ap- 
prove. This was the earnest inquiry 
of men who were sincerely seeking to 
be saved. They had crossed the sea 
of Tiberias to seek bim ; they supposed 
him to be the Messiah ; and they ain- 
cerely deured to be taugbt ihe way of 
hie. ¥el it is observidile that they ei- 
pocted to find tbat way as other sinners 
cooinionly do, by their workt. The 
"-- -' ^-"- - soinethinH lo-sKri* salva- 
one 01 the last that the anxious 
aver surrenders. ■ 
nit u the iBork if God. This ii 
le that will be acceptable to God, 
iS you are to do in order to be 
saved. Jesoa did not tell tbero they 
bed nothing te da, or that they were to 
sit down and wait, but that there wss a 
work to perform. And ibol was a duty 
that was imperative. It was to believe 
on the Mesnoh. This is the work 
which siimers are to do. And d<nng 
this they will be saved, lor Christ is the 
end of the law for righleousnesa tn 
that believelh. Rom. i. 4. 
of Mign ihoiBat Ihout On 
the word Miifn compare Note on laa. 
, 14. Whiat miracle doil thou work 
prove thai thou art llie Mesmah I 
Tbey bad just seen the miracle of the 
hnTes in the desert, which wu iifll. 
thai ha wss the Meaiaaii 

■ which ' 


we Di*T«e}aiHl belkfetliee) what 
doat thou workt 

31 Odi felheiB ■ did eat ma 
la tha desert ; as it is written, * 
gave them bread from heaven to 

. Nu.ll. 

1 Cai.lD.3. 

tod it would Boem from the pieceding 
Danitive that those who crossed the 
lake; lo see him supptHed (bat he was 
the Christ. It seems wondetfiil thai 
they should so soon ask Soi fiinber . . 
dence thai he was sent fioin tiod. But 
it is Dot improbable that this question 
was put by ether Jttoi, rulera of the 
synasogue, who happened to be pieeent 
and who hid not wiinessed his miracles. 
Those men were continually Hsking ' 
tufas and proots that he was the Mi 
sisb. See Matt. xii. 38, 39. Mark v_. 
IL. Luke xL 29. As Jesus claimed 
the right of teaching ibei , . ' . 
was uuinifeBt that he would leach thetn 
diRereatly from what they supposed 
Moses to leach, it was natural lo ask 
him by what authority he claimed the 
right to be heard. 

31. OuT/atlun. The Jews who were 
led by Moses through the wilderness. 

given by the Jews to the food which 
was furnished to them by God in their 
Journey. It means htenilly, "what is 
this t' ' and was the question which the^ 
askod when they Srst saw it. Ex. in. 
' 14, 15. It was small like irosi, and of 
the size of coriander-seed, and had a 
tweeliah taste hke honey. It fell in 
peat quantities, ajtd was regarded by 
the Jews as proof of a continued mira- 
cle during forty years, and was incon- 
testable evidence of the interposition of 
God in &Tor of thrir fathers. The 
manna which is sold in the shops of 
druggists is a different substance from 
this. Il IS obtained from the bark of 
eenain trees in Armenia, Georgui, Per- 
na, and Arabia. Il is procured, as 

• fft gave them. This was regarded as 
■ miraculoas interference in their be- 
half, and an allestslion of the divine 
mission of Moses, and hence they said 

IN. [A D, il 

33 Hi^ JeMia said onto them. 
Verily, verilj, I es; uoto you, Moaes 
gave /ou not that bread £rom hc^ 
Ten ; but my * Father giv«th yon 
the true breiia 6om hettven. 

in the scripturea, denotes often the n 

inof tl 

--„— - — which the clooda are. 

See Matt. ivi. 3 : "the sky (heaven) is 
red and lowering." Also Matt. iii. 16. 
Luke i». 15 i v. 18. The Jews, as 
appears from their writings (see Light- 
foot), expected that the Messiah would 
Erovide ix\i followers with plenty of de- 
ciouB food ; and as Mmsm had provided 
for the Jews in the wildemesa, so they 
supposed thai Christ would niake pro 
nuon for the temporal wants of bis 
liiends. This was Uib lign probably 
which they were now deoroua of aeoing. 
33. MoMrtgavemanotliatbread/nim 
luaveB. This might be translated, ' Mo- 
ses gftve you not the bread of heaven.^ 
The word " that," which makes aoma 
diiference ia the sense, is not necessary 
lo express the meaning of the ori^naL 
It does not appear thai Jesus inlended 
to call in question Ihe bet that their b- 
thers were fed by the instrumentality 
of Moses, but to slate that he did not 
give them the true bread that should be 
adapted to the wants of the aoul. He 
fed the body, although hie food did not 
keep liie body ahve Cver, 49|, — but he 
did not give that which should preserve 
the souTlrom death, God gave in hH 
Son Jesus, the true bread from heaven 
which was fitted to man, and of lor more 
value than any aupply of their temporal 
wants. He tells them, therefore, that 
they are not to seek from him any iiuJi 
supply of their temporal wants as they 
hsjf aupp<wed A belter gifi had be^ 
' irniBhed in bit being given for the life 

: the world. T Jtfv Father eiHtjl wN. 

1 the gospel ; in ine gift ^ his Son. 
1 Tht ime Iread. The tnu or real 
support wiiich is Deeded to keep the 
soul &om death. It is not false, deceit- 
srishing. Ciuist is called breq^, 
as bread supports the lite, s 

as Mosea iurnished 




33 For the bread of God ■ is be 
which Cometh down &om heaven, 

and giveth life unto the world. 

34 Then said Ihey nnio him, 
Lord, e*enDore gira us this bread. 

35 And Jesus said unto them, 
I am the bread of life i he * that 
eometh to me shall neret himgei ; 

■ rar.48ja tHn.T.KL <c1.14.7J8. 

lion to ail &Iw religion which deceives 
•nd desrroya the soul, 

33. I^ bnad of God. The means 
of BUpport which Qod furnishea. Thai 
which, in hia view, is needful for man. 
1 /( III, &.C. Is the Messiah who haa 
emne from haaren, 1 And giiKlh life, 
&c See Note, John i. i. 

15, ImathabTtadoflife. I am Ihe 
miporf of spiritual life ; oi my doctrines 
wilt pve hfe and peace lo the soul. 
1 Sh^ nntr hanger. See Note, John 
iv. H. 

Thia he 

s, but in lab- 

ttaate, in ver. 26. Though ihey flaw 
him, and bad full proof of his divine 
mission, yel ihev did 
tuB then proceeds to al 

(i*? did not believe , j_. „ 

work would not be in vam, tor olfaera 
would come to bim and be saved. 

37. AU. The ariginal word is in the 
sr gender, but it Is used doubtless 

lelbal. alihoi 


for them 

We here learn that thi 
to Christ, and who shall be 
saved, are given lo him by God. 1st. 
fiod promised him that he should see 
of the travail of his soul — that is, " the 
fruit of bia weaiisome toil," fLowth) — 
and should be aatiafied. In. biL 11. 
Sd. AU men are aimien, and none have 
any elain to his mercy, and he may 
therelbre beatow bis salvation on whom 
be pleases. 3d. All men of ibemaelves 
ve disposed to reject the gospel. John 
r. 40. 4th. God enables those who do 
believe to do it. He draws Uiam to bim 
by bia word and Smrit ; lie opens their 
heart to understand the scriplures (Acts 
xvi. 14) ; and he grants to them repent- 
ance (Acts li. 18. 3 Tim. u. 25.) 5th, 
All those who become Christiana oiay. 
Iherelbra, lieaaid to befiHN lo Jesus, ss 

and he ' that belteveth on in« riiall 
tterer thirst. 

36 But I said unto yon, that ye ' 
also have seen me, and believe not. 

37 All ■ that the Fathei giveth 
me shall conte to me ; and him I 
that Cometh to me I vrill in no wise 

-e,ke. /Pi.llH.17- 
1I.S8. Lii.S3.«,43. 11 


the reward of his Bufierings, forbisdeatb 
was the price by which they were re- 
deemed. Pau! says, [Eph. i. 4, 5), that 
"he hath chosen us .in him (i. e. in 
Christ), before the foundHiian uf the 
world, that we should he holy and with- 
out blame before bim in love, having 
Sredeatioated iia unto adoption of chil- 
ren to himself accordioe to the good 
pleaaure of his will." < Shall amt to 
■u. Thia is an expression denoting that 
they shall bdievt on him. . To came t* 
one, implies our need of help, our con- 
fidence that he can aid ua, and our readi- 
ness lo trust to bim. The sinner comes 
to Jesus feeling that be is poor, and 
needy, and wretched, and casts himself 
on his mercy, believing that he aiona 
Can save him. This aipresHon also 
provea that men are not comptUtd to 
come to Christ. Though they who b» 
beve are gmn to him, and though his 
Spirit works in them faith and repent- 
ance, yet they are made wiUtM in tife 
day of his power. Pa. ci. 3. No mania 
eamptHUd to go to heaven against hia 
vrilf; and no man ia eompiOtd to so lo 
hell against bia will. The Spirit oTGod 
inclines the will of one, end he eame$ 
freely as a moral agent. The other 
l^ioota the way to death ; and, though 
God is cOTialanlly using means to save 
him, yet bo prefers the path that leads 
downtowo. ^ Him that eomdk. Evaiy 

he is a lost and ruined sinner. This 
invitation ia wide, and full, and free. 
It shows the uribounded mercy of God: 

shows also that the n 

ecause they will not come loiichrial. 
any ainner it may be said that il he 
ltd have come to Christ he miglt 
e ^ome and have been saved. A* 
he cAouet nol to come, he cannot 
blame God beoause he saves others wfas 

HM JOHN. [A. D. 31 

3S For I esme down from hea- 1 which he hath given me I afaonU . 
ten, not to do mine own will, but * lose nothing-, but should raise it ny 
the wiU of him ^at sent me. again at the last day. 

39 And thia is the Father's will | 40 And this ia the will of him 
* which halh sent me, that of ail ; tlat sent me, that' ever; one whidi 

; Life. 



In I 

The original 
•■(imply, " I will RoC cOBI out." 1 Cut 
MCf. Reject, or refuse lo mve. This 
eipression does nol refer to the doctrine 
of perseveTance-of the stunts, but lo the 
facL that Jesus will not tejtet or rtfut, 
to Jidp any sinner who comes lo tjm. 

38. ForlcamedoiBH.SLe. Thisverw 
bIkiwb that he came for a spectiic pur- 
pOBB, which he -^ . — 

Father's will, he would be faithful 

the (rust. Though his hearers shoi 

reject him, yet the will of God would 
be accomplfshed in the salvation of 
some who should come to him, ^ Mhu 
am ina. See Note, John v. 30. 

39. Father-, xiU. His purpose; de- 
aire ; intention. As this is the Fsiher's 
will, and Jesus came lo execute his wifl, 
we have the hiehesi securiiy that it will 
be done. God'a will is always right, 
and he has power to execute it. Jesua 
was slwaya faithful, and all power was 
. given to him in heaven and on earth, 
and he will, therefore, moat certainly 
accomplish Iha will of God. 1 Of all 
vitcA. That ia, i^ every one who be- 
lieves on him, or of all who become 
Christiana. See ver. 37. 1 / thmUd 
note netAing. Literally, " I should not 
datrini." He affirms here that he will 
keep It to life eternal ; that though the 
ChnstiBn will die, and his body return 
o corruption, yet he will not be de- 
ttroyed. The Redeemer will watch 
over him, though in his grave, end 
keep him to the resurreciio.iof the just. 
This is affirmed of all who are given to 
him by the Father : or, as in the next 
verse, ' every one that believeth on him 
■hall have everlaating life." 1 At the 
latt *jy. At the day of judgtnent. The 
Jews supposed that the rightunti would 
b« rmsed up at the appearing of the 
Measiah. See Lighlfboi. Jesus Oirecta 
(hem to ifiiiurt resurrettion, and da- 
tives to tbem that tfiay will be nuKd 

some Jewish wrilera, that ihey did ni 
believe that the vieked would be raiseo. 

the last day, was the ssme as to say 
righteous, or it was spoken 

nto the rt 

i. 11. 

rrecliojfef the dead." Fbil. 

Every ono Hot leelk Ue S«<* and 
belieBelh on kim. It was not suffideul 
to aoe him, and bear him, but it was 
necessaiy also to believe on him. Many 
of the Jews had lecn him, but few be- 
lieved on hirn. Jesus had said in the 
previous verse, that all that the Father 
had given Aim should be saved. Bnt be 
never left a doctrine so that men mitst 
miaunderatand it. X«st it should be 
supposed that if a man was ftveft la 
him. this was all that was needful, aita 
lest he should say, if I am lo be saved 
T _i._M L^^ ^^^ j^y efforts' will be u" " 

leas, I 

^ shoiJd itlieve OD him. 

This would be the cvidente that he waa 

Seen to God. And this would be evi- 
nce conclusive that he should be saved. 
If this eiplanation of the Saviour haa 
always been attended to, the doctrine ol 
election would not have been abused as 
it has been. Sumers would uol ail down 
in unconcern, saying, that if they wore 
giuen to Christ all would be well. Tfae.y 
would have arisen hke the prodigal, and 
would have ^ns tu God ; and havuig 
lelieved on him, diev would then have 
had evidence that they were given to 
him — the evidence reauliing from 'a 
humble, penitent, believing heart— and 
titn ihey might rejoice in 
-■— ' 'ould lose n 

they sie, unhappily, often iacoitsiMcnt ■ 




M«t)> the Son, and betieveth on 
mar have everlasting life ; and 1 
will * raiae him up at the last day. 
41 The Jews then mDrmured : 
him, because he said, I am the 
bread which came down ftom hea- 

43 And they said. Is ' not this 
Jbmm, the son of Joseph, whose fa* 
tber and taother we know 1 how is 

produce deaptar oT indolence on the om 
Danil, or presutnptuaus self-confideace 
on the other. JesuB teaches men to 
■tri*e to enter heaven, as if they could 
do the work themselves ; and vet h 
depend on the help of God, and givi 
the bIoiT to hiin, as if he had done it all 

WM spoken by JesoB to leprove their 
mnrmuringB. " Murmur not smung 
youraelves." They objected to higdoc- 
Crina because he claimed to be greater 
than MoBcs, and because they euppoeed 
him to be a mere man, and that what 
hi- ntud was impossible, Jesus does not 
deny that these thiti^B appeared diHi' 
cult ; and hence he said that if any man 
belipvcd, it wbb proof that God hdd in- 
cbiipd him. It wsa not to be eipecled 
that of themitltet they would embrace 
the doctrine. If any man believed, it 
would be proof that he had been in- 
fluenced by Ciod. When wo inquire 
what the reasoos were why they did 
not belieye, they appear to have been, 
lat. Their improper regard for Mossb, 
t> if no one coutd be superior to him, 
Sd. Their unwillingneiw to believe that 
Jesna, whom they knew to be tha re- 
puted Son of Bcarpenter, should be su- 
perior to HoBes, 3d. The difiiciili; 
was explained by Jesus (John v, 40.), 
as consifiling in the opposition of (heir 
will, and (John v. 44.), when he said 
that their love of honor prevented their 
believing on him. The diiticnlty in 
this case was not, therefore, a want of 
Sstnral faculties, or of power to do their 
duty, but erroneous opinioiia, pnde, ob- 
stinacy, self-conceit, and a deep-felt 
contempt for Josus, The word coimal 
El often used to denote a atrongand vio- 
lent oppoaition of the tsiTI, Thus we 
My, a man la so great a Lar Ibal he can- 
k Ihe truth ; or ' ' 

□pat It 
5 It is w 

it then that he saith, I came down 
trom heaven i 

43 Jesus therefore answeied and 
said unto them, Mormur not amoi^ 

44 No man can come to me, ex- 
cept the Father, which bath seul 
me, draw * him : and I will raisa 

the last day. 

'" D ' in the propheta, 

1.1.4. s 11.54.11. Jt313t. UiAS. 

that he is so evil that while he has 
the disposition the other efiects wiU fol- 
low, but we do not moan to say thai he 
could not break olf from the habit. 
Thus it is said (Gen. xxivii. 4.], of tha 
brethren of Joseph that they hated in, 
and whU nol ipeak peaembli/ to him 
Thus (Matt. lii. 34), " how can ye, be 
ing evil, speak good thmgsl" See 
Luke i)v 33. 1 Satn. ivi. S. 1 Coma 



This word is used hen 
e such sn influence 

:ure the result i or ■■ 

in the Nev 
Once it is appUed to a compnlsory 
drswing of Paul and Silas to the mar- 
.__. _,_.. ^j.^ j^ ,g Twice it is 

.. __noto the drawing of a net. 

John ui. e, 11. Once to the drawing 
of a sword (John iviii. lO.J ; and once 
in B sense similar to its use tiere. (John 
lii. 32.) ■' And I, if I be Ufled up from 
!he earth, will draie all men unto me.' 
What is its meaning here must bs de, 
tnnined by the faeti about the unner's < 
mversian. See Note on ver._40. Id 
the conversion of the si 


the mind, ( 

will, [Pi 

a the BOul'bf 

r of his law, and bj 

;r. 45.) ; 

and br iiis love, hk 

immands and thiealemngs ; by s de< 

Bofh.,... . 

danger ; by the Holy Spirit applyinf 
truth to the mind and urging him ti 
. lid himself to the Saviour. So tha, 
while God inclines bim.'and will bovs' 
til the glory, man yields i 
pulsion i the obataclea a 
and he becomes a willing Hrviini >■ 

43. la the fivplieU. ls» liv. 3. A 

9 removed 


And thcT (ball be ill tan^t of God. 
Etctt man ■ therefore that hath 
heard, and hath learned of the Fa- 
ttier, Cometh unt; me, 

46 Not ' that any man hath seen 
the Father, BSTe he which IB of 
God ; ■ he hath seen the Father. 

47 Veiily, verily, I aayunto yon, 
' He ^at beliereth on me hath 
errrlasting life. 

t— 4, and Jer. uai. 34. Bui by the 
frvplitii here ia meanl lit book if the 
pniAeU, and il is ptobsble that JesuH 
bad reference only to the place in Isaiah, 
as this was [he usual way of quoting the 
wopheu. T Siidl be ali taught qf God. 
This eiplains iheprecBcUng Terse. Il is 
by ihe ttadiiu/ ol his word and Spirit 
thai men are dram \o God. thia 
diowa thai il is n6i eonpalton/, and 
that there ia no obalacle in (he way. but 
a alrong Totunlary ignorance and on- 

46. Net that any ■"" *"*» ■»" '*« 

Falhtr. Jeiiu added 

guard againsi any miBieke. 

I all who 

iHgJltofGod. The leachtr 

monly >«■ and Aeord by the pupil ; and 
(eel LI should be supposed ihai be roesnt 
lo say that4 man io come lo him must 
tte and itar God. rimbl; and audibly, 
■e adda that he did not intend lo affirm 
•hia. That il was still true ihat no man 
bad seen God at any tune. Thej were 
not, therefore, lo ti^peei to see God, and 
his words were not lo be percerCed, as 
if he meant lo teaoh thai. 1 Sav* he 
which u of God. Jbsus here evidendy 
refers to himself as the Son of God. 
He had just said lUat no bur had seen 
the Father. When he tkffirms Ihat he 
has seen ibe Fsiher, it implies thai he 
is more Ihan man. He is the 
eollen Son who b in the bosom of the 
Father (John i. 18.| ; the brighlness of 
his glory, and the eipreaa image of 
his person (Heb. i. 30; and God over 
ill blessed for ever. Rom. ix. 5. By 
his being ef Gal, ia meant that he is 
the only-begotten Son of God, and 
seni aa the Messiah into the world. 
T HaOt 1BS9I. Hath indmalely known 
n perceived him. He knows his na- 
■are. chuDciar, plana. This is a claim 

IN. IA D.3I 

48 I ■ Eun that bread of life. 

49 Your fathers did eat inannt 
in the wilderness, and ' are dead. 

50 This is the bread which Com- 
eth down from heaven, that a man 
may eat thereof, and ' not die. 

51 I am the living bread which 
came down from heaven. If anj 
man eat of this bread, he shall liva 
for ever : and the biW that I will 

<c«rJ33MI. fZet-lS. /<er.SB. 

Io knowled^ superior lo what man 
nd it cannot be understood 
ipposing thai Jesus is equal 

4S. I am that brad of life. My doc- 
trines, and the benefits of tny media- 
tion are that real support of spiritual 
life of which ihu manna in Ihe-wilder- 
ness was tbr, iaml emblem. See va 

their behalf ; then . . 

terposiiion of God which showed thai 
they were hie chosen people. 1 And 
are dead. The bread which they eat 
could not save from death. Though 
God mterfered in their behalT yel Ihey 
died. We may learn, 1st, Thai that 
is not the most valuable of God's gifts 
which merely satisfies the temporal 
wants. 2d. Thai the mo^I diBtinguish- 
ed temporal bleasmee will not ss — ' — 

death. Wealth, fnends, food, rabnenl, 
will not preserve life. 3d. There is need 
of somelhiiiff better than mere earthly 
blesaingsj there is need of that brtrad 
which Cometh down from heaven, and 
which gjveih life lo the world. 

51. The bread ahieh I thaU give vm 

u mySeth. That is, his body would be 

ofleted aa a sacrifice for sm, agreeably 

hia declaration when be instituted ihe 

pper. ." This is my body which ia 

broken for you." 1 Cor. li. 34. fZjfr 

^ckeiBorld. That the world might, by 

'lie atoning sacrifice, be pardoned, be 

econciled to God, and be brobsht to 

itemal life. The use of the wordiDsrld 

here, shows that the sacrifice of ChriM 

was full, free, ample, and designed Isf 

-" -len, aa il ia said in 1 John ii. S, 

Is ihe propttiadon for our sins, aoa 

or ours only, but also Ibr iha ana 

of the whole world." In this vene, 
Jesus intn]i''>ceB the subject of hl» Itali 

tn, and drink hia blood, je hira 

'- lyou 


gtven myliosh,"whichI wiligii 

for the life » of the world. .. . . 

53 The Jews therefore strove | 54 Whoso * eateth my flesh, and 
amonjir thomaelves, saying, Haw' diiuketh my blood, hath eleinal 
can this man give us hii flnsh to lif^ : and I will raise him up at the 
eat 1 last day, 

S3 Then Jesns said unto them, ' ^'^ '"' 
Verily, Terily, I say nnto you, Ex- 
«ept •' ye eat f "■-■■" 

55 Foi 

It maybe remarked 

ihai in the language which he used, the 

silion froni bread to his JImA would 

rar more easy than it does in .our 

uguage. The i 

Hebrew meaoa bread, in the Syriac and 
Arabic means alsoJIciA. 

53 — 55, In these vorsee J esuB repeata 
what he hod, in subsTance, said before. 
%E*tept ye eat the fieth, Slc. He did 
not mean that thisshotild be understood 
Kterallt/, for it was never done, and it 
ta absurd to suppose that it was intend- 
ed to be understood Uteraily. Nothing 
can poiiibly be more absurd than to 
suppose that when he instituted the 
Supper, and gave the bread and wine 
to his disciples, they liierally ate bis 
Sssh, and drank hie blood. Who can 
believe ihia) There be stood, a living 
man~~bis body yet alivs. ma blood 
flowuig in his veins ; and how can it be 
believed that this body was eaten and 
this blood drunk f Yet this absurdity 
must be held b]; those who hold that 
the bread and wine at the communion 
are ' changed into the body, blood, and 
the dieinUy of our Lord.' So it ia 
taught in the decrees of the Council of 

Trent ; and to such al 

ciiplureB, and from 

common sense. It may be added, that 
if the bread and wine used in the Lord'a 
Supper were not changed into hia lite- 
ral body and blood wbeu it was first in- 
Btiluled, ihey have never been since. 

She Lord Jesus would institute it Just 
he meant it ahould be observed ; and 
there is nothing now in that arjlinance 
which there was not when the Saviour 
first appointed it. His body was offer- 
td on [tie cross, snd was radsed up from 
khe dead, and received into heaven. 
There is no evidence that he had any 
D the Lcrd's Supper. Thu 

h IS meat indeed, 
.'and my blood is drink indeed. 
56 He that eateth ' my flesh, tad 
• vcr.iO. /FL4.7. / IJ.3-44 

wag not yet insdtuted, and in that there 
was no literal eaiing of his ftesh, and 
drinking of his blootT The plain mean 
ing of the passage is, that by his bloody 
death — hie body, and his blood offered 
in sacrifice for sin — he would procure 
pardon, and hie tor man ; and that they 
who partook of that, or had on interest 
in that, should obtain eternal life. He 
usee the figure of eating and drinking, 
because that was tbe subject of dis- 
course ; because (he Jews prjded them- 
selves much on the bet that their fii- 
thers bad eaten suniu ,■ and becauae 
as he hsd said that he was the breiad of 
life, it waa natural and easy, eapecially 
in the language which he used, to far- 
ry out Ike figure, and eay thai bread 
~iuBt be eaten in order to be of any avail 
I supporting and saving men. I'o eat 
nd to drink, among the Jews, was al- 
) eipressiveofiAariTiffin, or partoittHjf 
^, the privileges of Triendsnip. The 
_appineBa of boaven and all spiritual 
blessings are often represented under 


. 11; 1 

Lukeiii..__, __. 

55. /■ meat indeed. Is truly Ibod. 
My doctrine is truly that which wiU 
give life to the soul. 

56. DveUHh in mt. Is trulv and m- 
dmalely connected with me. To dwell 

n the hi 

Uef of his doctrine, and in the participa- 
tion of all the benelitB of his dsath. 
Compare John xv. 1—6 ; ivii. 21—83. 
' / in km. Jeaua dwelU in behevers 
by his Spirit and doctrine. When his 
Snrit is given [hem to saactiiy them , 
when his temper, his meekness, hu' 
mility and love, pervade their bearta; 
when his doctrine is received by them 
and influeoces (heir life; and when 
they are supported by the comolatkni* 
of (he goapel, it may be said ihsl ba 

M or dwells in 

, Coot^Ic 

drinkeJi my blood, dwellcth * ia 
me, and I in him. 

57 Ab the livinz Father hath 
tent me, and 1 liveliy the Father ; 
•0*he that oaleth me, even he shall 
Utb bj me. 

58 This iBthatbreadwhichcame 
down irom heaven : not as your fo- 
thers ■ did eat manna, and are dead : 
he that eateth of this bread shall 

59 These thing;s said ha in the 
•ynagojue, as he taught in Caper- 

.19.1. lJno.3.«. 4.13,16. 1 1 CoMS. 

.19.1. I Jno. 

57. Ilivt by Out Falker. See Note, 
JohiiT 36. 

58. Hit a thai bread, &.C. This is 
tic true bread ihu ciime down. The 
word " thai" should not be in the trans- 
laiion, T ShaU lite for ever. Hot oa 
the earth, but in ihe enjoymeTila of ■ 
better world. 

61. Mansofaediieipla. The word 

. ditdple means learner, II was applied 

to the followers of Christ, because ihey 

were lau^hl by him. It does not imply 

of necessitf that those to whom it was 

STen were real Chrisiians ; but simply 
at they were under bis tauAiHg, and 
were professed learnera in the school 
of JesuB. See Matt. iviL 16. Mark li. 
18. John ii. 38. Matt. x. 24. It lb 
doubtless used in thiBsense bete. It is. 
however, often applied lo thosB who 
were reel CbrisiianB. T Thii is a hard 
loviflg. The word hard here meana 
.(■IfMUttw, ttngraleful — that which they 
could not bear. Some have under- 
Mood it to mean, 'difficult to be under- 
stood ;' but this meaning does not suit 
the connexion. The doctrine which he 
delivered was opposed 'to their prejudi- 
ces ; it seemed to bo absurd, and ihey, 
ihereCiTe, rejected it. 1 Saying. Ra- 
ther,jiie(riH, or Mjieeek. Greek, Lapa. 
It does not refer to any partintZar |»H 
«f Ihe discourse, but includea lbs whole. 
I Wle aa. Aoir iL 7 That is, who can 
hear it futwnfly — who can alay and 
lis'en to eucli doctrine, or believe it. 
The efibct o"" -bia is stated in ver. 66. 
The doctrines wliicb Jesus laught ibal 
were so ofiensive, appear to have been, 
IK. that heWsaiuperiitrUiMoaes. 3d. 

€0 Many themfbre if hla disci 
plea, when Ihey had heard (Ats, said, 
This is aik hard saying ; who can 

61 When Jesns knew in himself 

that his disciplea mnrmured jitit,]M 

said unto them. Doth this offend yon) 

63 What and if ye shall see tha 

Son of man ascend '' up where bs 

63 It ■ is the Spirit that quicken 
eth ; the flesh profiteth nothing ; 
the words that I speak tinto yon, 
Qicxj are spirit, and they are life. 

ieXXX Hir.1G.l9. Ep.U-10. <SCar 

That God would save all that he chose 
3d. That he said be was the bread that 
came from tiearen. 4lh. That it wsa 
necessary la parlalie of that ; or it was 
necessary that an atmenunt should ba 
made, and that they should be uved 
only by that. These doctrines nave 
always been among the most ofiensive 
that men have been called on to be- 
lieve, atid many, rather than trust in 
them, liBve chosen to draw bacit ts 

63. What awl if, &c. Jesus doea 
not say that those then present would 
see him ascend, but he implies that he 
would ascend. They had taken ofleiica 
because he said he came down from 
heaven. Instead of explaining that 
away, he proceeds to elate another doc- 
trine quite as ofieneive to them, that he 
would reascend to heaven. 'The apos- 
tles only were present at his aacetision. 
Acts i. 9. As Jesus was to aseend to 

r that he . 

>uld □■ 

These words have been u 
different ways. The wprd " apirit." 
here, evidently does not refer to the 
Holy Ghost, for he adds, ' The words 
that I speak uulo you are epirit.' H* 
refera here probably to the doclri* 
which Aa had been leaching in apposi- 
Uon to t/uir notions and desires. " iff j 
doctrine Is qibimsl; it ia filled to 

Juicken and oouiisb the soul. It ia 
om heaven. Your doctrine, (r your 
riewB are eartUy, and may be called 
jktt, or fleBbly. an pertainuut onlv In 

ft. D. 31. J 


61 Bat iheiB are sotne of you 
that bclievi! not. For Jeans knew 
'ftom the beginning who they 
that believed not, and who should 
Setra; htm. 

66 And he said. Therefore eajd I 
' unto you, that no taaD can com 
unto me, except it were given iinl 
hiiit of my Father. 

■ Rb&W. i Tia:9. » ntM,a. 

(he pupporl of the body. You place 
peat kbIub on ibe doctrine Ihal Mosea 
ted iho bodif. YeL thai did not perma- 
nently profit, for your lathers are dead. 
You seek also food from .me, but your 
views and desires are gross and earthly.' 
' Quiekendh. Gives \iSe. Note, ch. 
f. 21. IT TAefifih. Yout carnal views 
and desires; and the lileroZ understand- 
ing of my doctrine. By this, Jesus 
shows them that he did not intend that 
nis words should be taken lileially. 
• ProJUeth nothing. Would "- — " 

lof n. 


that Moses gave ; ihe food which you 
teek, would not be of resl value to 
man'shighesl wants. ' They ari ipirii. 
They are spiritual. They are not to 
be understood lileraUu, as if you were 

teally to eat my flesh, "--^ ■' ■- 

■"" understood " ' - -■ 
made by IT. 
^ Are life. Are fitted to produce, or 
give life to the soul dead in sins. 

64. Jeiui kneiB from Hit beginning, 
&.C As this imphsd a knowledge of 
ihe hart, and of ths secret principles 
and motives of men, it shows that he 

S6. Many cf Ail dieciplet. Many who 
had followed him professedly as his 
duciples, and as desirous of leomiiig of 
him. Note ver. 60. 1 Wait fadi. 
Turned away from him and le!% him. 
From this we may learn, Ist. Not to 
wonder at the apostasy of many pro- 
IcsSEid followera of Christ. Many are 
induced toliecomehis professed follow- 
ers by the prospect of some temporal 
benefit, or by some pubhe eicitement, 
as these were, and when that exciie- 
Dunt is over they &I1 away. 2d. Many 
may be expected to be offended by the 
doctiines of the gospel. Having no 
■iniituality of inind, and really under- 
MkiuUnc nothing of Che gospel, they 

66 From thai limt many of hw 
di«ciplee wont back, ' and walked 
no more with him. 

67 Then said Jestu unto the 
twelve, Will ye also go away 1 

68 Then Simon Petei anawered 
him. Lord, to whom shall we got 
thou haat the ' words of eternal 

e Zep.1.6. LU.9.S& He.WJS. i AcJ.91). TJb 

may be expected to take oSence and 
(urn back. The best vray ta under 
stand the doctrines of the Bible; is to be 
a sincere Christian, and aim la do the 
will of God. John vii. 17. 3d, We 
should eiaic'ne ourselves. We should 
honestly inquire whether we have been 
led to make a profestuon of religion by 
the hope of any temporal advantage, by 
any selfish pmiciple. or by mere eitured 
animal feeling. If we have, it will profil 
us nolhiiisj and we shall either fati 
atray, or be cast aaag in t^e great day 
of judgment, 

67. The tadte. The twelve apostles, 
1 Will ift aha go away t Many apos 
tatiied, and it was natural now ior Je 
SU9 to submit Ihe queaiion to thf 
twelve. ' Will yon, whom I have 
chosen, or on whom I have bestowed 
the apostleship, atid you who have seen 

V alsole 

This was 

„ ... inem. And this is iha 

e to try aU real ChiislianB, when 

ly professed disciples become cold, 

and turn back ; and then we may sup- 
pose Jesus addressing wi, and saying, 
Will ye ALSO go away t Observe, here, 
it was submitted to their choice. God 
compels none to rem^n vrilh him 
against their will, and the question in 
such trying timee is submitted ' to every 
whether he will or will not g.i 

I Peter w 

__. Sinunt Peter OHtaeredhan. With 

characteristic ardor and proraplnese. 

■ ■ ■ ■ one of inB oldaal of 

_ _^ was his character to 

firtt. and most ardent in his profei- 
ms. •ITovham thall we got This 
implied their firm conviction that Jesus 
the Messiah, and that he alone waa 
I to teach and to save them. It is 
of Peter's noble confessions— the 

inctive promptings of a pioos heart, 

ap<< of ardent love. There wm Iu mm 

69 And ' we believe and are sure 
thatthoaarttiiat Christ, the Son of 
the living God. 

70 Jesne answered them, Have 

n e.1.39. li^. 

■lee woo could teach them. The Phaii- 
■ecB, the SadduceeB, and the acribes 
WEre corrupt, aad unable to guide [hem 
■right : and though the doctruiei of Je- 
■us were myetenoua. yet thejrwera lh( 
Mifji dociiinea thai could guide and Bavt 
them, iriauioff, &C-- ThRmpuninij 
of lhiB,iBi thou teachi 
which lead to ftemal ~ 
we may learn, 1st. 

B!ct that some of the doctrinee of the 
ible will bo mvBierioua. ad. That 
(hough they are difHcult to be uiider- 
Itood, yet we should not iherefure reject 
them. 3d. Thatnolhingwouldbe^oifi- 
td by rejecting ihem. The atheist, the 
inHdel — nay the philosopher believea, or 
profesaes to bebeve, propositions quite 
as tnysleritms aeany in the Bible. 4th. 
That poor, loel, einmlman, has nowhere 
else to go but to Jesua. He ie the way, 
and the truth, and the life. And if the 
nnner beiitkes himself to any other way, 
he will wander anddie. Sth. We should, 
therefore, on no account forsake the 
teachinva of the Son of God. The 
words that he speaks are sinrit and are 

69. We are nrt. kc. See a simUar 
confession of Peter in Matt. ivi. 16. and 
the Notes on that place. Peter aaya me 
are sure, in the name of the whole of 
ihe apostles. Jesua immediately cau- 
tions him. as he did on other occaaiona, 
not to be loo ctinfident, for one of them 
arlualiy had [U> such feelings, but was a 

70. Have I not chosen tjmt tioelve t 
There IS much emphaMS in these words. 
Have not I—l the Seviour. the Messiah, 
chosen you in mercy, and in love, and 
therefore it will be a greater sin to be- 
tray me. Cio*en. Cfaoaeii to the spOB- 
lolic oSice ; conferred on you marks of 
aecuUai &vor, and treason is therefore 
the ^eater sin. Yea (uefoe. So small 
■ nomber. Out of such a multitude as 
follow for the loaves and fishes, it is to 
be expected there should he apostates. 
But when the nunaber is so small, cho> i 
wit in such a manner, then it becomes i 
•rerj one, however confident he ma^ 
kOi to be on his guard, and ezanuca his I 

not I t^own juu twelve, end oia 
of you is a • devil 1 

71 He spake of Judas IscaiiM 
f^ ton of Simon : for he it was tlial 

heart. 1 Jj a devS. Has the spirit — the 
envy, aad malice, and treasonable da- 
signs of a devil. The word JewThere 

] is used in the sense of an enemy, or Oat 

j hostile to him, 

Tl. He spoke of Juda; &.C. There 
is no evidence that Jesus daignated Ju- 
das BO that the disciples iheti understood 
that it was he. It does not appear that 

I Che sposdes suspecled even Judas, ai 
they continued to treat him afterward) 
with the same conlidence, for he carried 
the bag, or the purse containing theii 
httle property |Jo^n lii. 6 ; xiii. 39), ana 
at the table, when Jesus said thai ona 
of them would betray him, the rest did 
not susTect Judas until Jesus pointed 
l: ticularly. Johniiii.a6. Je- 


ing the I 
Eply, lat. 

_ . lead them tc 
So in every church, or company 01 pro 
fessing Chrislians, we may know thai h 
is probable that thsrc may be some ona 
or more deceived; but we may not 
know who it may be, and should there- 
fore inquire prayerfully, and honestly, 
•■ Lord, i&il I ft Should betmy. Would 
betray. If it be asked why Jesus call, 
ed a man to be an apostle who he knew 
had no love for him, and who would bo. 
tray him, and who had from the begin 
the spirit of a " devil," we raa; 
. _^ ¥. — ^ ^^^^ jjg might be on 
imponant witness for his own innocence, 
and for Ihe fact that he was not an 
impostor. Judas was with bim mors 
than three years. He was treated with 
the same conlideace as the others — ana 
in some respects, even with superiot 
confidence, as he had " the bag" IJohi 

the Saviour in public and in private 
heard his public discourses, and his pii 
vate conversation ; and would have hew 
just the witness which the high piiesta 
and Pharisees would have desired if hu 
had known any reason why he shoul i 
be condemned. Yet healleged nothing 
against him. Though hs beirayed him 
yet he afterwards said that he was to- 



■honU betray bun, being ^e of the 


AFTER these things, Jesua 
walked . in Galilee : foi he 
would not walk in Jewry, hecBuse 
the Jews sought to kill him. 
, 3 Now the Jews' feast'of laber- 
aaclea was at hand. 
3 His brethren therefore said unto 
• Le^3.3t. 

das had known any ihing agaimi Ihe 
Baviour hewauld have alleged i[. If ha 
had known he was an impoalor, and had | 
alleged U. he would have saved his i 
Sfe, and been rewarded. If he wai 
imposlar, he ought To have lood 
known, and would have been : 
for It. 2d. It mair have been a... .._ 
lOTeeighi of the necesaily of having snc 

him, Depart hence, and go into Jit 
dea, that thy disciples also may N* 
the works tbat thou doest. 

4 For there it no man that doelk 
any thing in secret, and be himself 
seeketh to be known openly. If 
thon do these things, shew tiiysetl 
to the world. 

5 For neithe: did his hrethreii * 
believe in hira. 

t Mat J.9I. 

Tan, answering to the lost half of out 
month September, and the iiral half of 
October. Num. nil. 13. Dent, xvi, 
13 — 15. Il was JO called from the («((( 
or tabernacles which on that occouoq 
ire erected in and about Jerusalem, 


I. Neh 

which it * 

wonld have been 
been no stich man among the e(>08ll( 
3d. It showed the knowledge which the 
Saviour bad of the human heart, that be 
could (bus discern character before it 
was developed, and to be able so dis- 
dnetly to predict that he wouM betray 
him. Itb. We imj add, what benevo- 
lence did the Saviour evince — what pa- 
tience and forbearance — that he had 
with bim for more than throe years, a 
man who he knew hated him at heart, 
and who would yet betray him lo be 
put (0 death on a cross, and that duiing 
■11 that time he treated bim with the 
aiimoBt kindness ! 

1. After that liingt. After the trans- 
•ctioiiB which are recorded in (he last 
chapters had taken place, and after Ihe 
•flfencs he had given the Jews. See 
eh. V. 19. 1J«mt uottal. Or Jesus 
IT taught. He travelled aroond 

ii, (he ruleri of the Jewa. 

qipear that the common people eve 
tempted to take his life. 

2. TktJeat'feaitaftiJKrmadeM. 

dwelUng in 
viii, 16—18. jjur 
this feast, they dwelt in boolis or tents, 
as their fatborB did in the wildcrnesB. 
Lev. xiiii. 4S. 43, The feast was con. 
tinuad right days, and the eighth or liwi 
day was the moat dialin^ished, and 
was called the greaC day of the feast. 
(ver.37. Num. nii. 35.) TheJewson 
this occasion not only dwelt in hoatht, 
but ihey carried about the branchea of 
palmsf willows, and other trees, which 
bore a thick foUage, and also branches 
of the olive-tree, myrtle, ^c. Neb. 
viii. 15. Many sacrifices were ofTered 
on this occaaioD, (Num. xxix. 12—39. 
Deut. ivi. 14—16), and it was a lima of 
general joy. It ia called by Josephus 
lid Phila the ertateil feast, and waa 
ne of the three teasts which every male 
ttiong Ihe Jews was obliged to attend. 

3. Hi. brelhrm. See Nolo on Mart, 
ii. 47. ^ TAyditcipitt. The disoiplei 
hich be had made when be was belore 
I Judea. Johniv. 1 — 3. T I^euwtt, 

The miracles. 

4, 5. Far there u tu> man, *.c. Tho 
brethren ofJeaus supposed that be wb« 
inQuenced as others are. And as it is a 
common thing among men to eeek popo- 
laiity, so they supposed that he would 
also seek it ; and as a great muUituda 
would be aaaembled at Jeruealefn at 
this feast, they supposed it would be a 
favorable time to make himself known. 
What follows shows that this was said 
probably not in sincerity, but in derision: 

the other suSeringi 
he added, what i* m 



: but 

is Blway ready. 

7 The ' world cannot hate you ; 
but me it hatelh, because 1 lestiff 
of it, tiiat the works thereof are evil. 

8 Go je up unlo this feast : 1 go 
not up yet unto this feast ; for my 
tmie IB not yet fill 1 come. 

9 When he had said these words 
■nto them, he abode iliil in Galilee. 

10 But when his brethren were 
■ V8r,8,3a * e.l J.I9. 

Chriatiaiis, drriiuni from bis relaiiTei 
and Iriends, on accouDt of liiaprelen- 
■ions. If our SHviaiir was dericfed, we 
•Iso ma^ expect to be, by our relslives ; 
and hsTinff bis example, we should be 
comentto1>eBiit. li/fkw do, &c. It 
•ppsus from this that ihey did not real- 
Jc believe thai he wroughl miracles; orif 
they did believe it, ibey did not suppose 
iliat he was the Christ. Yet il seems 
hardl); credible thai tbey could euppose 
that his micacleB were real, and yet not 
Mlmit that he was the Messiah. Be- 
ndeg, there is no evidence (hat these 
relatives bad been present at any of bis 
miraclea; and all thai they luiew of them 
might have been from report. See 
Notes an Mark ui. SI. On the word 
bnthrtn in ver. 5, see Notes on Matt. 
aii. S5, and Gsl. i. 19. 

6. My time, Slc. The prorier lime 
Ibr his going up to the feasl. We know 
not Huky it was not yet a proper time tor 
oimiogo. It might be because if he went 
U<n, m their company, white multi- 
ludea were going, it would have too 
much the appearance of pBrade, and os- 

and be more ukely to expose him lo the 

snvyaadoppositionofthBrulcrB, IFsar 

Ihk, ttc. It makes no diiTerence to 

<u wben you eo up. Your going will 

mull, or opposhion ; it will 

your lives. Jesus, therefore, 
o go up more privately, and lo 

unlit the multitude had gone, 
commonly travelled to those 

the neighbortuiod- 

_ jst of the families in 
See Note, Luke ii. i 

7. ne world niHbrf halt y<m. Yo 
profess no principles in opponlion to tt 

world. Yon do n< 

II llien * the Jews sought him 
■t the feast, and said, Wher* is be * 

IB And * there was mnefa aasr- 
murinB among the people ooneem 
ing- him : for some said. He is a 
good man: otlieis said, Nay; bat 
£e deceiveth the people. 

13 Howbeit, no man spake open 
ly of bun, for fear of the Jews. 
CC11.5S. ttAK. 

rouse against you the ctvil rulers. Aa 
you poesess the same spirit and princi- 
ples with the men of the world, theT 
cannot be expected to hale you. 1 1 
talify cf it. I bear witness against it. 
This wet the main cause of their oppo- 
Ntion lo Jesus. He prockimed tW 
men were depraved, and the result wva 
that they hated him. We may eiped 
that all who preach futhliiHy against 
the wickedness of men, will excite op 

Irom doing oar duty, and, after the ex- 
ample of Jeans, m>m proclaiming u 
men their sins, wbaWver may be the 

B. IgB lut up vet. Jesus remauied 

until sMnt the middle of the feast, (rer. 
14.) That is, he remained about four 
days after hjs brethren, or until the 
mass of the people had gone up, so that 

dial It might not be ^A he choee sodi 
a time to excite b tumult.' — We have 
here a signal instance of our Lord's 
mudence, and opposition to parade. 
Though it would have been laie/W for 
him lo go up at that time, and though 
it woulcfhave been a favorable period 
lo make himself known, yet he chose 
lo forego ihesc advantages rather <Lijtxi 
lo afibrd an occasion oienvy and j«al 
ousy -to the rulers, or to appear even ta 
exctte a tumult amoiig the people. 

13. ilfurSHring. Contentkni, iliiaiir 
ing. 1 He dttmetX the penple. tW 
is, lie is dtlitdmg ihem, or drawing Iban 
away by pretending lo be the Mestdafa. 

13. Spate aptnty af him. The word 
tranBlated opadti, here, is commonly 
rendered Md/y. This refers doubtlMS 
to those who really believed on hnn. 
His ensmJM »mi< not silent ; but Ui 
speak •! 


14 Now ab<ni> Ihe midat of the 
itast, Jes^a went Dp into the terofde, 
and taught. 

15 And ■ Ihe JewB marrelled. 
Baying, How knomth Ihia num ' 

' leUen, htiTiag nevei learnsd 1 


him opadi/, ial^v, or to apeak whit 
they leally thought. Muiy 
thu he wu the MeBsiBh ; yel 

my Bupponed 

they did not dire to profese. All that 
they coald say in hia &Tor wb 
ma* a gttd man. There are m 

fnenda of_Je»u» in the world 

' mying niiulAiM^ good about 

MMif will praise hia wtaralt, hia 
' * " rff ^/e^^ while they are 
k of his diuHHtg, his 

ttmemtnt, hia haluuu, and 

10 acknowledEe that Ihey ate dependei 

m hiro tdoDS Tor aaliation. 

14. AbaiU tka midtl. Or abojt th_ 
middle of the least. It continued eight 
J — .m .. aeeNol- ■'— 


ID. 13. And laagil. Great mullitudea 
were assembled in and around the tem- 

... .. _. ..a favorable 

place to mata known his doctrine. 

19. KnmBeti iAii noa ItiUri. 
Jewish Ittten oi ncience conaiBled 


— - _- — iriptures, and 

tiaditiona. Jesus eihihited in hia dis- 
GOoivefl each a profound acquaintance 
irith the Old Teatanieni. as to excite 
Iheii aauiement and idniiration. lifon- 
Wf scwr Itamtd. The Jews taught 
ibeir taw and traditioa in celebrated 
schools. As JesuB had not been in- 
■traoled in thoae schools, they were 
amaied at hia leuiiiiui. What early 
human teaching the Saviour had we 
have DO Dieana ot' ascertaining, hinher 
than that it was cuatomaiy for the Jswa 
to teach their children to read the scrip- 
tons. 8Tun.iiLl5. "Fromachild 
thaq (Tipiolhy) haal known the holy 

IS- illy dattrine. My leaeking, or 
wbttt I leach. This is (he proper 

BManing of the word iadrine. It is 
what IS UMgU us. and as applied to re- 
ligion, it a what is tanght ua by God, 
Q the holy Bcripluree. 1 /i not mate. 
El is not tngimatni by ma. Though I 
1 _^j learned in your achoola, ^el 

16 Jesus answered thei>t sod 
said. My doctrine is not * mine, but 
hia that sent me. 

IT If any mail will do his will, 
he shall know of the doctrine. 

which I leoch is devited oi 

ippcnnted m 

teach. ^ Hii Uol Mtnt 

teach. The doctrine is divine in i(i 
origin, and in its nature, 

IT. ^ any man vOl da Ail wOl. Lit 

erally, if any man mOt, or ia tnUltHg lo 

' - the will of God. If ihere is a ditpo- 

va to do that will, though he shouli^ 

not be able perfectly lo keep his com 

- mdmenta. To do the wOl of God, ia 

obey his commandments, to yield 

r hearta and hrea to hia rei^uire- 

inta. A disposition to do his wdl, is 

_ .eadinesa lo yield our intellects, and 

feelings, and all thai we hane, entireljr 

lo him, to be gOTetned accordiiia lo hia 

tlessure. 1 He sAoQ hurtc. He shall 
ave eeidena., in the very allempt to d« 
(he will of God, of the truth of his doc- 
' le. This evidence is intfmal, and 
the individual it ia Baliefactory, and 
__.iclu»vB. Ii is of two kinds. Isl 
He will find that the doctrines which 
Jesua taught are auch as commend 
themselves to the reason and con- 
science, and such aa are corndstent 
with all that we know oT tlie petfec- 
tione of God. His doctrines will com- 
mend themselves lo ua as fitted to 
make us pure and happy, and of course 
such as muat be from God. 24*An 
honeal desire to obey Gojl, will lead s 
man to embrace the great doctrines of 
the Bible. As, e. g. he wilt find that hia 
heart is depraved, and inclined to evil, 
and be will see and feel the truth of the 
doctrine of depratiitv, he will Gnd that ha 
ia a nnner and needa to be bom agaiit y 
he will learn his own weakness, aod 
his need of a Saviour, of an atone- 
I, and of pardoning mercy ; ho will 

VcL. II. — S3 

feel thai he is polluted and needs the 
lurifying influence of the holy Spirit. 
Thus we may learn, 1st. That an honest 
cfiort to obey God ia the easiest wsy to 
. , team the doctrines of the Bible. 3d 
itjer that the doctnna I Those who auU such an allbrt will DM 

whether it be of God, or uiSeihtr I 
■peak of ir.jMlf. 

IB H^ 'tiiat epeaketh of himself, 
aeeketh his owd glory : but he that 
seeketh hia ^ory that sent him, 

19 Did not MoBeB ' give yoi 
law, and t/el none ' of you kei 

mBS at any ot the docttiDea ot Ilie scnp- 
inrea. 3d. This ig evidence of the 
truth of roialation which every man 
can apply to hiB own case. 4th. It is 
such evidence as to lead to cerUxiniy^ 
And this is the kind of evidence that 
maii needs. No man who has ever 
made in honest eSbrt to Uve a inoua 
hfe, and to da all the will of God, has 
ever had any doubt of Ihs truth of the 
• Savioar's doctrines, or any doubt (hat 
his religion is true, and is fitted 

5lh. We a- 

„ if his truth that may 

be within every man's reach. It does 
not require great learning to be a Chris- 
dan, and to bs convinced of the truth 
of the Bible. It requires an honat 
heart, and n wilUngnese to obey God. 
T Wlutier ilheof Gvd. Whether it be 
divint. T Or uAithtr I tpeai ef mt/ieif. 
Of myself inthout being coauniBBioned 
ur directed by God. 

IS. That ipeaktth ef hmtelf. This 
does not mean oAouf, or concerning 
himself, but he that speaks by hia mm 
authorily, witliout being sent by God, 
■a mere human teachers da. t Seektth 
Um mm gltiry. His own praiie, or seelia 
hr reputation and appiauae. This is 

iinpOBlor. It is used 1 
in 2 Theas. ii. 10—18. 

there was na mrlghli 

hi JeniB Christ, but that is not the truth 
taoght hers. It is, that he was no im- 
Ml«r, and ths evidence of this was 
thai he sought not his own glory, but 

IN. lA. D. 

the lawt Why f.» v( abotit 


■ 30 The people answered and 
B^d, ''Thou hast a. devil: who 
goeth about to kiH thee 1 

31 Jesus answered and aaid nnta 
them, I have done one work, a-jd 
ye all niarvel. 

33 Moses f Ihcrbfo'e gate nntc 
(Matt.ia.u. c.s.iMS. ft-.t» /!«. 

the honor of God. This eviduice was 
himished, Ist. In his retiring, anobtru- 
give disposition ; in his not seekiDg lh« 
'applause of men. 2d. In his leachiiw 
auch doctrines as tended to exalt God, 
and humble man. 3d, In his ascribmg 
ail glory and praise to God. 

19. Bid not lHoiet give yon the laiel 
This they admitted ; and on this (he* 
prided themsetvea. Every violatioD <n 
that law they considered aa deserving of 
death. They had accused Jeeua of vio- 
lating it because he had healed a man 
on the aabbalh, and for that they had 
Bought his life. Ch. v. 10—16. Jesus 
here recalls that charge to their recoliec- 
tion, and shows them that though they 
pretended great reverence for that law, 
yet ihey were really its violators in hav- 
ing sought hia life. TJVinieo/'««i, Slc. 
None of you Jews. They had sought 
10 kill hun. This was a pointed and 

,-, .'hjch he waa 

accustomed to proclaim the truth. 1 Wh 
go yi dtout iokaimtl Why do ya jmI 
■toBllnier Seech. V. 16. 

20. TheptojiU. Perhaps Bonie of the 
people who were not aware of the de- 
mgns of the rulers. 1 Thou hatt a deoil, 
lliou art deranged, or mad. See ch. 
». 20. As (hey saw no eff ■ ' ' " 
hiui. and as the; were ignon 
designs of the rulers, they 
that this was the effect of derangenienl. 

21. OnetBork. The heaJingof the man 
on the sabbath. John v, T F< nU mot- 
mI. Ye all wonder, or are amaied- 
and particularly that it was done on tha 
sabbath. This waatbenirfinibrBrounJ 
of astonishment, that he should dare to 
do what they esteemed a violaiion of tha 


11 of the 


jroa eireumciiiioD ; (not because it is 
of Mbaes, but ' of ^e fathers ;) and 
ye on the sabbath-day 

33 If a man on the sabbath-day 
leceive ciTcumcision, ' that tha law 

ot Moses should not be brokea. 
are ye angry at me, because • ] 
hi ve made a man eveiy whit whole 
on the sabbath-day T 

The word ' ' therefore" does m 
thst Mows gave 
atamnt of ifie w 

le work which Cbrkl was 

or, for the lake 0/ Sltuiratiim. 
1 Not hamut. &.e. Not that h is of 
Moses. Though Jesus spoke in accard- 
snce with the cuatom of Ihe Jews who 
■scribed ths sppointmonl of circumci- 
mon to Motes, yet be is careful to re- 
mind them thai il was in obserrance 
long before Mosea. So also the lai- 
iath wsa kept before Moses, aad in the 
one case and [he other they ought to 
keep in mind the ifM^nof the appoint- 
ment, ^ Of the/atheri. Of the Pslri- 
archs, Abrsham, Isaac and Jacob. Gen. 
ivii. 10. 1 Yean the latitath-day, &.C. 
The law required that the child should 
be circumciaed on the eighth day. If 
that day happened to be die iMnith, 
yel Ihej bcld that he waa 10 be circum- 
cised, as there was a positive law to 
that effect ; and as this was commanded, 
they did not cotisider it a breach of thj 

but a loan child. See John 

imberetb n 

33. That the lam of Moiei ihould not 
Ad broh^n. In order that the Law re- 

Sniring it to be done oti the sabbath- 
ay should be kept. 1 Are ye angry, 
&c. The argument of Jesus la this, 
' You youraelTea in interpreting the law 
aboat the sabbath, allow a work of ne- 
cessity and mercy to be done. You do 
that whii^h IS tieceeeary as an ordinance 
of religion denoting teparation from 
Other naiiona, or ertenul purity. As 

r allow this, you ought also to allow 

be completely restored 10 health ; that 
a work of mercy of much mora import- 

84 Jadge ■ not aecordin^ to the 

appeaiani», but judge nghteoiu 

25 'Ilien said some of them of 
Jerasalem, Is not this he whom thej 
seek to kill 1 

36 But, lo, he speaketh boldhr, 
and they say nodiing unto him. Do 
'the rulers know indeed that this it 
the very Christ 1 

t Dcl.iejT. ' T«'.4& 

ance should be done.' We may learn 
bare, that it would be happy for all if 

they would not condemn others in thU 
thing which they allow. Men often sc- 
cuae others of doing things which they 
themselves do in other ways, t EwBii 
ahU wAoIe. Literally " I have restorec 
the whole man to bealtb," implying 
that iha man'a icheie bady waa disBasetT 
id that he had been fntirdy reatored • 
I health. 

34. According to atvearoHce. Not as 
thing fiist ofiers itself to you, withoul 
^lleclran. or candor. Id avptamiice u 
rcumciae a child on the sabbath might 
t a violation of ths law. Yet you do 
, and II is right. So to apptarantt i' 
ight be a violation of tbe sabbath to 
lal a man i yet it is right to do works 
necessity, and mercy. V Judge riglit- 
ui judgment. Candidly; loekuig u 
e law, and inquiting what hs Mpiril 
really requires. 

Da the nilert knoK indcrd, Slc 
ms &om this that they supposed 
that .the rulert had been convinced that 
Jesua was the Mestaah, but from soma 
cause were not willing yet to make il 
known to the people. The reasona ol 
this opinion were tfaeae. IsL Thei 
knew that tbey kad attempted to kiD 
him. 3d. They now saw him speaking 
baldly to the people without interrup- 
tion hum the rulers. They concluded 
therefore lliat some change had taken 
place in the sentiments of the rulers is 
regard to him. thoueh they had not yel 
made it pubho. T 31* niJer.. Ths 
members of the Manhedrim, or great 
council of the nation, who had charge 
of religious elfaira. ^Indeed. Tndy. 
Certainly. Have they certain evidence 
IS would appear from their sufiering him 
to spaak without interruption. ^Tkeway 
Ckr^. Is irulii. ^ realln, the Messiali 


97 Ilowbeit ■ we know lliifl 
Wbance be is; but wbeii Christ 
oomelh, no man kooweth wbeoce 

88 Then cried Jesus in the tem- 
ple an he taught, saying. Ye bolh 
know me, ana ye know whence I 
am: and * I am not come of my- 
•elf, but be that sent me ' is trae, 
whom ^ ye know not. 

39 But ■ I know him : for I am 
from him, and he hath sent me 

30 Then ^ they sought to take 

1 Mitt.13.SS. i e.5.13. e Bo 3.4. 
le e.9S. (Hatt.Il^. C.I0.1S. 

oonld not be the MeBsiah wbali 
raltn mighl think. ^ Whence A. 
We know ihe place of his birth 
reaidsnce, 1 JVo man launceth tuAence 
b u. From MaClhew il 5, it apj 
thai the common expectation ai 
Jewfl WHS that be would ba boi.. 
Bethlehem. Bui Ihoyhad also leigoed 
that after hi* binh he would be hidden 
or taken away in come mystorioas 

wheie oar Saviour onTecti their common 
notiona. Matl.i^Y.23. "Thenifsoy 
man shall say unto youlo here is Christ, 
or there, believe it not." And again, (ver. 
26), "irihey shall BBfrnilo you behold 
he is in the desert, go not forth; be- 
hold he is in the secret chambers, be- 
lieve it not". The following eitraols 
from Jewish writings show that this 

IB (be CI 


Redeemer ahalL manifest himself, and 
•fterwaids be hid. So il wee in the 
redemption from Egypt. Moses show- 
ed himself, and then was hidden." So 
OD the passage, Cant, ii S. " My be- 
lored 'is hke a roe or a young hart;" 
Ihey say " a roe appears, and then is 
hid, BO the Redeemer ehall first appear, 
aod then be concealed, and then again 
be concealed, and then again appear." 
" So (be Redeemer shall first appear, 
and then be hid, end iben at Ihe end 
of forty-fiye days, shall reappeir, and 
caOBB manna to descend," Sea Lighl- 
tbol. Whatever may bava been the 
■onrcB of this' opinion, it eipleins .this 
passage, and shows that the writer of 

UN tA.Ik3a 

him, but no man laid hands on him, 
becanse his hour was oat yet come. 

31 And many ' of the people 
believed on him, end said. When 
Christ Cometh, will he do more 
miracles than these which this man 
hath done? 

33 Ttie Pharisees heard that the 
people mnrmured such things coo- 
ceming him ; and the Pharisees 
and the chief priests sent officeia 
to take him. 

33 Then said Jesus unto them, 
/Hai.11.18. Lu.20.1*. t&37. / cASB. 

this gospel was well acquainted with 
the opinions of the Jews, however jm- ^ 
probable ibose opinions were. 

28. Ye knmo mhenct J am. You have 
sufficient evidence of my divine mis- 
sion, and thai I am (be Messiab. 1 is 
true. Is worthy to be beheved. He 
has given evidence thai I came fiom 
him, and he is worthy to be believed. 
Many read this as a question: Do ye 
know me, and know whence 1 am I 1 
am not come of myself, Sec. 

30. Ties •ongl't la late him. The 
rulers and (heir fiends. They did this, 
IbL Beeauseof bis reproof; and 3d. For 
professing to be the Messiab. 1 Hit 
hoar, lie pioper and the appointed 
tim» for his death. See Malt. iij. 46. 

31. WiU he do wiare niraclet. It waa 
s common expectation that the Messiah 
would work many miracles. This 
opinion tbey founded on such passages 
as Isa. uiv. 5, 6, &.C,-. " Then the 
eyes of the blind shall be opeued, end 
the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped ! 
then shall the lame man leap as a hart,* 
&.C. Jesus bad given abundaal evi- 
dence of his power (o work such mira- 
cles, and (hey therefore believed thai 
"■ — ss the Messiab. 

--. The people mnnmiTtdnc/i thing: 
That is, that the question was agitated 
whether be waa the Messiah ; and ji 
ited debate and conteniian ; and thai 
consequence was, he made man) 
friends. They chose, therefore, if pos 
sible, to remove him from them. 

33. Yd a tittle ichile am I vnlh you. 
It will not be long before my death. 
This is supposed to have been about 
iix monlbe before his death. This 
ipeech of Jeans is full of tendertfesa 


Yet * a little while am I with jou, 
and then I go unto him that eenl 

he will 

e seeking hia lifa. He telle 

aeeting i .. . 

le ia fuilf ftwsre of it ; that 
not be long with them ; aai 
pnu that Ihef should be diligent 
BBsk him wIuIb he yiaa yet with 
im. He waa about to die, but they 
r seek, hia favor and find it. 
ramaniber that this was aoid 
to hiB peniecutotB itad murdoreia ; that 
itwaa eaid erenwhile they were seeking 
his life, WB Bee the peculiar lenderneaa 
of hia love. Enmity, and hale, and 
perseculion, did not prevent hia offer- 
uig aalvation to them, ^ I go tuUo Am 
that sent me. This is one of the inti- 
mationa that he gave that he would 
aicend to God. Compare ch. vi. 62. 

34. Te ihidl letk BK. This probably 
mpana aimo^v. ye shall seek the Mas- 
11 be your troubles, such 

a that 


lb of (As Meniah. You will seek 
for a dehverer, and will look for him 
that he may bring deliverance. Thia 
does not mean that ihey would seek for 
Jetns, and not be able to tind him ; h 
that they would desire the aid and coi 
ing of tU JUettuiA, and would be d 
appointed. Jesus speaks of hinudf 
the Mesdah, and his own name 
aynonymoua with Ihe Meaaiah. S 
Notes on Marl, iilii. 39. t ShaU tut 
tnd me. Shall not find the Mossi ' 
He will not come according to your ' 

Sclationa, lo aid you. See Notes 
att.iriv. fWhenlam. Thia wh___ 
clause is to be underBtood as future, 
though the words **am*' and " 
are both in the present lei 
meaning ia, where I ahsll be. 
not be able to come. That is, he, the 
Mesnah. would be in heavenj ar ' 
though they would earnesily destre h 
presence and wd to save the ciiy ar 
nation from the Romans, yet the 
would not be able in obtain it — repri 
•anted here by their nor beina able i 

that we shall not find him T will ha 

I the 

GentileB, and teach the GsntU 

36 What manner of saying is Ibis 
that he ^aid, Ye shall seek me, and 
shall not find me : and where 1 am,' 

Ihiiher ye cannot come! 

37 In the last ' day, that great 
c la.ll IS. Ja.l.l. 1 Fed.l. ' or. Ontlu. 

some to him. Thia does not itifar to their 
imlfniluai salvation, but to the deliver- 
ance of their nation. It la not true of 
mdividual sumers that they seek Cbiist 
in a proper manner, and are not able (o 
find nim. But it vku true of the Jew- 
ish natiou that thev looiedfoT the Mes- 
si^. and Bought nis-cconing lo deliver 
tbesti, but he did not do it. 

35. The diiperied amcng the Gen- 
tilti. To the JevuscatteredDmanzthe 
GenUlea, or living in distant parts of the 
earth. Il ia well known that al that 
tima thare were Jews dwelling in al- 
most every land. There were multi- 
tudes in Egypt, in Asia Minor, in 
Greece, in Rome, &c., and in all thaaa 
places theyhadavnagoguea. Theques 
tion which they asked waa, whether he 
would leave an ungrateful country, and 
go into those distant nations, and taach 
them. ? GerUUei. In tha otigmal, 
Greeks. Ail those who were not Jnai 
were called Greeki, because they were 
chiefly acquamted with those Heathens 
only who spake the Greek language. 
It is reniarkabla that Jesus returned no 
answer to these inqniries. He rather 
chose to turn off then- minds from a 
speculation about the place to which he 
was going, to the great affairs of their 

37. InthelaHdav. The eighth day 
of the festival. » 7%at great day. The 
day of the holf convocation, or solemn 
assembly. Lev. jxiu. 36. This seems 
to have been called the great dsy, lit- 
Becauaa of the solemn aasembly, and 
because it waa Ihe closing scene, ~3d. 
Because, according to tncir Iraditiolia, 
on the previoHB days they offered saoii- 
ficea hr the Healht* nations as well ■■ 
for themselves, but on this day for tin 
Jews only.-^Lightfool. yd. Becaoae, 
on this day. thay abstained from all aer- 
vile labor (Lev. ixiii. 39), and rsffardaa 
it as a haly day. 4lh. On this day ihej 
finished the reading ci the law, wUck 

da^ of the feaat, Jesoa atood aod 
cned, Mying, If • any man ihirat, 
let hif come nnta me and drink. 

'hey coumenced al the beginning of 
(he fBBBl. 5th. Because an this day 
probabl; occurred ihe ceremonf of 
iraning water from the pool of Siloom, 

: The Pi 

den phis! witb 

SlLoam (see r^oiOi jonn ix. t.^ wnica 
wss bonie with greal salemnily, allend- 
od wiih the clangor of trumpeu, through 
the gale of the temple; and, being mix- 
ed with wine, waa poured on Ihe sacri- 
fice on the Bltat. whet was the origin 
of line custom ia unknown. Some sup- 
pose, and not improbably, that it aroBe 
from an improper understanding of the 
paesage in Isa, liL 3 : " With joy shall 
•ge draw n-aler out of the wells ofsalva- 

moDf a commanded by Mosee. It is 
supjtosed to be probable that Jesua ttocd 
and eriid whde they were performing 
this ceremony, that he might, Isl. tfZui- 
erale the nature of hia doctrine by this ; 
and, 2d, call off their attention from a 
rits that was uncommanded, and ihat 
eould Qol confer eternal life. ^ Jeiui 
ttood. In the temple, in the midat of 
Ihouaands of the people. T If any man 
thini. ■ Spiritually. If any man feels 
his need ttf salvatioa. See John iv. 13, 
14- Matt. V. G. Rev. iiji. 17. The 
umlalion ia full and bee to all. ^ Let 
kim come unio me, &c. Instead of de- 
pending on tkit ceremony of drawing 
water, Tel him come tojie, the Meesiah, 
and heehallfindanever- ah utidant supply 
for all the wania of bis immortaj soul, 

38. Ht that btlievelh m me. lie that 
Bckaowledges me aa the Mea^ah, and 

s for 

t the 

.- ,.-,- This ia adifficult 

eipreuion, from ihe fact that do such 
expression as follows ia to be found lite- 
rally in the Old Tegtamenl. Some 
ha>e propoaed to connect it nith what 
precedes: 'He that behoveth on me, 
■s the Old Testament has etmaiiandei, 
or required.' Buttolhia tliere are many 
>bjecliona. The natural and obvious 
meaning here is doubtlese the true one ; 
and Jeans probably intended to asy. not 
tlul lh(re waa aaj fartlailar place in 

36 Hethatbolievelhonnie,aath« 

Sttripture hath said, out 'of his bell J 
shall flow rivers of iiving water. 

the Old Testament that affirmed thii 
in BO many words, but that this waa ihe 
luUCana of what the acripturea taught, 
or this was the ipirit of their declare 
tiong. Hence the Syriac Irsnslatea it m 
the plural— the leriptura. Probably 
there is a reference more particularly te 
lea. Iviii, 11, than to any other single 
passage : " Thou shall be like a water- 
ed garden, and like a spring of waler. 

a fail i» 

— .. 3, 4; Joel Ui. 16. S Out i^ hit 
betly. Out of his midst, or out nf his 
heart. The word belly is often put for 
the midst of a thing, ihe centre, and ihe 
heart. Matt. zii. 40. It means, here, 
that from the nun shall flow ; that is, 
hie piely shall be of such a nainre that 
it shall estend ils blessings to others i 
it shall be hke a running fountain — per- 
haps in allu^on to 

in garden 


conlinually flowing. The Jews used 
the same figure : " His two reins are 
hke fountains of water, from which the 
law flows." And again i "When a 
man turns himself to the Lord, he shall 
be ss a fountain filled with livmg Hater, 
and his streams shall flow to all the 

.__ __ shaU dif- 
fuse large, and liberal, and conatant 
blessings on their fellow-men. And as 
Jesus immediately eiplains i(, thai they 
ahall be the initrumenti by which the 
Holy Spirit shall be poured down on the 
world. ^Living «QUr. Fountains, ever- 
That is, the gospel 
■ gin its 
IS Ihe nature of Cbrislian piely to be 
diSiisive. 2d. Thai no mao can beUeve 
on Jesus who does not desire that others 
should also, and who will not saeh it. 
3d. That the desire is large and hbemi 
— that the Christian desires the salva 
lion of all the world. 4ih. That the 
faith of Ihe beUever ia to be connected 
with the mfluence of the Holy Spirit, 
and H Uct wa; Chiisliaoa are to ba 

ra of Uvui|r w 


k. D 33.] 


39 (But this hi sp&ke of the 
Spirit, which they that believe oi 
hill) Hhoald receive : for the Holy 
Ghost vaa not yet given ,- bi 
caaBe that Jesua was not yet gli 

40 Many of the people therefoYe, 
when thcT heard tbia saying, said, 
Of a truth this is the Prophet. » 

41 Others said, This is the ' 
Christ. But gome said.'Shall ' 

" (Jhrist come out of Galilee 1 

43 Hath not the Seriptare sSid, 
That Christ ' cometh of the seed 
of David,' and out of the town 

lend iheir preaching, and 
■doUBni. T Wai m,t yet given. Was 
not given in Buch full and large mea- 
■uieH BB should be afier JesuB had bb- 
eended lo heaien. Certain measures 
if the intluences of the Splril had been 

'llwaffl given in ibe "'" ' 

tancliScation of the ai 
prophets. But that ah 

effusion whioh Ibe ap _._ ^^. 

mitted afterwards lo heboid had nol yet 
DBBn given. See Acla ii.. i. 44, 45. 
1 Jettii wat not yet glorified. Jesus 
St ascended to heaven — to the 

mdant and/uH 

nol vt 
jlory and honor that 
It was a part of the arraneetnent 
work of redemption thai die infli 
4f the Holy SpiHt ehould descend 
chieSy after the death of Jesus, as that 
deaih was the procuring cause of Ihis 
great blossing. Hence be Boid, f John 
rvi. 7), " It IB expedient for you that I 

S> away ; for if I go not away, the 
oinfortet will not come nolo you ; but 
if I depart, I will send him unto you." 
de« ilao ver. 8—12, and cb.'nv. 15, 16, 
K. Compare Epb. iv. 8, 9, 10, U. 

«0. The praplut. That is, tho prq- 
fhet whom they expecled to precede the 
lonting of ibe McBaiab, either Glijab or 
Jeremiah. See Malt. xvi. 14. 

41, 42. See Man. ii. 4—6. Y IClmi 
Daridaat. 1 Sam. ivi, 1 — 4. 

15, 46. Tkeofitert. Those who had 
MOD appdnied (ver. 32) to take bim. 
[t laenu that lesus was in the midst 
•f tbs pei'ple. addroBstng them, and 

of Betblebem, ' where David < 

43 So there was a diviaion among 
the people becauae of him. 

44 And some of them would 
have taken him ; but no man laid 
hands ou him. 

45 Then came the ofRcers to the 
chief priests and Pharisees ; and 
they said unto theni, Why have ye 
not brought him 3 

46 The officers answered, Neret 
* man spake like tliis man. 

47 Then answered ihem the 
Pharisees, Are ye also deceived I 

tPn.iaill. Je.33.S. /Mi.S.3. Lii.!.*. 

that they happened to come at ibe very 
time in which he was speaking. Tbey 
were so impressed and awed with what 
be said, that they ddred not to take 
bira.— There have been few ' 
of eloquence like this. 



proof that be wai from God, and w 
BO impressive and oerauasive, that they 
were convinced of his innocence, and 
they dared not much him to execute 
Ibeir commia^on. We have here, let. 
A remarkable lestimony to the com- 
manding eloquence and tmlb of Jesua. 
2d. Wicked men may be awed Bnd rp- 
alrained by the presence of a good mon, 
and by the evidence that be speaks thai 


II for a 

irpose. They were bi 

by the bigbest authority of the nation. 
On tho oUier hand,^ Jesos was withoul 
arms or armies, and without eitemal 
protection. Yet, in a manner which 
the officers and the bigh priesls would 
have Htlle expected, he was preserved. 
So, in ways we liltle eipecl, God will 
defend and deUver US, when in the 
tpidsl of danger. 4th. No prophet, 
— ille, or minister, haa ever epoker 
trulb with as much power, grace 

beauty, as Jesus. It ahoiild b« 

vuri, therefore, to listen Id tus words, 
nd to sit at his feet and learn heavenly 

47, Are ye alto deceived t They set 
own the claims of Jesus am of course 
n imposture. They did not examine 


«a joi 

4S Have any of the rnlen " oi of 
llie Pharbees believed dd him ! 

49 But ihiB people, who IfDOweth 
n^ the law, aie CDrsed. 

■ leZA^ ciua. 1 Cor.LSB. 

Iral were, ...._..., 
la belieVB thai he wis & deceiver. 
Bence they did not ask ihem whether 
ihej were CB^vineei, or had Been evi- 
dence that he wax the Messiah ; but 
with mineied conlempl, and envy, and 
■oger, asked if they were also deluded. 
1'hus many luaiune reUgioa to be an 
itapDnun; and when one becomes a 
Christian, they iu(a» al once that he 
H deceived ; thai he is the victim of 
foolish crednLity or supersLilion, and 
tieil him with ridicule or acorn. Can- 
dor would require them to inquire 
whether such chants were not proof 
of the paver and IriUh of the gospelp ss 

camdor in thece ''-' ' '— ' 


1 of the rulers r 
helher Jes 



18. The mien. The members of 
the sanhedrim, who Were supposed to 
have control over the reUgious riles and 
doctrines of the nation. H The Fhari- 
tea. The sect possessing wealth, and 
ofHce, and power, 'i'hc name Phari- 
3ta sometimes denotes those who were 
high in honor and aaihority. This 
shows the rule bv which they judged 
of religion : 1st. They dafaned the right 
of regulaling the doctrines and rites of 
religion, 2d. They repressed the liberty 
of private judgment, atifled investiga- 
tion, assumed that a nev docttine iniut 
be heresy, and labored to heep the 
people in inglorious bondage. 3d. They 
treated the ni ' ' ' " ' 

L. not by argnmi 
, and espedally 

npted to put i 

, _ which doctrines contrary 
(o ths truth of God have been unifonnly 
supported in the world ; this is the way 

4nd this the way in wnich those in nn- 
cleaiastioal power often attempt 


the investigation 

49. ThU people. The word here 
tnmslsted people is the one commonly 
rendered Ot wMUitade. It is ■ word 
■xwesnve of contempt, or, as wewottid 

50 Nicodemns rbHIi unto them 
(' he that came ' to Jestis bjr ug^l, 
being one of them,} 

vhich il 

It denotes the aconi 
they fell that the pnfU ahoald 

presume to judge for themselves in a 
casepertoining to their own salvation, 
1 Who tnowea m* the laa. Who have 
not been mitritcfeil in the scboob of 

teriiVet the Old Teaumenl aa they had. 
They Buppoeed that any who believed 
on the humble and despised Jesus 
must be of onirse Ignorant of the tm* 
doctrines of the Old TesUunent, as tbey 
held ihet a very diWeratt Messiah from 
him was foreloid. Many inslancea are 
preserved in the writings of the Jews 
of the great contempt in which the 
Pharisees held the common people. It 
may here be remarked that Chnstianily 
"" only Bystem of religion ever pre- 

Fgarded Ibe p . 
the needy, Fhilosophers and Phari- 
sees, in till Boes ' ■ ■ ■ 

from the p 

be put out of the syna- 

an expreesioti o: 



most of ihoBO who became Christiana 
24. That if the people were ignorant, 
it was the fault of the Pharisees and 
rulers. It was their busineaa to ae 
that they jvere taught. 3d. There i* 
no way so common of Blleniptuig to 
appose Christianity aa by ridicDitiig its 
ftienda oa pOor. and ignorant, and weak, 
and credulous. As well might food, 
and raiment, and friendship, and pairiot- 
iam, ha held in contempt because Aa 
poor need the one, or possess the other. 
50. NiademMt. Seech, iii.l. ^ Oat 
Bfthim. Thatia,on '' 
dl, or aanhedrim. 

semblim to 



A.D S3.] 

91 Dolli * our law j ud EC any man 
betbie it Kew him, and Inow what 
he doeth ! 

S3 They an&wered and said Qato 
him, Art thou also ot Galilee 1 
Search and look ;' for out of Galilee 
• Biiseth no pn^het. 

53 And every man went unto his 
)wn house. 


JESUS went unto the Mount of 

1 D8.17A ( lail.lA 



. m their proof, and 
loconFaunil iheprmdandthe domineer- 
ing. We see in this case, alao, thai n 
msn, at one time timid and fearTul, may 
on other occaaiona be bold, and fear- 
lessly defend the tmlh aa H ia in Jeaug. 
Thia example should lead every man 
entniBled wirh aaihority or office, fear- 
ieaaly to defend the Iruih of God ; and 
when the rich and the mighty are pour- 
ing coniempl on Joaus and hia oause, 
lo stand forth aa its fearleas defender. 

51. Dolk aitr hta. &c. The law re- 
ijuired Jaitiee to bo done, and gave 
every man an opportunity of a fair and 
impartial trial. Lev. xix. 1», 16. Ex. 
ixiii. 1,3. Dent. rix. 15, 18^ Thoir 
condemnation of Jesua was a violation 
of every rale of lighl. He was not ar- 
raigned ; v/aa not heard in self-defence, 
and not a aingle wilnesa was adduced. 
NieodemuB demanded (hat jurlia 
•hould be done, and that he ehoiild not 
be condemned unci! he had had s fair 
trial. Every man should be presumed 
to be innocent until he is proved to be 
riilt^. This is a maiim of law, and 
iTiia la a most juat and proper precept in 
our judgments in private lifs. 

52. Art thou oho of Galilal Hera 
is another eipreasion of contempt. To 
be a Galilean waa a term of the hicheat 
reproach. They knew well he was not 
of Galilee, but tney meant lo ask whe- 
ther he also had become a follower of 
the despiud Galilean. Ridicule is not 
ugament, and there \a no demonstra- 
tion in a jibe ; but unhappily this is the 
— '^ " L which the proud and 

2 And eaily in the moniinff ha 
came agaia into the temple, and all 
the people came antohun; and he 

tat down, and taught tbem. 

3 And the acribei and Phaiiseei 
bTonght unto him a woman taken 
in adultery ; and when the; had set 
her in the midst, 

4 They say nnto him. Master 
this wonuiQ wa« taken in adultery, 
in the Tery act. 

6 Now ' Moses in tho law com 

come out of Galilee, ind.eapecially no 
prophet that was to attend oi precede 
the Messiah. Compare John i. 46. 
They assumed, therefbre, that Jesus 
could not be the Christ. 

53. And rmry man, &e. There i* 
every mark of ctmlusian and disorder ir 
tbia breaking up 'of the sanhedrim. It 
la poasible that some of the Sadducee* 
might have joined Nicodemus in oppo 
sing the Fliaiiaees, and thus increased 
the disorder. It is a moat inslruclive 
and melancholy exhibition of the influ- 
ence of pride, envy, contempt, and 
anger, when brought to bear on an in- 
quiry, and when they ere manifeslly 
opposed to candor, lo ai^oment, and to 
truth. So wild and furious are the pas 
sions of men when they oppose the per- 
son and claims of the San of Grod 1 11 
is remarkable, too, how God accom 

SUahes hia purposes. Tluy wished to 
eslroy' Jesits. God aufiered theu' pas 
aiona to be excited, a tumult to ensue, 
mbly thua to break op ir 

order, and Jeaua to be safe, lor hi 

■ ■ le. "Thewrathofmao 

! the remiunder of wrath 
n." Ps. lixii. 10.- 


J irectly eaat of 

See Note, Matt. xii. 1. Thia was the 
place in which he probably often passed 
the night when attendine the feasts al 

usSem. The garden of Gelhaemtuie. 

vhich he ^vas accuslomed to reson 
(ch. iviii. S), was on the western aids 
of that mountain ; and Bethany, ths 
abode of Martha and Mary, on its east 
aide (ch. i " 

I iahmi 

{ of adultery eommanda 


manded is, that soch should be 
stoned ; bnt what eayeet thou t 
6 This they aaid tempting li 
that they migh have to accuse Y 
But Jesus stooped down, and with 
iu finger wrote on the ground, 
lAougk ht heard them not. 

HiMH waa death. Lev. xi. 10. Deal. 

Tiii, 93. The paiticulBT mumer of the 
death was tiol specified io (ht 
The Jews h&d ihemBelves, in ih 
of Christ, delermined that the 

scribed in the Notes on Malt _., 

44. The puniehment for aduhery va- 
ried. In some coseH il was alrangling. 
Id [he time of Ezekiel (ch. iii. 3S— <0) 
it was Blotting, and being tbrust through 
with a Bwora. If the adulteieaa waa 
the datighter of ■ priest the puiugbmenl 
- IS being buinM to death. 

6. Tematitig him. Trying him, or 
laying a pUn that they muht have oc- 
' ' I. If he decided 

the caae, they expected to be ab]e 
bring an accnsatioit against him. i 
if he decided that she ousfat todie, th 
might accuse him of cTaiming po^ 

n of'"Sa 

which belonged to the Romi 

power of hfe and death. They might 
allege that it wu not tbe giving an opi- 
Qion abont an abatracl cobb, but thai slie 
was formally before him, that he de- 
cided bei case judieiaUi/, and that with- 
out authority or form of trial. If he 
decided otherwise, they would have al- 
leged thai he denied the authority of 
the law, and that it was bis iniention to 
abrogate it. They had bad a conlro- 
ireray with him about the authority of 
the eabbalb. and they perhaps Bupposed 
that he would decide Ibis case as he did 
Ibat — egainet them. It may be liirther 
added, that tbey knew that Jesus ad- 
mitted publicans and sinnera lo eat with 
him ; thai one of their cbarges was that 
he was friendly to Bmnera (see Lake iv. 
21 ; and tbey wiahed, doubtless, to make 
-. .. . M j;iKH<Httj««, and a 

in tbe case of adultery, 
there a plan more artfully 
ver was more wisdom and 
if human nanirG displayed 


7 So when th«j continued askine 
him, he lifted up himself^ and said 
unto them, He that is without mb 
among you, * let him first mat e 

1 Wretemtlitgmiid. Thistookplac 
in rhe ItmfU, The "ground," here, 
means the pmemaii, or the doR oil tbs 

in the < 

meddle wilb the civil affaiia of ibe na- 
tion. ^Ai dmigk he itat^ thtm mil. 
I This is added by the iTanslators. It >• 
not in the origiiud, and ahould not have 

the original — as it seems to be implied 
by tbis addilion-^^at Ibe vbject was tO' 
convey tfae impteaeion that he did not 
bear them. What was bis object is 
unknown — and conjecture is usefeas. 
The moat probable rcaaon seems to be 
that he did not wish to intermeddle ; 
that he designed to show no soUcilude 
to decide tbe case ; and that he did not 
mean to decide it unless he was smi 
lirained to. 
7. They 
pressed tni 

from him, and showed a peiseverance 
in evil which has l)eon unhappily often 
imitated. 1 /* wiiiout na. That la, 
without this particular sin ; he who has 
not himself been guilty of this very 
crime — for in this place the connexion 
ividonily demands this meaning. Tie! 


: In til 

... by death, one of the w 

the culprit from the scaffold, and 
the other threw tbe first slone. or rolled 
down a slone lo crush him. See Deal. 
vii. 6, 7. This was in order .that the 
'ilneas aiigbl feel bis responsibiUty in 
iving evidence, as he was also to b« 
' ' sua, therefore, put 

ilbf/it pronouncug 

ividently well knowing their gtiilt, and 
veli knowing that no one would data 



t ona by one, be- 

E'Dning at the eldest, tucn aato the 
St; aod Jesua was left alone, 
anJ the woman Btauditig in the 

10 When Jesua had lifted up 
himself, and saw none bnt the wo- 
man, he eaid unto her, Woman, 
where are those thine accu! 
hath DO man condemned thee 1 

(he Lord jeaua. The word tidat here 

Erobably refers not to age but to honor, 
'torn those who were in highest repa- 
(Btion 10 Che lowest in rank. This con- 
e of crirae showed thai the 

inglf corrupt, and justified the decUrs- 
tinn of Jesus that it was an adultermi 
and wiiJted generatum. Matt, Ivi, 4. 
I 1 ._.. _ jegug j,jy „^ left with the 

' ■• midit. " 

id left J 

B by no means 
probable that the ptopU had [eft them, 
and as ihie was in the temple on a pub- 
bo occBBion, they were doubtlese sur- 
rounded still by nisny. This is evident 
trom the hot that Jesus immediately 
'Ter, 12} addressed a discourse to the 

10. iVaniiin arHdemntd theet Jesus 
had directed them, if innocent, to cast 

the power which he gave them to con- 
demn her. No one of them had done 
They hod aauied her, but they 

of JTidieial co 

11. Nrilherdo lamdemK thee. This 
is evidently to be T^en in the aenae of 
Jitdiaal condemnslion. or of passing 
sentence as amagiilrate; for (his was 
what they hsd arraigned her for *' 

lity, he said tnat he did not exercise it, 
and shonld not cnndemn ktr ta die. In 
ibis senae the word is used in the pre- 

11 She said. No man. Lord. And 
Jesus said unto her. Neither dc 1 
cond«nii ' thee : go, and Bin ' no 

13 Then spake Jeeus again untc 
them, saying, I ' am the l^ht i^ 
the world : be that ' followelh me 
shall not walk in darkaess, but shall 
haifC the lifht of life. 

13 The Pharisees therefore auid 
unto hira, Thou ' bearest record of 
thyself; thy record is not.true. 
• dc.ia3S.M. tc.s.31. 

meaning. T Go, and tin lu utore. Yoa 
have sinned. You have been detected 
ind accused. The sin is great. Bull 

my direction to you is that you (in bo 

more. This passage, therefore, teacher 

let. That Jesus claimed q~ ' '' 

leaiouB ii — _. 

which they lliemselvesareguUty. And, 
5th. That Jesua was eiMowed with 
wondsHiil wisdom in meeting the de- 
vices of his enemies, and eluding iheii 
deep- laid plana to involve bim in ruin. 
It should he added that this passage, 

together with the last verse of the pre- 
ceding chapter, has been by many cnlics 
thought to be apunous. It is wanting 
in many of the ancient manuscripts and 
Yersions, and baa bean rejected by Eras- 
mus, Calvin, Beza, Grolius, Wetateut, 
Tittman, Knapp, and many others. It 
ia not easy to decide the question wlie- 
ihei^h be a genuine part of the New 
Testament or not. Some huve supposed 
thai it was not turitten by the eiaage- 
Usts, but wss often related by them, and 
that after a time it was recorded, and 
introduced by Fapiaa into the eacnd 

12. J 

13. Thou heareit record of Ihguif. 
Thou art nvitneit for thyaelf; or in thy 
owncase. Seech.T.31. The law re. 
quired two witnesBea in a criminal case, 
and they alleged that as the only evi- 
dence which Jesus had was hia own as- 
serdon, it could not be entitfed to belief 
1/t not trme Is not worthy of \Mal 


no joi 

14 Jemi answered and uid nnlo 
them, Thoagh I bear lecwd of mj- 
Relf, yet mj racoid a tne : b/t I 
know whence I came, and whither 
I gc i bot ■ je cannot tell whence I 
aonie, and whither 1 ga, 

15 Ye Judge after the fleah; I * 
Judge no man. 

■ t.-!.X. »MX- ic^n. OM. 

M ii nol anbauntiated by sufficient avi- 

14. Jtnti amKBtrtd, lie. To Ihia 
objection Jesus replied b; saying, firsi, 

le WW such H that hiB 1 

condJy, thatni 
■n by niB Futiv 

not to give oridencB in hia own case, yet 
in tbia uialance buc^wbs the nonire of 
the case that his word wu worthy to be 
bebeved. IJWjr nearti. My eridence, 
my testimony- ^/s true, la worthy 
to be belieied. IFer I knea wlmce 1 
Bcmc — bat </e, &,c. I know by what 
autbority 1 act ; I know by whom I am 
■ent, tad what eommanda were ^Ten 
me ; but yon cannot determine thu, for 
yoQ do not know these lUiless / testify 
them to you. We are to remember thai 
JeaoB came not of himself (ch, vi, 38) ; 
that be came not to do his own will, but 
the wiU of hia Father. He cainB aa a 
leilHat of (boss IbitigB wbich he had 
seen and known (ch, lu. 11), and no one 
0(m1d judg« of thm liingt, ibr no man 
had Been them. Aa he came Irom bea- 
«en. aa he knew hia Father'a will, aa he 
had leen the eternal world, and known 
the counsels of his Father, eo hitftestt- 
mony waa worthy of confidence. As 
Hey bad not seen and known -theae 
things, they were not qushfied to judge. 
An ambaaiador 6om a foreign court 
knows the will and purposes of the 
aovatiea who sent bim, and is compe- 
tent to bear witness of it. The court to 
^hicb he ia sent has no way of Judging 
but by Ail lesdmony, and he ia therefore 
competent to testify in the case. All 
Ebai can be demanded ia that he give his 
•rateiUiali that he ia appianted ; and 
this Jesus had done both by the natura 
vf his doctrine and bis miracles. 

IS. After tkejtah. According to ap- 
poaiaace ; acctHding to your.csinal and 

corrupt mode; not aeoordnii: to the 
spiitaal nature of the doclrines. By 
your precoDceivjcd c^anioaa sad prtjn- 

that I am the Mfriiih II jaige mm 

wwld (di. in. IT.) Tlsjr were in the 
habit of jading rashly atid hardily of 
all. Bat this waa not the pupoae « 
di^iositlon of the Sanonr. This ez- 

thal he judnd no one ^tr Aiir ■■»- 
•er ; he d3 DM come to eenoan and 
condemn men ^Ur Ue ansamwa, m ia 
a harsh, biaaeed, and uiuuDd numner. 

16. Attdytttf Ijadgt. KlahooU 
eipnisa my judgment of men, or tfainga. 
He waa not limited, or ibrbidden to do 
it, or restrained by any fear that his 
judgment would be errontHHU. 1 JUj 
judgwiear it true. Is worthy to be ta 
ganfed. 1 f or / on ■«( oImw. I con- 
cnr with die Father iriKi badi anit me. 
Hia judgment jn admit would be ligte 
and my judgmnit would accord wHhhis. 
He waa commissiooed by Ids Father, 
and hia jadpnent wonld coincide with 
all that God had purpsaed m rsTealsd. 
This was shown by the STideDce thai 
God gafe that be bad sent bim into the 

IT. /a^ow fav. Eaut. xriL 6; aiz. 
15. Compare Matt, iriii. 16. Tlw 
related to cases in which the life of an 
individual was involved. Jesus saya 
that if in such a case the testimony of 
two men were sufficient to alMiiit a 
bet, his own testimony and that of las 
Father onghl to be eateemed ample evi- 
dence in ine case of religious doctrine. 
1 Tva mm. Jf two sks conld confim 
a case, the eiidenca of Janu uid of 
6«d ought not to be deemed insufficient. 
lit (rue. In DeuU " oEoWwW." - 
This means the same thing. It is eon 
firmed; ia worthy of beiioi. 

la I am ime tial hmrieitmf nf ma 
tt(f. In human ooutia a man ia HMM 




mjMU, and the FaAer * that seat 
ne beareth witnMa of met 

19 Then said tiiey DnU him, 
Wliera is thy Fatiierl Jesua an- 
(weied. Ye ' neither know me, nor 
my Fsdier : if ' ye had known me, 
je sliould hare known mj Father 

Mffed to bear wilneu of himself, be- 
saiue lie